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H Emagglutinin-Based Polyanhydride Nanovaccines Against H5n1 Influenza Elicit Protective Virus Neutralizing Titers And Cell-Mediated Immunity, Kathleen Alaine Ross, Hyelee Park Loyd, Wuwei Wu, Lucas Mark Huntimer, Shaheen Ahmed, Anthony Sambol, Scott Broderick, Zachary Flickinger, Krishna Rajan, Tatiana Bronich, Surya K. Mallapragada, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Susan Long Carpenter, Balaji Narasimhan 2017 Iowa State University

H Emagglutinin-Based Polyanhydride Nanovaccines Against H5n1 Influenza Elicit Protective Virus Neutralizing Titers And Cell-Mediated Immunity, Kathleen Alaine Ross, Hyelee Park Loyd, Wuwei Wu, Lucas Mark Huntimer, Shaheen Ahmed, Anthony Sambol, Scott Broderick, Zachary Flickinger, Krishna Rajan, Tatiana Bronich, Surya K. Mallapragada, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Susan Long Carpenter, Balaji Narasimhan

Balaji Narasimhan

H5N1 avian influenza is a significant global concern with the potential to become the next pandemic threat. Recombinant subunit vaccines are an attractive alternative for pandemic vaccines compared to traditional vaccine technologies. In particular, polyanhydride nanoparticles encapsulating subunit proteins have been shown to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immunity and provide protection upon lethal challenge. In this work, a recombinant H5 hemagglutinin trimer (H53) was produced and encapsulated into polyanhydride nanoparticles. The studies performed indicated that the recombinant H53 antigen was a robust immunogen. Immunizing mice with H53 encapsulated into polyanhydride nanoparticles induced high neutralizing antibody titers and enhanced CD4+ T ...


Epitaxially Grown Collagen Fibrils Reveal Diversity In Contact Guidance Behavior Among Cancer Cells, Juan Wang, Joseph W. Petefish, Andrew C. Hillier, Ian C. Schneider 2017 Iowa State University

Epitaxially Grown Collagen Fibrils Reveal Diversity In Contact Guidance Behavior Among Cancer Cells, Juan Wang, Joseph W. Petefish, Andrew C. Hillier, Ian C. Schneider

Andrew C. Hillier

Invasion of cancer cells into the surrounding tissue is an important step during cancer progression and is driven by cell migration. Cell migration can be random, but often it is directed by various cues such as aligned fibers composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), a process called contact guidance. During contact guidance, aligned fibers bias migration along the long axis of the fibers. These aligned fibers of ECM are commonly composed of type I collagen, an abundant structural protein around tumors. In this paper, we epitaxially grew several different patterns of organized type I collagen on mica and compared the morphology ...


Decoding And Reprogramming Fungal Iterative Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases, Daya Yu, Fuchao Xu, Shuwei Zhang, Jixun Zhan 2017 Utah State University

Decoding And Reprogramming Fungal Iterative Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases, Daya Yu, Fuchao Xu, Shuwei Zhang, Jixun Zhan

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) assemble a large group of structurally and functionally diverse natural products. While the iterative catalytic mechanism of bacterial NRPSs is known, it remains unclear how fungal NRPSs create products of desired length. Here we show that fungal iterative NRPSs adopt an alternate incorporation strategy. Beauvericin and bassianolide synthetases have the same C1-A1-T1-C2-A2-MT-T2a-T2b-C3 domain organization. During catalysis, C3 and C2 take turns to incorporate the two biosynthetic precursors into the growing depsipeptide chain that swings between T1 and T ...


A Tunable, Three-Dimensional In Vitro Culture Model Of Growth Plate Cartilage Using Alginate Hydrogel Scaffolds, Alek G. Erickson, Taylor D. Laughlin, Sarah Romereim, Catherine Sargus-Patino, Angela K. Pannier, Andrew T. Dudley 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

A Tunable, Three-Dimensional In Vitro Culture Model Of Growth Plate Cartilage Using Alginate Hydrogel Scaffolds, Alek G. Erickson, Taylor D. Laughlin, Sarah Romereim, Catherine Sargus-Patino, Angela K. Pannier, Andrew T. Dudley

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Defining the final size and geometry of engineered tissues through precise control of the scalar and vector components of tissue growth is a necessary benchmark for regenerative medicine, but it has proved to be a significant challenge for tissue engineers. The growth plate cartilage that promotes elongation of the long bones is a good model system for studying morphogenetic mechanisms because cartilage is composed of a single cell type, the chondrocyte; chondrocytes are readily maintained in culture; and growth trajectory is predominately in a single vector. In this cartilage, growth is generated via a differentiation program that is spatially and ...


