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Development Of A Novel Enzymatic Pre-Treatment For Lignocellulosic Biomass, Melissa Robins, Jenna Rickus 2015 Purdue University

Development Of A Novel Enzymatic Pre-Treatment For Lignocellulosic Biomass, Melissa Robins, Jenna Rickus

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Biofuels, fuels derived directly from living matter, present a renewable and environmentally friendly alternative to petroleum based fuels. Bioethanol produced from low input energy crops or agricultural waste is a promising fuel source because it does not interfere with the human food supply chain and the ethanol produced can be blended with gasoline. These potential sources of bioethanol are not yet commercially viable due to a polymer called lignin present in the plant’s cell wall which impedes the conversion of cellulose to glucose and the eventual fermentation of glucose to ethanol. Developing new methods for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic ...


Breast Cancer/Stromal Cells Coculture On Polyelectrolyte Films Emulates Tumor Stages And Mirna Profiles Of Clinical Samples, Amita Daverey, Karleen M. Brown, Srivatsan Kidambi 2015 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Breast Cancer/Stromal Cells Coculture On Polyelectrolyte Films Emulates Tumor Stages And Mirna Profiles Of Clinical Samples, Amita Daverey, Karleen M. Brown, Srivatsan Kidambi

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers

In this study, we demonstrate a method for controlling breast cancer cells adhesion on polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films without the aid of adhesive proteins/ ligands to study the role of tumor and stromal cell interaction on cancer biology. Numerous studies have explored engineering coculture of tumor and stromal cells predominantly using transwell coculture of stromal cells cultured onto coverslips that were subsequently added to tumor cell cultures. However, these systems imposed an artificial boundary that precluded cell−cell interactions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of patterned coculture of tumor cells and stromal cells that captures the temporal ...


Characterization And Performance Of Algal Biofilms For Wastewater Treatment And Industrial Applications, Maureen Kesaano 2015 Utah State University

Characterization And Performance Of Algal Biofilms For Wastewater Treatment And Industrial Applications, Maureen Kesaano

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study was carried out on algal biofilms grown using rotating algal biofilm reactors (RABRs) with the aim of: i) characterizing their growth in terms of photosynthetic activity and morphology ii) evaluating their performance as a wastewater treatment option and a feedstock for biofuels production, and iii) examining the algal-bacteria interactions.

A review of algal biofilm technologies currently employed in wastewater treatment processes was made to compare nutrient removal efficiencies, factors that influenced algal biofilm growth, and the different bioproducts generated from algal biomass. Consequently, research efforts were directed towards addressing pertinent issues identified in literature in order to optimize ...


Capillary Electrophoresis For Analysis Of Aβ1-42 Adsorption And Photo-Crosslinking, Jennifer Lynn Kurtz 2015 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Capillary Electrophoresis For Analysis Of Aβ1-42 Adsorption And Photo-Crosslinking, Jennifer Lynn Kurtz

Theses and Dissertations

The accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers is believed to be the driving force behind Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Due to the metastable nature of Aβ oligomers, the knowledge of Aβ aggregation and accumulation is not well understood. Here, we use capillary electrophoresis (CE) and photo-induced crosslinking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) to learn about the aggregation of Aβ.

First, we explore the effect of capillary coating on Aβ1-42 protein loss using CE. The dynamic coatings tested were PHEA and 50 kDa, 2000 kDa, 5000 kDa, and 8000 kDa PEO. The covalent coating tested was PVA. The results indicated that 2000 ...


Multiphysics Modeling To Enhance Understanding Of Microwave Heating Of Food In Domestic Ovens, Jiajia Chen 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Multiphysics Modeling To Enhance Understanding Of Microwave Heating Of Food In Domestic Ovens, Jiajia Chen

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Nonuniform heating is the biggest issue in the microwave heating of prepared meals. Multiphysics based models are promising tools to improve microwave heating uniformity by properly designing the food product. However, limited availability of accurate temperature-dependent material properties, inadequate model prediction accuracy, and high computational power and complexity in model development are three gaps that greatly limited the application of these models in the food industry.

