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Chlorine Demand Shows Thresholds And Hierarchy With Source Water Quality At Beaver Lake, Arkansas, Jaime M. Gile 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Chlorine Demand Shows Thresholds And Hierarchy With Source Water Quality At Beaver Lake, Arkansas, Jaime M. Gile

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the effects of source water quality in Beaver Lake on the amount of chlorine (Cl) needed to develop decision support system to help guide chlorination practices in pre-treatment of source water. Chlorine demand assays were performed on water samples from Beaver Lake collected from the intake structure at Beaver Water District from March 2014 through August 2015, and using data from these assays, the two points of interest in this study were the Cl dose at which Cl residuals began to accumulate and the mean Cl demand occurring after that dose. Three methods of analysis were used ...


Fermentative Processes Requiring Low Solubility Feed Gases: An Investigation Into Gas-Dependent Microorganisms, Eric W. Doerr 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Fermentative Processes Requiring Low Solubility Feed Gases: An Investigation Into Gas-Dependent Microorganisms, Eric W. Doerr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Two bioprocesses were separately investigated based on their common interest of using gaseous substrates that have low solubility. The first process involved the development of a mixed culture using two organisms capable of utilizing glycerol and carbon monoxide separately to increase biobutanol production, while the second process involved an investigation of different production media used in aerobic xanthan production of Xanthomonas campestris with pressurization effects. It was determined that Clostridium pasteurianum should be used with an organism like Clostridium carboxidivorans or Eubacterium limosum in order for butyrate uptake at 3 g/L to occur with a minimum 0.1 g ...


Alginate Hydrogels As Three-Dimensional Scaffolds For In Vitro Culture Models Of Growth Plate Cartilage Development And Porcine Embryo Elongation, Taylor D. Laughlin 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Alginate Hydrogels As Three-Dimensional Scaffolds For In Vitro Culture Models Of Growth Plate Cartilage Development And Porcine Embryo Elongation, Taylor D. Laughlin

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The establishment of in vitro culture models utilizes tissue engineering principles to design functional mimics of in vivo environments in vitro. Advantages for the use of in vitro culture models include ethical alleviation of animal models for therapeutic testing, cost efficiency, and a greater ability to study specific mechanisms via a systematic, ground-up approach to development. In this thesis, alginate hydrogels are utilized in the development of in vitro culture models of porcine embryo elongation and growth plate cartilage development. First, the effect of scaffold and modifications to the scaffold were explored in both projects. In order to modulate cell-scaffold ...


Using A Vnir Spectral Library To Model Soil Carbon And Total Nitrogen Content, Nuwan K. Wijewardane 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Using A Vnir Spectral Library To Model Soil Carbon And Total Nitrogen Content, Nuwan K. Wijewardane

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

n-situ soil sensor systems based on visible and near infrared spectroscopy is not yet been effectively used due to inadequate studies to utilize legacy spectral libraries under the field conditions. The performance of such systems is significantly affected by spectral discrepancies created by sample intactness and library differences. In this study, four objectives were devised to obtain directives to address these issues. The first objective was to calibrate and evaluate VNIR models statistically and computationally (i.e. computing resource requirement), using four modeling techniques namely: Partial least squares regression (PLS), Artificial neural networks (ANN), Random forests (RF) and Support vector ...


Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu 2016 Chapman University

Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Socially responsible technologies are designed while taking into consideration the socioeconomic, geopolitical and environmental limitations of regions in which they will be implemented. In the medical context, this involves making therapeutic platforms more accessible and affordable to patients in poor regions of the world wherein a given disease is endemic. This often necessitates going against the reigning trend of making therapeutic nanoparticles ever more structurally complex and expensive. However, studies aimed at simplifying materials and formulations while maintaining the functionality and therapeutic response of their more complex counterparts seldom provoke a significant interest in the scientific community. In this review ...


In Silico Driven Metabolic Engineering Towards Enhancing Biofuel And Biochemical Production, Richard Adam Thompson 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

In Silico Driven Metabolic Engineering Towards Enhancing Biofuel And Biochemical Production, Richard Adam Thompson

Doctoral Dissertations

The development of a secure and sustainable energy economy is likely to require the production of fuels and commodity chemicals in a renewable manner. There has been renewed interest in biological commodity chemical production recently, in particular focusing on non-edible feedstocks. The fields of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have arisen in the past 20 years to address the challenge of chemical production from biological feedstocks. Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool for studying the metabolism of an organism and predicting the effects of metabolic engineering strategies. Various techniques have been developed for modeling cellular metabolism, with the underlying principle ...


