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An Automated Device To Increase Screening Throughput Of Zebrafish Larvae, Fuoad Saliou-Sulley 2017 University of Maine

An Automated Device To Increase Screening Throughput Of Zebrafish Larvae, Fuoad Saliou-Sulley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The use of the zebrafish as an animal model alternative to mammalian species has spawned research advancements in several medical fields. Since the zebrafish shares a high degree of sequence and functional homology with mammals, studies using this organism can provide in-depth insight into host response to disease and provide a platform for testing a range of treatment options. The optical transparency of zebrafish at early stages of development permits easy assessment of the effects of treatments, occurrence of tumors and other abnormal growth, disease progression, and immune response, to name only a few. These characteristics make it ideal for ...


Effect Of Electrolytes On Co-Water Mass Transfer, Haiyang Zhu, Brent H. Shanks, Theodore J. Heindel 2017 Iowa State University

Effect Of Electrolytes On Co-Water Mass Transfer, Haiyang Zhu, Brent H. Shanks, Theodore J. Heindel

Theodore J. Heindel

The influence of various electrolytes such as sulfate, nitrate, and chloride on CO-water mass transfer was investigated in this study. The results indicate that the enhancement in the CO-water volumetric masstransfer coefficient ranged from 1.5 to 4.7 times that of a baseline system without electrolytes, depending on electrolyte type and concentration. For those electrolytes with the same anions, copper-containing electrolytes provided stronger enhancement, whereas for those electrolytes with the same cations, sulfate-containing electrolytes showed stronger enhancement. By measuring both the CO-water volumetric mass-transfer coefficient (kLa) and the mass-transfer coefficient (kL), it was found that the electrolytes inhibit gas ...


Flow Cytometry Is A Promising And Rapid Method For Differentiating Between Freely Suspended Escherichia Coli And E. Coli Attached To Clay Particles, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Shawn M. Rigby, Laura R. Jarboe, Wei Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Flow Cytometry Is A Promising And Rapid Method For Differentiating Between Freely Suspended Escherichia Coli And E. Coli Attached To Clay Particles, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Shawn M. Rigby, Laura R. Jarboe, Wei Zhang

Laura R. Jarboe

Aim: A standard procedure does not exist to distinguish between attached and unattached micro-organisms. In this study, we compared two methods to quantify between Escherichia coli attached to clay particles and E. coli freely suspended in solution: flow cytometry (attachment assay and viability assay) and settling (or centrifugation followed by settling). Methods and Results: Methods were tested using three environmental strains collected from swine facilities (A, B and C) and one purchased modified pathogenic strain (ATCC 43888); four clay particles: Hectorite, Kaolinite, Ca-Montmorillonite, Montmorillonite K-10; and a range of surface area ratios (particle surface area to E. coli surface area ...


Growth Condition Optimization For Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha) Production By Moritella Marina Mp-1, Kumar Babu Kautharapu, John A. Rathmacher, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Growth Condition Optimization For Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha) Production By Moritella Marina Mp-1, Kumar Babu Kautharapu, John A. Rathmacher, Laura R. Jarboe

Laura R. Jarboe

The marine organism Moritella marina MP-1 produces the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). While the basic metabolic pathway for DHA production in this organism has been identified, the impact of growth conditions on DHA production is largely unknown. This study examines the effect of supplemental carbon, nitrogen and salts, growth temperature and media composition and pH on DHA and biomass production and the fatty acid profile. The addition of supplemental nitrogen significantly increased the overall DHA titer via an increase in biomass production. Supplemental glucose or glycerol increased biomass production, but decreased the amount of DHA per biomass, resulting ...


Tin Dioxide-Carbon Heterostructures Applied To Gas Sensing: Structure-Dependent Properties And General Sensing Mechanism, Catherine Marichy, Patricia A. Russo, Mariangela Latino, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Marc-Georg Wilinger, Nicola Donato, Giovanni Neri, Nicola Pinna 2017 University of Aveiro

Tin Dioxide-Carbon Heterostructures Applied To Gas Sensing: Structure-Dependent Properties And General Sensing Mechanism, Catherine Marichy, Patricia A. Russo, Mariangela Latino, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Marc-Georg Wilinger, Nicola Donato, Giovanni Neri, Nicola Pinna

Jean-Philippe Tessonnier

Carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) exhibit unique electrical properties, which are also influenced by the surrounding atmosphere. They are therefore promising sensing materials. Despite the existence of studies reporting the gas-sensing properties of metal oxide (MOx) coated nanostructured carbon, an incomplete understanding of their sensing mechanism remains. Here we report a systematic study on the preparation, characterization, and sensing properties of CNT and RGO composites with SnO2 coating. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was applied to the conformal coating of the inner and outer walls of CNTs with thin films of SnO2 of ...