Mri Applications In Tissue Engineering, Shadi Othman 2017 University of the Pacific

Mri Applications In Tissue Engineering, Shadi Othman

Science Seminar Series

Shadi Othman of the School of Engineering and Computer Science Bioengineering Program, will speak on his research on MRI applications in tissue engineering.


Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States (1). While treatments involving radiation and chemotherapy currently exist, disease must be detected early in order for the treatments to be somewhat effective, and there is no effective treatment after metastasis occurs (2). Additionally, current therapies do not mitigate tumor immunosuppression. Decreasing the tumor-associated immunosuppressive conditions while activating antitumor immunity could prevent recurrence and metastasis, possibly leading to an effective treatment for cancer (3). Tumor cell vaccines could possibly address this issue and have become a ...


Effect Of Storage Temperature And Time On Lyophilized Water Bark Extract's Biological Activity, Jillian Schneider 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Storage Temperature And Time On Lyophilized Water Bark Extract's Biological Activity, Jillian Schneider

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Sweetgum bark extract has been known to show biological activities such as antimicrobial and antioxidant capabilities. The storage capacity of the extract, however, was unknown and previously thought to diminish over time. However, upon experimentation, the freeze-dried sweetgum bark extract showed no signs that storage time or storage temperature had any significant effect on the biological activities. There was no significant difference across storage temperature over time in the experiment (ANOVA RM, P0.05). Therefore, the antioxidant capabilities of the sweetgum extract were not affected by the storage time or temperature treatments studied in this work. For the antimicrobial experiment ...


Chemical And Physical Priming Of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells To Alter Nonviral Gene Delivery Outcomes, Tyler Kozisek, Andrew Hamann, Amy Mantz, Mathias Schubert, Eva Schubert, Angela K. Pannier 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Chemical And Physical Priming Of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells To Alter Nonviral Gene Delivery Outcomes, Tyler Kozisek, Andrew Hamann, Amy Mantz, Mathias Schubert, Eva Schubert, Angela K. Pannier

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a multipotent cell, meaning they are able to differentiate into a more mature cell type, such as osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, that are found in numerous tissues in the human body, such as bone marrow, fat, and muscle. Since hMSCs can be derived from adult human tissues, they do not have the same ethical concern associated with them as other stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells. Due to hMSCs multipotency and ease of obtaining, they have become one of the most widely researched stem cell types in areas such ...


A Novel Biochamberfor Modeling Of Atherosclerotic Arteries: In-Vitro Capabilities And Applications, Iman Salafian, Angelos Karagiannis, Benjamin S. Terry, Yiannis S. Chatzizisis 2017 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

A Novel Biochamberfor Modeling Of Atherosclerotic Arteries: In-Vitro Capabilities And Applications, Iman Salafian, Angelos Karagiannis, Benjamin S. Terry, Yiannis S. Chatzizisis

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease that involves the lipid accumulation and inflammation of the arterial wall [1,2]. Despite great efforts,its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. Existent drugs can reduce its progression but there are no available drugs to prevent its complications [3,4]. Atherosclerosis remains the leading global cause of death[5].

The purpose of this work is to design and build a customized biochamber which can be used for the following studies:

•Study the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis in vitro & ex vivo

•Investigate the mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque disruption

•Examine the direct effect of different anti-atherosclerotic drugs ...


Pairing Of Anaerobic And Aerobic Treatment Of Petroleum Wastewater, Zachary Fica 2017 Utah State University

Pairing Of Anaerobic And Aerobic Treatment Of Petroleum Wastewater, Zachary Fica

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this project was to treat petroleum refinery wastewater using a combination of anaerobic and aerobic processes, namely an Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor paired with a Rotation Algae Biofilm Reactor (RABR), respectively, to produce a treated effluent. The treatment method developed needed to produce a cost-effective and efficient way to decrease nitrogen, phosphorous, total suspended solids (TSS), and COD concentrations to below State of Utah limitations. It was demonstrated that RABR treatment was capable of reducing effluent concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and TSS to State of Utah limitations. RABR treatment did not significantly reduce COD from ...


