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Aftershocks In Slowly Compressed Bulk Metallic Glasses: Experiments And Theory, Louis W. McFaul, Wendelin Wright, Xiaojun Gu, Jonathan T. Uhl, Karin A. Dahmen 2018 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Aftershocks In Slowly Compressed Bulk Metallic Glasses: Experiments And Theory, Louis W. Mcfaul, Wendelin Wright, Xiaojun Gu, Jonathan T. Uhl, Karin A. Dahmen

Faculty Journal Articles

We observe two distinct interevent time patterns in the slip avalanches of compressed bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). Small slip avalanches cluster together in time, but large slip avalanches recur roughly periodically. We compare the timing patterns of BMG slip avalanches with timing patterns of earthquakes and with the predictions of a mean-field model. The time clustering of small avalanches is similar to the known time clustering of earthquake foreshocks and aftershocks.


Microstructural Characterization Of Shear Transformation Zones And Modeling Indentation Size Effect In Amorphous Polymers, Leila Malekmotiei 2018 Louisiana State University

Microstructural Characterization Of Shear Transformation Zones And Modeling Indentation Size Effect In Amorphous Polymers, Leila Malekmotiei

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The first aim of this work is developing a procedure for experimental and analytical characterization of nano-scale microstructures which mediate large scale deformation in amorphous polymers. Glassy polymers are extensively used as high impact resistant, low density, and clear materials in industries. Nevertheless, their response under severe loading conditions is yet to be appropriately unraveled. Due to the lack of long-range order in the microstructures of glassy solids, their plastic deformation is different from that in crystalline solids. Shear Transformation Zones (STZs) are believed to be the main plasticity carriers in amorphous solids and defined as the localized atomic or ...


Development Of Test Methods For Measuring Fiber Misalignment And Warping In Honeycomb-Core Composite Panels, Wyatt Taylor, Haripriya Nilakantan 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Development Of Test Methods For Measuring Fiber Misalignment And Warping In Honeycomb-Core Composite Panels, Wyatt Taylor, Haripriya Nilakantan

Materials Engineering

Zodiac Aerospace manufactures honeycomb-core composite panels to be used in aircraft cabin interior components. During the manufacturing process, some panels become warped such that they cannot be used for their designated aircraft cabin components. As a result, these panels are scrapped because they cannot be recycled. About 44 to 90% of panels become warped during manufacturing. Warping is caused by many factors, including layer misalignment, processing parameters such as temperature and pressure gradients, and fiber misalignment in the prepregs. Currently, Zodiac does not have any data on the effect of fiber misalignment on panel warpage, so a testing protocol was ...


Anomalous 304 Stainless Steel Mechanical Properties In Medical Guide Wires, Andrew Joseph Freeman 2018 Cal Poly San Luis Obispo Materials Engineering Department

Anomalous 304 Stainless Steel Mechanical Properties In Medical Guide Wires, Andrew Joseph Freeman

Materials Engineering

Stainless steel medical guide wire cores, processed by Abbott Vascular, are returning anomalous mechanical properties upon strain hardening and heat treatment. As theory dictates, mechanical strength properties increase with strain hardening, and decrease with an annealing treatment. The opposite response is being observed. This is counter intuitive to fundamental materials knowledge, and a perfect materials engineering paradox. This project was designed to characterize these behaviors, and attempt to determine causation. To accomplish this, tensile testing of all processing steps mapped the mechanical property evolution of the wire. Published literature research revealed the potential of nitrogen and chromium solid state diffusion ...


Investigation Of Nanomaterial Based Photovoltaic Panel Packaging Materials, Xingeng Yang 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigation Of Nanomaterial Based Photovoltaic Panel Packaging Materials, Xingeng Yang

Theses and Dissertations

In this research, nanomaterial-based packaging materials for photovoltaic (PV) panels are investigated. A hydrophobic/anti-reflective surface coating which not only repels water from the top glass of a PV panel but at the same time reduces its light reflectance is investigated. COMSOL simulation results indicate that taller ellipsoid rod (aspect ratio = 5) reflects less light than shorter rod (aspect ratio = 0.5) in the desired spectrum for solar energy harvest from 400nm-700nm. The addition of a polymer layer on these ellipsoid rods broadens the light incident angle from 23° to 34°, from which light can be efficiently absorbed. Based on ...