To fill in the gaps, firstly, we developed a multitemperature calibration protocol to measure temperature-dependent dielectric properties (dielectric constant and loss factor). The temperature-dependent dielectric and thermal (thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity) properties ...


Quantitative Analysis Of Metabolic Pathways In Catharanthus Roseus Hairy Roots Metabolically Engineered For Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Overproduction, Guy Sander 2015 Iowa State University

Quantitative Analysis Of Metabolic Pathways In Catharanthus Roseus Hairy Roots Metabolically Engineered For Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Overproduction, Guy Sander

Guy W Sander

The important anticancer pharmaceuticals, vinblastine and vincristine, are produced by Catharanthus roseus. Given their cytotoxicity, these valuable alkaloids are produced in very small quantities within the aerial parts of the plant. The high cost of isolating the drugs has led to research efforts to increase the alkaloid content of C. roseus cell cultures, tissue cultures, and seedlings. The metabolic engineering of C. roseus strives to overcome the strict regulation of the biosynthetic pathways.

Seedlings of C. roseus were elicited with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to induce expression of octadecanoid–responsive Catharanthus AP2–domain 3 (ORCA3), a transcription regulator of several biosynthetic ...


The Orca2 Transcription Factor Plays A Key Role In Regulation Of The Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Pathway, Chun Li, Alex Leopold, Guy Sander, Jacqueline Shanks, Le Zhao, Susan Gibson 2015 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

The Orca2 Transcription Factor Plays A Key Role In Regulation Of The Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Pathway, Chun Li, Alex Leopold, Guy Sander, Jacqueline Shanks, Le Zhao, Susan Gibson

Guy W Sander

Background: The terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) pathway leads to the production of pharmaceutically important drugs, such as the anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Unfortunately, these drugs are produced in trace amounts, causing them to be very costly. To increase production of these drugs, an improved understanding of the TIA regulatory pathway is needed. Towards this end, transgenic Catharanthus roseus hairy roots that overexpress the ORCA2 TIA transcriptional activator were generated and characterized.Results: Transcriptional profiling experiments revealed that overexpression of ORCA2 results in altered expression of key genes from the indole and terpenoid pathways, which produce precursors for the TIA ...


Selection Methods For Genetically-Modified T Cells: In Support Of Translational Therapy, David Rushworth 2015 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Selection Methods For Genetically-Modified T Cells: In Support Of Translational Therapy, David Rushworth

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

T cells are blood cells which organize the immune system of the host. These cells are necessary for the host to respond appropriately to threats from foreign organisms and cancerous growth. However, in the case of certain infections and cancer, T cells are unable to respond appropriately to a threat and establish immunity. This leads to disease when the infection or cancer is not sufficiently eliminated. On the other hand, T cells can lack tolerance for healthy tissue and perceive healthy tissue as infected. The ensuing over-reactive immune response also leads to disease. A delicate balance must exist between immunity ...


A Pump Monitoring Approach To Irrigation Pumping Plant Performance Testing, William Merritt McDougall 2015 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Pump Monitoring Approach To Irrigation Pumping Plant Performance Testing, William Merritt Mcdougall

Theses and Dissertations

Traditionally, irrigation pumping plants have been tested using an instantaneous appraoch, which tests performance parameters over a very short time interval. Using this method, the tester measures the necessary work and energy use parameters to calculate the desired pumping plant performance values. The primary limitation of this approach is its inability to determine the season long efficiency of an irrigation pumping plant.

A new approach to evaluating irrigation pumping plant performance is the use of pump monitoring systems which use high frequency, real-time data collection and telemetry to relay information directly from the pump to the user. This method of ...


Transformation Of Swine Manure And Algal Consortia To Value-Added Products, Mahmoud A. Sharara 2015 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Transformation Of Swine Manure And Algal Consortia To Value-Added Products, Mahmoud A. Sharara

Theses and Dissertations

The swine production sector is projected to grow globally. In the past, this growth manifested itself in increased herd sizes and geographically concentrated production. Although economically sound, these trends had negative consequences on surrounding ecosystems. Over-application of manure resulted in water quality degradation, while long-term storage of manure slurries was found to promote release of potent GHG emissions. There is a need for innovative approaches for swine manure management that are compatible with current scales of production, and increasingly strict environmental regulations.