Mixed-Surface, Lipid-Tethered Quantum Dots For Targeting Cells And Tissues, Yanjie Zhang, Amanda Haage, Elizabeth M. Whitley, Ian C. Schneider, Aaron R. Clapp 2017 Iowa State University

Mixed-Surface, Lipid-Tethered Quantum Dots For Targeting Cells And Tissues, Yanjie Zhang, Amanda Haage, Elizabeth M. Whitley, Ian C. Schneider, Aaron R. Clapp

Ian C. Schneider

Quantum dots (QDs), with their variable luminescent properties, are rapidly transcending traditional labeling techniques in biological imaging and hold vast potential for biosensing applications. An obstacle in any biosensor development is targeted specificity. Here we report a facile procedure for creating QDs targeted to the cell membrane with the goal of cell-surface protease biosensing. This procedure generates water-soluble QDs with variable coverage of lipid functional groups. The resulting hydrophobicity is quantitatively controlled by the molar ratio of lipids per QD. Appropriate tuning of the hydrophobicity ensures solubility in common aqueous cell culture media and while providing affinity to the lipid ...


Epitaxially Grown Collagen Fibrils Reveal Diversity In Contact Guidance Behavior Among Cancer Cells, Juan Wang, Joseph W. Petefish, Andrew C. Hillier, Ian C. Schneider 2017 Iowa State University

Epitaxially Grown Collagen Fibrils Reveal Diversity In Contact Guidance Behavior Among Cancer Cells, Juan Wang, Joseph W. Petefish, Andrew C. Hillier, Ian C. Schneider

Ian C. Schneider

Invasion of cancer cells into the surrounding tissue is an important step during cancer progression and is driven by cell migration. Cell migration can be random, but often it is directed by various cues such as aligned fibers composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), a process called contact guidance. During contact guidance, aligned fibers bias migration along the long axis of the fibers. These aligned fibers of ECM are commonly composed of type I collagen, an abundant structural protein around tumors. In this paper, we epitaxially grew several different patterns of organized type I collagen on mica and compared the morphology ...


Cellular Contractility And Extracellular Matrix Stiffness Regulate Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity In Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Amanda Haage, Ian C. Schneider 2017 Iowa State University

Cellular Contractility And Extracellular Matrix Stiffness Regulate Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity In Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Amanda Haage, Ian C. Schneider

Ian C. Schneider

The pathogenesis of cancer is often driven by local invasion and metastasis. Recently, mechanical properties of the tumor microenvironment have been identified as potent regulators of invasion and metastasis, while matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are classically known as significant enhancers of cancer cell migration and invasion. Here we have been able to sensitively measure MMP activity changes in response to specific extracellular matrix (ECM) environments and cell contractility states. A pancreatic cancer cell line, Panc-1 cells, up-regulate MMP activities between 3- and 10- fold with increased cell contractility. Conversely, they down-regulate MMP activities when contractility is blocked to levels seen with ...


Collagen Attachment To The Substrate Controls Cell Clustering Through Migration, Yue Hou, Laura L. Rodriguez, Juan Wang, Ian C. Schneider 2017 Iowa State University

Collagen Attachment To The Substrate Controls Cell Clustering Through Migration, Yue Hou, Laura L. Rodriguez, Juan Wang, Ian C. Schneider

Ian C. Schneider

Cell clustering and scattering play important roles in cancer progression and tissue engineering. While the extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to control cell clustering, much of the quantitative work has focused on the analysis of clustering between cells with strong cell-cell junctions. Much less is known about how the ECM regulates cells with weak cell-cell contact. Clustering characteristics were quantified in rat adenocarcinoma cells, which form clusters on physically adsorbed collagen substrates, but not on covalently attached collagen substrates. Covalently attaching collagen inhibited desorption of collagen from the surface. While changes in proliferation rate could not explain differences seen in ...


The Number Of Lines A Cell Contacts And Cell Contractility Drive The Efficiency Of Contact Guidance, Nicholas R. Romsey, Yue Hou, Laura L. Rodriguez, Ian C. Schneider 2017 Iowa State University

The Number Of Lines A Cell Contacts And Cell Contractility Drive The Efficiency Of Contact Guidance, Nicholas R. Romsey, Yue Hou, Laura L. Rodriguez, Ian C. Schneider

Ian C. Schneider

Cell migration is an important biological function that impacts many physiological and pathological processes. Often migration is directed along various densities of aligned fibers of collagen, a process called contact guidance. However, cells adhere to other components in the extracellular matrix, possibly affecting migrational behavior. Additionally, changes in intracellular contractility are well known to affect random migration, but its effect on contact guidance is less known. This study examines differences in directed migration in response to variations in the spacing of collagen, non-specific background adhesion strength and myosin II-mediated contractility. Collagen was microcontact printed onto glass substrates and timelapse live-cell ...