Hawai'i Wildlife Fund V. County Of Maui, Lowell J. Chandler 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Hawai'i Wildlife Fund V. County Of Maui, Lowell J. Chandler

Public Land and Resources Law Review

In Hawai’i Wildlife Fund v. County of Maui, the Ninth Circuit held that the plain language of the Clean Water Act provides jurisdiction over indirect discharges of pollutants from a point source into groundwater that is shown to be connected to navigable waters. The court found that studies confirmed pollutants entering the Pacific Ocean were fairly traceable to the County of Maui’s sewage disposal wells. In affirming the district court’s ruling, the Ninth Circuit held that Maui County violated the Clean Water Act by discharging pollutants into a navigable water without the required permit. The court also ...


Manufacturing Process Simulation – On Its Way To Industrial Application, Dennis Otten, Tobias A. Weber, Jan-Christoph Arent 2018 University of Applied Sciences Augsburg

Manufacturing Process Simulation – On Its Way To Industrial Application, Dennis Otten, Tobias A. Weber, Jan-Christoph Arent

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Manufacturing process simulation (MPS) has become more and more important for aviation and the automobile industry. A highly competitive market requires the use of high performance metals and composite materials in combination with reduced manufacturing cost and time as well as a minimization of the time to market for a new product. However, the use of such materials is expensive and requires sophisticated manufacturing processes. An experience based process and tooling design followed by a lengthy trial-and-error optimization is just not contemporary anymore. Instead, a tooling design process aided by simulation is used more often. This paper provides an overview ...


Performance Evaluation Of A Semi-Active Cladding Connection For Multi-Hazard Mitigation, Yongqiang Gong, Liang Cao, Laura Micheli, Simon Laflamme 2018 Iowa State University

Performance Evaluation Of A Semi-Active Cladding Connection For Multi-Hazard Mitigation, Yongqiang Gong, Liang Cao, Laura Micheli, Simon Laflamme

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Conference Presentations and Proceedings

A novel semi-active damping device termed Variable Friction Cladding Connection (VFCC) has been previously proposed to leverage cladding systems for the mitigation of natural and man-made hazards. The VFCC is a semi-active friction damper that connects cladding elements to the structural system. The friction force is generated by sliding plates and varied using an actuator through a system of adjustable toggles. The dynamics of the device has been previously characterized in a laboratory environment. In this paper, the performance of the VFCC at mitigating non-simultaneous multi-hazard excitations that includes wind and seismic loads is investigated on a simulated benchmark building ...


Residual Tensile Strength And Bond Properties Of Gfrp Bars After Exposure To Elevated Temperatures, Devon S. Ellis, Habib Tabatabai, Azam Nabizadeh 2018 Ellis Engineering

Residual Tensile Strength And Bond Properties Of Gfrp Bars After Exposure To Elevated Temperatures, Devon S. Ellis, Habib Tabatabai, Azam Nabizadeh

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Articles

The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars in reinforced concrete members enhances corrosion resistance when compared to traditional steel reinforcing bars. Although there is ample research available on the behavior of FRP bars and concrete members reinforced with FRP bars under elevated temperatures (due to fire), there is little published information available on their post-fire residual load capacity. This paper reports residual tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and bond strength (to concrete) of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars after exposure to elevated temperatures of up to 400 C and subsequent cooling to an ambient temperature. The results showed ...


Magnetic Two-Way Valves For Paper-Based Capillary-Driven Microfluidic Devices, Mario Fratzl, Boyce Chang, Stephanie Oyola-Reynoso, Guillaume Blaire, Sarah Delshad, Thibaut Devillers, Thomas Ward, III, Nora M. Dempsey, Jean-Francis Bloch, Martin M. Thuo 2018 Université Grenoble Alpes

Magnetic Two-Way Valves For Paper-Based Capillary-Driven Microfluidic Devices, Mario Fratzl, Boyce Chang, Stephanie Oyola-Reynoso, Guillaume Blaire, Sarah Delshad, Thibaut Devillers, Thomas Ward, Iii, Nora M. Dempsey, Jean-Francis Bloch, Martin M. Thuo

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

This article presents a magnetically actuated two-way, three-position (+, 0, −), paper-based microfluidic valve that includes a neutral position (0)--the first of its kind. The system is highly robust, customizable, and fully automated. The advent of a neutral position and the ability to precisely control switching frequencies establish a new platform for highly controlled fluid flows in paper-based wicking microfluidic devices. The potential utility of these valves is demonstrated in automated, programmed, patterning of dyed liquids in a wicking device akin to a colorimetric assay but with a programmed fluid/reagent delivery. These valves are fabricated using facile methods and thus ...