This study aims to investigate the potential for incorporating gasification as part of a novel swine manure management ...


Endothelialization Using Protein Substrates And Hydrogels For Aortic Valve Applications, Elizabeth A. Fontaine 2015 Clemson University

Endothelialization Using Protein Substrates And Hydrogels For Aortic Valve Applications, Elizabeth A. Fontaine

All Theses

Aortic valve disease is currently the leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity in the United States.1 In 2003, approximately 290,000 patients required heart valve replacement and that number is estimated to continue to rise as the average age of the population continues to increase.2 However, the current valve replacement options have multiple limitations. Tissue engineering hopes to address these shortcomings by providing a viable valve that more closely mimics the native valve, structurally and functionally.3 An ideal valve replacement should contain endothelial and interstitial cells, with the ability to remodel the extra-cellular matrix. While tissue-engineered heart valves ...


Design And Development Of Two Component Hydrogel Ejector For Three-Dimensional Cell Growth, Thomas Dunkle, Jessica Deschamps, Connie Dam 2015 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Design And Development Of Two Component Hydrogel Ejector For Three-Dimensional Cell Growth, Thomas Dunkle, Jessica Deschamps, Connie Dam

Honors Scholar Theses

Hydrogels are useful in wound healing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications, but the available methods of injecting them quickly and noninvasively are limited. The medical industry does not yet have access to an all-purpose device that can quickly synthesize hydrogels of different shapes and sizes. Many synthesis procedures that have been developed result in the formation of amorphous hydrogels. While generally useful, amorphous hydrogels exhibit limited capability in tissue engineering applications, especially due to their viscous properties. This endeavor aims to modulate the appropriate gelation parameters, optimize the injection process, and create a prototype that allows for the extrusion ...


Investigating The Optimization Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Dechorionation For High-Throughput Applications In Influenza Research, Thomas Hoffmann 2015 University of Maine

Investigating The Optimization Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Dechorionation For High-Throughput Applications In Influenza Research, Thomas Hoffmann

Honors College

No abstract provided.


Development Of Point-Of-Care Testing Sensors For Biomarker Detection, Xuena Zhu 2015 Florida International University

Development Of Point-Of-Care Testing Sensors For Biomarker Detection, Xuena Zhu

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Point-of-care testing (POCT) is defined as medical testing at or near the site of patient care and has become a critical component of the diagnostic industry. POCT has many advantages over tests in centralized laboratories including small reagent volumes, small size, rapid turnaround time, cost-effectiveness, low power consumption and functional integration of multiple devices. Paper-based POCT sensors are a new alternative technology for fabricating simple, low-cost, portable and disposable analytical devices for clinical diagnosis.

The focus of this dissertation was to develop simple, rapid and low cost paper-based POCT sensors with high sensitivity and portability for disease biomarker detection. Lateral ...


Continuous-Time Block-Oriented Adaptive On-Line Modeling For Time Varying Systems, Derrick K. Rollins Sr., Stephanie Loveland 2015 Iowa State University

Continuous-Time Block-Oriented Adaptive On-Line Modeling For Time Varying Systems, Derrick K. Rollins Sr., Stephanie Loveland

Stephanie D Loveland

The development and maintenance of accurate predictive models for dynamic systems are highly challenged by system complexity, limited information (i.e., data), changing cross and time correlation structures and changing model parameters. Thus, for a model or modeling method to achieve long term success in implementation into a real system, it must be phenomenologically sound and adaptive, as well as being capable of immediate update from recently obtained process data (i.e., plant data). A model is phenomenologically sound when its structure accurately captures physical input and output relationships, and the stochastic behavior of process and measurement noise. On-line adaptive ...