Anaerobic Digestion Of Wastewater: Effects Of Inoculants And Nutrient Management On Biomethane Production And Treatment, Jason Peterson 2017 Utah State University

Anaerobic Digestion Of Wastewater: Effects Of Inoculants And Nutrient Management On Biomethane Production And Treatment, Jason Peterson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to population expiation and the increased awareness of the impact on the environment by wastewater treatment, improved wastewater treatment systems are needed to treat municipal and agricultural wastewater. Treating wastewater with oxygen decreases carbon compounds at the expense of energy to move carbon and oxygen to be in contact with each other. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater can reduce the cost by utilizing microbes to treat high amounts of carbon in wastewater without the need for extensive oxygen requirement. With a proper balance of nutrients, microbes also produce methane, a renewable energy source.

It has been suggested that microalgae be ...


Electrospun Spiderskin Bandage For Epidermal Protection And Recovery, Michael David Paskett 2017 Utah State University

Electrospun Spiderskin Bandage For Epidermal Protection And Recovery, Michael David Paskett

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Spider silk is one of nature's most promising biomaterial s for a variety of applications, however, due to the inability to farm spiders, transgenic hosts are required for large-scale production. With the unique combination of strength, elasticity, and biocompatibility, spider silk has an incredible potential for use in the human body. This study was conducted to merge two major applications of spider silk for the creation of a novel bandaging product. Electrospinning technology was utilized to create a spider silk/polymer bandage matrix to be applied with an aqueous spider silk skin adhesive.

In designing the bandaging matrix , the ...


Amending Phb With Algal Biomass To Enhance Biodegradability, Amanda R. Stoudt 2017 Utah State University

Amending Phb With Algal Biomass To Enhance Biodegradability, Amanda R. Stoudt

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Pollution due to petroleum-based plastic is a growing problem all over the world. Petroleum-based plastics that fill landfills and oceans take hundreds of years to degrade. One possible solution to this growing problem is to increase the use of bioplastics. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a widely studied bioplastic that is biodegradable in both soil and marine environments. However, PHB use is limited due to its poor mechanical properties. Past researchers have investigated the use of natural additives, primarily different types of plant fibers, to enhance both the mechanical properties and degradation rates of bioplastics. The purpose of this project was to ...


Development Of Spectroscopic Methods For Dynamic Cellular Level Study Of Biochemical Kinetics And Disease Progression, Anna M. Sitarski 2017 University of Maine

Development Of Spectroscopic Methods For Dynamic Cellular Level Study Of Biochemical Kinetics And Disease Progression, Anna M. Sitarski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

One of the current fundamental objectives in biomedical research is understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease progression. Recent work in genetics support the stochastic nature of disease progression on the single cell level. For example, recent work has demonstrated that cancer as a disease state is reached after the accumulation of damages that result in genetic errors. Other diseases like Huntingtons, Parkinsons, Alzheimers, cardiovascular disease are developed over time and their cellular mechanisms of disease transition are largely unknown. Modern techniques of disease characterization are perturbative, invasive and fully destructive to biological samples. Many methods need a probe or ...


Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D. 2017 Brigham Young University - Provo

Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D.

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Currently, the only permanent cure for Type 1 Diabetes is a pancreatic or islet transplant. With the shortage of donors, we are progressing research towards alternative therapies by differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells into derived pancreatic β-cells that can be transplanted and used as treatment for Type 1 Diabetes. We are investigating methods to increase the yield of fully derived, insulin producing pancreatic β-cells and are additionally researching the use of hydrophilized expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for use in cell containment devices. These devices could offer a future alternative for islet transplantation in human patients.