Propeller Design Requirements For Quadcopters Utilizing Variable Pitch Propellers, Ian R. McAndrew, Elena Navarro, Ken Witcher 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Propeller Design Requirements For Quadcopters Utilizing Variable Pitch Propellers, Ian R. Mcandrew, Elena Navarro, Ken Witcher

Publications

Unmanned aerial vehicles, UAV, has increases in the drastically in these past several years since their costs reduced. This research is based and built upon previous research presented in a conference. With the advent of commercial Quadcopters, four propeller systems, are used, being designed and used to operate the advantages of both flight and hovering. The basic design of their propeller blades has not evolved from the early days of manned flight when wooden fixed blades were used. In this paper that expands upon previous findings and discussions it explores the historical developments. Furthermore, how the expansion and reduction in ...


Liquid Interaction With Non-Wettable Surfaces Structured With Macroscopic Ridges, Mehran Abolghasemibizaki 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Liquid Interaction With Non-Wettable Surfaces Structured With Macroscopic Ridges, Mehran Abolghasemibizaki

Theses and Dissertations

Self-cleaning, anti-corrosion, anti-icing, dropwise-condensation, and drag-reduction are some applications in which superhydrophobic surfaces are implemented. To date, all the studies associated with superhydrophobic surfaces have been dedicated to understanding the liquid interaction with surfaces that are macroscopically smooth. The current study investigates the solid-liquid interaction of such surfaces which are fully decorated with macroscopic ridges (ribbed surfaces). In particular, the drop motion and impact on our newly designed non-wettable ribbed surface have been investigated in this work. Our experimental investigations have shown that liquid drops move faster on the ribbed surfaces due to lower friction induced by such a surface ...


Tunable Mechanical Metamaterials Through Hybrid Kirigami Structures, Doh-Gyu Hwang, Michael Bartlett 2018 Iowa State University

Tunable Mechanical Metamaterials Through Hybrid Kirigami Structures, Doh-Gyu Hwang, Michael Bartlett

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Inspired by the art of paper cutting, kirigami provides intriguing tools to create materials with unconventional mechanical and morphological responses. This behavior is appealing in multiple applications such as stretchable electronics and soft robotics and presents a tractable platform to study structure-property relationships in material systems. However, mechanical response is typically controlled through a single or fractal cut type patterned across an entire kirigami sheet, limiting deformation modes and tunability. Here we show how hybrid patterns of major and minor cuts creates new opportunities to introduce boundary conditions and non-prismatic beams to enable highly tunable mechanical responses. This hybrid approach ...


Deformation, Lattice Instability, And Metallization During Solid-Solid Structural Transformations Under General Applied Stress Tensor: Example Of Si I -> Si Ii, Nikolai A. Zarkevich, Hao Chen, Valery I. Levitas, Duane D. Johnson 2018 Ames Laboratory

Deformation, Lattice Instability, And Metallization During Solid-Solid Structural Transformations Under General Applied Stress Tensor: Example Of Si I -> Si Ii, Nikolai A. Zarkevich, Hao Chen, Valery I. Levitas, Duane D. Johnson

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to study the stress-strain behavior, elastic instabilities, and metallization during a solid-solid phase transformation (PT) between semiconducting Si I (cubic A4) and metallic Si II (tetragonal A5 structure) when subjected to a general stress tensor. With normal stresses (σ1, σ2, σ3) acting along ⟨110⟩, ⟨11¯0⟩, and ⟨001⟩, respectively, dictating the simulation cell, we determine combinations of 6 independent stresses that drive a lattice instability for the Si I→Si II PT, and a semiconductor-metal electronic transition. Metallization precedes the structural PT, hence, a stressed Si I can be a metal. Surprisingly, a stress-free ...


3d Printing – An Insider’S Perspective, Siddharth Sah 2017 Make Whale

3d Printing – An Insider’S Perspective, Siddharth Sah

The STEAM Journal

The 3D printing market globally is still at its infancy, - or some might argue that there isn’t really a market yet. The knowledge of 3D printing design is still largely limited to engineering design – not product design. At MakeWhale, we are constantly pushing the boundaries of the application of 3D printing technology to consumer products resulting in a beautiful mix of technology and art.