H Emagglutinin-Based Polyanhydride Nanovaccines Against H5n1 Influenza Elicit Protective Virus Neutralizing Titers And Cell-Mediated Immunity, Kathleen Alaine Ross, Hyelee Park Loyd, Wuwei Wu, Lucas Mark Huntimer, Shaheen Ahmed, Anthony Sambol, Scott Broderick, Zachary Flickinger, Krishna Rajan, Tatiana Bronich, Surya K. Mallapragada, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Susan Long Carpenter, Balaji Narasimhan 2017 Iowa State University

H Emagglutinin-Based Polyanhydride Nanovaccines Against H5n1 Influenza Elicit Protective Virus Neutralizing Titers And Cell-Mediated Immunity, Kathleen Alaine Ross, Hyelee Park Loyd, Wuwei Wu, Lucas Mark Huntimer, Shaheen Ahmed, Anthony Sambol, Scott Broderick, Zachary Flickinger, Krishna Rajan, Tatiana Bronich, Surya K. Mallapragada, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Susan Long Carpenter, Balaji Narasimhan

Balaji Narasimhan

H5N1 avian influenza is a significant global concern with the potential to become the next pandemic threat. Recombinant subunit vaccines are an attractive alternative for pandemic vaccines compared to traditional vaccine technologies. In particular, polyanhydride nanoparticles encapsulating subunit proteins have been shown to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immunity and provide protection upon lethal challenge. In this work, a recombinant H5 hemagglutinin trimer (H53) was produced and encapsulated into polyanhydride nanoparticles. The studies performed indicated that the recombinant H53 antigen was a robust immunogen. Immunizing mice with H53 encapsulated into polyanhydride nanoparticles induced high neutralizing antibody titers and enhanced CD4+ T ...


Epitaxially Grown Collagen Fibrils Reveal Diversity In Contact Guidance Behavior Among Cancer Cells, Juan Wang, Joseph W. Petefish, Andrew C. Hillier, Ian C. Schneider 2017 Iowa State University

Epitaxially Grown Collagen Fibrils Reveal Diversity In Contact Guidance Behavior Among Cancer Cells, Juan Wang, Joseph W. Petefish, Andrew C. Hillier, Ian C. Schneider

Andrew C. Hillier

Invasion of cancer cells into the surrounding tissue is an important step during cancer progression and is driven by cell migration. Cell migration can be random, but often it is directed by various cues such as aligned fibers composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), a process called contact guidance. During contact guidance, aligned fibers bias migration along the long axis of the fibers. These aligned fibers of ECM are commonly composed of type I collagen, an abundant structural protein around tumors. In this paper, we epitaxially grew several different patterns of organized type I collagen on mica and compared the morphology ...


Decoding And Reprogramming Fungal Iterative Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases, Daya Yu, Fuchao Xu, Shuwei Zhang, Jixun Zhan 2017 Utah State University

Decoding And Reprogramming Fungal Iterative Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases, Daya Yu, Fuchao Xu, Shuwei Zhang, Jixun Zhan

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) assemble a large group of structurally and functionally diverse natural products. While the iterative catalytic mechanism of bacterial NRPSs is known, it remains unclear how fungal NRPSs create products of desired length. Here we show that fungal iterative NRPSs adopt an alternate incorporation strategy. Beauvericin and bassianolide synthetases have the same C1-A1-T1-C2-A2-MT-T2a-T2b-C3 domain organization. During catalysis, C3 and C2 take turns to incorporate the two biosynthetic precursors into the growing depsipeptide chain that swings between T1 and T ...


A Tunable, Three-Dimensional In Vitro Culture Model Of Growth Plate Cartilage Using Alginate Hydrogel Scaffolds, Alek G. Erickson, Taylor D. Laughlin, Sarah Romereim, Catherine Sargus-Patino, Angela K. Pannier, Andrew T. Dudley 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

A Tunable, Three-Dimensional In Vitro Culture Model Of Growth Plate Cartilage Using Alginate Hydrogel Scaffolds, Alek G. Erickson, Taylor D. Laughlin, Sarah Romereim, Catherine Sargus-Patino, Angela K. Pannier, Andrew T. Dudley

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Defining the final size and geometry of engineered tissues through precise control of the scalar and vector components of tissue growth is a necessary benchmark for regenerative medicine, but it has proved to be a significant challenge for tissue engineers. The growth plate cartilage that promotes elongation of the long bones is a good model system for studying morphogenetic mechanisms because cartilage is composed of a single cell type, the chondrocyte; chondrocytes are readily maintained in culture; and growth trajectory is predominately in a single vector. In this cartilage, growth is generated via a differentiation program that is spatially and ...