Molecular Modeling Of Antibody-Antigen Binding Near Solid Surfaces, Derek Bush, Thomas Knotts 2017 Brigham Young University

Molecular Modeling Of Antibody-Antigen Binding Near Solid Surfaces, Derek Bush, Thomas Knotts

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Antibody microarrays are biosensors that have the potential to revolutionize molecular detection in medicine, scientific research, and national defense. However, current microarrays are not widely used due to problems including poor reproducibility and signal quality, unbalanced antibody performance, and cross-reactivity. Prior work in the area focused mainly on the stability of the antibody alone and not its affinity for its antigen. This presentation shows results of using molecular simulation to determine how different types of surfaces affect antigen binding to surface-tethered antibodies. The results offer an unprecedented, molecular-level view into these protein-protein-surface interactions and how to drive binding to occur.


High Rate Detection Of Volatile Products Using Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry: Combining An Electrode-Coated Membrane With Hydrodynamic Flow In A Wall-Tube Configuration, Subramanian Venkatachalam, Robert J. Angelici, L. Keith Woo, Andrew C. Hillier 2017 Iowa State University

High Rate Detection Of Volatile Products Using Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry: Combining An Electrode-Coated Membrane With Hydrodynamic Flow In A Wall-Tube Configuration, Subramanian Venkatachalam, Robert J. Angelici, L. Keith Woo, Andrew C. Hillier

L. Keith Woo

We present an experimental system that combines differential electrochemical mass spectrometry with hydrodynamic flow consisting of an impinging jet in a wall-tube configuration. This assembly allows simultaneous detection of electrochemical signals along with monitoring of dissolved gas species using differential electrochemical mass spectrometry under well-defined hydrodynamic conditions and over a wide range of mass transfer rates. The working electrode is deposited directly onto a thin, hydrophobic membrane, which also serves as the inlet to the mass spectrometer. This inlet provides extremely rapid mass detection as well as a high flux of products from the electrode surface into the mass spectrometer ...


Effect Of L-Ascorbic Acid And All-Trans Retinoic Acid On Smooth Muscle Cells Cultured On Pcl Scaffolds, Brandon Chaffay 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Effect Of L-Ascorbic Acid And All-Trans Retinoic Acid On Smooth Muscle Cells Cultured On Pcl Scaffolds, Brandon Chaffay

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of vascular tissue engineering (VTE) is to fabricate tissues that are both mechanically and biologically competent similar to the native vessel they are intended to replace. To this end, the incorporation of sufficient extracellular matrix elastin and collagen is important. The objective of this thesis work was to evaluate the effect of two biochemical factors, l-ascorbic acid (AA) and all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), on elastin synthesis when coronary artery smooth muscle cells were cultured on 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. First, porous PCL scaffolds were fabricated using a solvent casting and particulate leaching approach. The effect of different ...


Biomanufacturing Through Igem-An International Student Competition, Asif Rahman, Ryan J. Putman, Neal Hengge, Charles D. Miller 2017 Utah State University

Biomanufacturing Through Igem-An International Student Competition, Asif Rahman, Ryan J. Putman, Neal Hengge, Charles D. Miller

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

The foundations of synthetic biology are built on molecular biology and genetic engineering. One of the purposes of synthetic biology is to make biology easier to engineer by the creation of standardized biological parts and devices. There are a wide range of potential applications for synthetic biology and a variety of approaches to constructing parts and systems. Undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students from around the world apply synthetic biology principles at the annual International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition to demonstrate functioning biological systems created from standardized parts. The iGEM competition will continue to add to the ...


A Computational Study Of Vegf Production By Patterned Retinal Epithelial Cell Colonies As A Model For Neovascular Macular Degeneration, Qanita Bani Baker, Gregory J. Podgorski, Elizabeth Vargis, Nicholas Flann 2017 Jordan University of Science and Technology

A Computational Study Of Vegf Production By Patterned Retinal Epithelial Cell Colonies As A Model For Neovascular Macular Degeneration, Qanita Bani Baker, Gregory J. Podgorski, Elizabeth Vargis, Nicholas Flann

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: The configuration of necrotic areas within the retinal pigmented epithelium is an important element in the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the exudative (wet) and non-exudative (dry) forms of the disease, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells respond to adjacent atrophied regions by secreting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that in turn recruits new blood vessels which lead to a further reduction in retinal function and vision. In vitro models exist for studying VEGF expression in wet AMD (Vargis et al., Biomaterials 35(13):3999–4004, 2014), but are limited in the patterns of necrotic and intact RPE ...


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