Acidic Mesoporous Silica For The Catalytic Conversion Of Fatty Acids In Beef Tallow, Isa Kipkoech Mbaraka, Kyle J. McGuire, Brent H. Shanks 2015 Iowa State University

Acidic Mesoporous Silica For The Catalytic Conversion Of Fatty Acids In Beef Tallow, Isa Kipkoech Mbaraka, Kyle J. Mcguire, Brent H. Shanks

Brent H Shanks

Propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica materials were synthesized using a co-condensation technique. The catalytic performance of the resulting acidic mesoporous materials was evaluated in the methanol esterification of free fatty acids in beef tallow as a pretreatment step for alkyl ester production. The multicycle stability of the acid-functionalized mesoporous silica catalysts was studied. Issues concerning impurities in the feedstocks as well as a means of improving performance of the acidic solid catalyst through alternative strategies are discussed. Introduction of a hydrophobic group into the organosulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica catalyst significantly enhanced the catalytic performance of the catalyst. The catalytic activity of ...


Cemox-Promoted Ketonization Of Biomass-Derived Carboxylic Acids In The Condensed Phase, Ryan William Snell, Brent H. Shanks 2015 Iowa State University

Cemox-Promoted Ketonization Of Biomass-Derived Carboxylic Acids In The Condensed Phase, Ryan William Snell, Brent H. Shanks

Brent H Shanks

Ketonization of the model bio-oil compound acetic acid was performed in a toluene-solvent condensed phase using five different CeMOx catalysts. The catalysts were characterized using a number of different techniques both before and after reaction testing to gain understanding of how material traits influence their catalytic performance. A number of potentially important catalytic properties were found to be of little importance for the respective reaction. For instance, it was discovered that there was no direct correlation between prereaction surface area with activity for ketonization at high or at low temperatures. Furthermore, better reducibility of the oxide did not appear to ...


Triacetic Acid Lactone As A Potential Biorenewable Platform Chemical, Mei Chia, Thomas J. Schwartz, Brent H. Shanks, James A. Dumesic 2015 University of Wisconsin - Madison

Triacetic Acid Lactone As A Potential Biorenewable Platform Chemical, Mei Chia, Thomas J. Schwartz, Brent H. Shanks, James A. Dumesic

Brent H Shanks

Triacetic acid lactone is demonstrated to be a versatile biorenewable molecule with potential as a platform chemical for the production of commercially valuable bifunctional chemical intermediates and end products, such as sorbic acid.


Development Of A Cao-Based Co2 Sorbent With Improved Cyclic Stability, Karl O. Albrecht, Kyle S. Wagenbach, Justinus A. Satrio, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock 2015 Iowa State University

Development Of A Cao-Based Co2 Sorbent With Improved Cyclic Stability, Karl O. Albrecht, Kyle S. Wagenbach, Justinus A. Satrio, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock

Brent H Shanks

The carbonation of CaO is an attractive method for removing CO2 from hot gas mixtures. However, regeneration and reuse of a CaO-based sorbent causes a gradual decline in absorption capacity, which ultimately limits the life of the material. Various methods have been proposed for increasing the life cycle performance of a CaO-based sorbent. Two of these methods were selected for further investigation. One method incorporates an “inert” material in the sorbent, while a second method stabilizes the sorbent through controlled sintering. Promising results were achieved with both methods when they were applied separately to a sorbent derived from a natural ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Hierarchically Structured Aluminosilicates, Sikander H. Hakim, Brent H. Shanks 2015 Iowa State University

Synthesis And Characterization Of Hierarchically Structured Aluminosilicates, Sikander H. Hakim, Brent H. Shanks

Brent H Shanks

Catalytically active aluminosilicate materials with hierarchical porous structures are produced. A spontaneous self-assembly in aqueous solution starting from component alkoxides resulted in patterned powders without the aid of any templating agent. SEM and N2 adsorption-desorption studies demonstrated regular array of macrochannels connected with micro-mesoporous walls. FTIR of adsorbed pyridine revealed the presence of both Brønsted and Lewis acid sites. Although the synthesis procedure is markedly distinct from sol-gel phenomena, the structure and acidity in the final materials could be manipulated in terms of sol-gel parameters such as composition, pH, temperature, and addition order. Not one parameter set could be ...


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