Modeling Of Dislocation Channel Formation And Evolution In Irradiated Metals, Peter James Doyle 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Modeling Of Dislocation Channel Formation And Evolution In Irradiated Metals, Peter James Doyle

Masters Theses

Defect-free dislocation channel formation has been reported to promote plastic instability during tensile testing via localized plastic flow, leading to a distinct loss of ductility and strain hardening in many low-temperature irradiated materials. In order to study the underlying mechanisms governing dislocation channel width and formation, the channel formation process is modeled via a simple stochastic dislocation-jog process dependent upon grain size, defect cluster density, and defect size. Dislocations traverse a field of defect clusters and jog stochastically upon defect interaction, forming channels of low defect-density. Based upon prior molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and in-situ experimental transmission electron microscopy (TEM ...


Smart Bricks For Strain Sensing And Crack Detection In Masonry Structures, Austin Downey, Antonella D'Alessandro, Simon Laflamme, Filippo Ubertini 2017 Iowa State University

Smart Bricks For Strain Sensing And Crack Detection In Masonry Structures, Austin Downey, Antonella D'Alessandro, Simon Laflamme, Filippo Ubertini

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

The paper proposes the novel concept of smart bricks as a durable sensing solution for structural health monitoring of masonry structures. The term smart bricks denotes piezoresistive clay bricks with suitable electronics capable of outputting measurable changes in their electrical properties under changes in their state of strain. This feature can be exploited to evaluate stress at critical locations inside a masonry wall and to detect changes in loading paths associated with structural damage, for instance following an earthquake. Results from an experimental campaign show that normal clay bricks, fabricated in the laboratory with embedded electrodes made of a special ...


Control Of Columnar To Equiaxed Transition In Solidification Macrostructure Of Austenitic Stainless Steel Castings, Semen Naumovich Lekakh, Ronald J. O'Malley, Mark Emmendorfer, Brenton Hrebec 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Control Of Columnar To Equiaxed Transition In Solidification Macrostructure Of Austenitic Stainless Steel Castings, Semen Naumovich Lekakh, Ronald J. O'Malley, Mark Emmendorfer, Brenton Hrebec

Ronald J. O'Malley

Solidification macrostructure is of great importance for the properties and the quality of castings made from austenitic grade stainless steels (ASS) because there are limited options to change as-cast macrostructure in the solid condition. A typical cast macrostructure of ASS has a fine surface chilled zone followed by an elongated dendrite zone, columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) zone, and centrally located equiaxed crystals. Several castings from ASS were produced to determine the effects of casting geometry, chilling, and grain refinement on CET. The transient thermal field in solidified heavy castings was simulated and used to determine an isotherm velocity (V ...


Evolution Of Non-Metallic Inclusions In Foundry Steel Casting Processes, Marc Harris, Von Richards, Ronald J. O'Malley, Semen Naumovich Lekakh 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Evolution Of Non-Metallic Inclusions In Foundry Steel Casting Processes, Marc Harris, Von Richards, Ronald J. O'Malley, Semen Naumovich Lekakh

Ronald J. O'Malley

The evolution of nonmetallic inclusions was examined for 4320 steel at an industrial steel foundry. The steel was followed from electric arc furnace melting through ladle refining to final casting. Timed sampling was performed at all stages of the process. Samples were analyzed using an automated SEM/EDS system. The overall evolution of oxide inclusions in terms of nucleation, growth, and flotation during liquid processing was studied using area fraction and average diameter. Chemical composition evolution was observed using a joint ternary plotting tool developed under this program. It was found that the use of zirconium as an addition for ...


Effect Of Zinc Galvanization On The Microstructure And Fracture Behavior Of Low And Medium Carbon Structural Steels, Ignatius C. Okafor, Ronald J. O'Malley, Kaushal R. Prayakarao, Heshmat A. Aglan 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Effect Of Zinc Galvanization On The Microstructure And Fracture Behavior Of Low And Medium Carbon Structural Steels, Ignatius C. Okafor, Ronald J. O'Malley, Kaushal R. Prayakarao, Heshmat A. Aglan

Ronald J. O'Malley

Microstructure and fracture behavior of ASTM 572 Grade 65 steels used for wind tower applications have been studied. Steels of two carbon level chemistries designed for this grade were used in the study. Fracture toughness of the steels was studied using 3-point bend test on samples coated with zinc and not coated with zinc. Lower carbon steel showed higher resistance to fracture than medium carbon steel after zinc galvanization. SEM study suggests that zinc and zinc bath additives that migrated to crack tips are responsible for the loss in ductility. The phenomenon of Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) is suggested to ...


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