Mri Applications In Tissue Engineering, Shadi Othman 2017 University of the Pacific

Mri Applications In Tissue Engineering, Shadi Othman

Science Seminar Series

Shadi Othman of the School of Engineering and Computer Science Bioengineering Program, will speak on his research on MRI applications in tissue engineering.


Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States (1). While treatments involving radiation and chemotherapy currently exist, disease must be detected early in order for the treatments to be somewhat effective, and there is no effective treatment after metastasis occurs (2). Additionally, current therapies do not mitigate tumor immunosuppression. Decreasing the tumor-associated immunosuppressive conditions while activating antitumor immunity could prevent recurrence and metastasis, possibly leading to an effective treatment for cancer (3). Tumor cell vaccines could possibly address this issue and have become a ...


Effect Of Storage Temperature And Time On Lyophilized Water Bark Extract's Biological Activity, Jillian Schneider 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Storage Temperature And Time On Lyophilized Water Bark Extract's Biological Activity, Jillian Schneider

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Sweetgum bark extract has been known to show biological activities such as antimicrobial and antioxidant capabilities. The storage capacity of the extract, however, was unknown and previously thought to diminish over time. However, upon experimentation, the freeze-dried sweetgum bark extract showed no signs that storage time or storage temperature had any significant effect on the biological activities. There was no significant difference across storage temperature over time in the experiment (ANOVA RM, P0.05). Therefore, the antioxidant capabilities of the sweetgum extract were not affected by the storage time or temperature treatments studied in this work. For the antimicrobial experiment ...


Chemical And Physical Priming Of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells To Alter Nonviral Gene Delivery Outcomes, Tyler Kozisek, Andrew Hamann, Amy Mantz, Mathias Schubert, Eva Schubert, Angela K. Pannier 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Chemical And Physical Priming Of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells To Alter Nonviral Gene Delivery Outcomes, Tyler Kozisek, Andrew Hamann, Amy Mantz, Mathias Schubert, Eva Schubert, Angela K. Pannier

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a multipotent cell, meaning they are able to differentiate into a more mature cell type, such as osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, that are found in numerous tissues in the human body, such as bone marrow, fat, and muscle. Since hMSCs can be derived from adult human tissues, they do not have the same ethical concern associated with them as other stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells. Due to hMSCs multipotency and ease of obtaining, they have become one of the most widely researched stem cell types in areas such ...


A Novel Biochamberfor Modeling Of Atherosclerotic Arteries: In-Vitro Capabilities And Applications, Iman Salafian, Angelos Karagiannis, Benjamin S. Terry, Yiannis S. Chatzizisis 2017 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

A Novel Biochamberfor Modeling Of Atherosclerotic Arteries: In-Vitro Capabilities And Applications, Iman Salafian, Angelos Karagiannis, Benjamin S. Terry, Yiannis S. Chatzizisis

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease that involves the lipid accumulation and inflammation of the arterial wall [1,2]. Despite great efforts,its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. Existent drugs can reduce its progression but there are no available drugs to prevent its complications [3,4]. Atherosclerosis remains the leading global cause of death[5].

The purpose of this work is to design and build a customized biochamber which can be used for the following studies:

•Study the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis in vitro & ex vivo

•Investigate the mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque disruption

•Examine the direct effect of different anti-atherosclerotic drugs ...


Anaerobic Digestion Of Wastewater: Effects Of Inoculants And Nutrient Management On Biomethane Production And Treatment, Jason Peterson 2017 Utah State University

Anaerobic Digestion Of Wastewater: Effects Of Inoculants And Nutrient Management On Biomethane Production And Treatment, Jason Peterson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to population expiation and the increased awareness of the impact on the environment by wastewater treatment, improved wastewater treatment systems are needed to treat municipal and agricultural wastewater. Treating wastewater with oxygen decreases carbon compounds at the expense of energy to move carbon and oxygen to be in contact with each other. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater can reduce the cost by utilizing microbes to treat high amounts of carbon in wastewater without the need for extensive oxygen requirement. With a proper balance of nutrients, microbes also produce methane, a renewable energy source.

It has been suggested that microalgae be ...


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