Improving Droplet Interface Bilayers As Models For Cell Membranes, Graham Jeffery Taylor 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Improving Droplet Interface Bilayers As Models For Cell Membranes, Graham Jeffery Taylor

Doctoral Dissertations

This work describes research aimed at improving the droplet interface bilayer (DIB) platform for creating and characterizing biologically relevant model cell membranes. Improvements are made possible in part through the development of a portable, compact platform for controlling temperature with DIBs. Feedback-controlled heating allows studies to be conducted across a range of temperatures, from ambient up to at least 80°C, and also provides new understanding of methods to form DIBs using mixtures of total lipids extracted from bacterial and eukaryotic cells. The membranes formed from total lipid extracts (TLE) are introduced along with evidence that model membranes formed using ...


Municipal Composting And Organic Waste Diversion: The Case Of Fayetteville, Arkansas, Michael E. Hoppe 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Municipal Composting And Organic Waste Diversion: The Case Of Fayetteville, Arkansas, Michael E. Hoppe

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is estimated that 40% of food is wasted in the United States; representing $165 billion in wasted resources. A vast majority of that wasted food is ultimately placed in landfills where it decomposes and releases harmful greenhouse gases (GHGs). In fact, food waste alone is responsible for 23% of annual methane emissions for the US. This has a huge impact on global climate change due to the potency of methane as a greenhouse gas. Currently only 5% of the food waste produced is recovered across the nation. Source reduction would be the best solution to reducing this food waste ...


Intravital Microscopy Of Tumor Oxygenation And Glycolytic Demand, Jesse D. Ivers 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Intravital Microscopy Of Tumor Oxygenation And Glycolytic Demand, Jesse D. Ivers

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

There is growing concern about the over treatment of cancer because treatments are based primarily on tumor anatomy. In this study, we aim to begin the process of addressing that issue by developing an intravital technique for optically analyzing tumor biology. Two traits were identified as having significant importance in the aggression of a tumor, vascular oxygenation (SO2) and glycolytic demand. Dorsal skin flap window chambers were implanted and 4T1 and 67NR cancer cells were injected to provide a tumor model for the development of this intravital quantification technique. This study provides a detailed protocol from instrumentation setup to surgical ...


Engineering Of Polyketide Biosynthetic Pathways For Bioactive Molecules, Siyuan Wang 2016 Utah State University

Engineering Of Polyketide Biosynthetic Pathways For Bioactive Molecules, Siyuan Wang

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Polyketides are a large group of structurally diverse natural products that have shown a variety of biological activities. These molecules are synthesized by polyketide synthases (PKSs). PKSs are classified into three types based on their sequence, primary structure, and catalytic mechanism. Because of the bioactivities of polyketide natural products, this study is focused on the engineering of PKS pathways for efficient production of useful bioactive molecules or structural modification to create new molecules for drug development.

One goal of this research is to create an efficient method to produce pharmaceutically important molecules. Seven biosynthetic genes from plants and bacteria were ...


Investigating Biosynthetic Steps Of An Angucycline Antifungal, S. Gabrielle Gladstone 2016 Utah State University

Investigating Biosynthetic Steps Of An Angucycline Antifungal, S. Gabrielle Gladstone

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

From the bacterium Streptomyces sp. SCC-2136 (ATCC 55186), two angucycline natural products are produced, designated Sch 47554 and Sch 47555. These compounds are produced through a type II polyketide biosynthetic pathway. The early biosynthetic steps to these molecules were confirmed. These include the minimal polyketide synthase (PKS), the C-9 keteoreductase, the first-ring aromatase, the subsequent ring cyclase, and two oxygenases. Also confirmed were the biosynthetic genes responsible for production of the first amicetose moiety, as well as the glycosyltransferase that creates a C-glycosidic bond between the angucyclic scaffold and the amicetose moiety, In confirming these patways, two new natural products ...


Application Of A Combined Catalyst And Sorbent For Steam Reforming Of Methane, Karl O. Albrecht, Justinus A. Satrio, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock 2016 Iowa State University

Application Of A Combined Catalyst And Sorbent For Steam Reforming Of Methane, Karl O. Albrecht, Justinus A. Satrio, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock

Thomas D. Wheelock

The performance of a combined catalyst and sorbent material designed for reforming hydrocarbons was evaluated by reacting methane with steam at different temperatures and pressures in a reactor packed with the material. The combined material was in the form of small spherical pellets comprised of a sorbent core of lime encased in a porous shell made largely of sintered alumina that supported a nickel catalyst. On the basis of previous research, two shell formulations were included in the study. One shell formulation contained a small quantity of CaO for strengthening of the shells, whereas the other contained a similar quantity ...


Development Of A Combined Catalyst And Sorbent For The Water Gas Shift Reaction, Meng Kong, Karl O. Albrecht, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock 2016 Zhejiang University

Development Of A Combined Catalyst And Sorbent For The Water Gas Shift Reaction, Meng Kong, Karl O. Albrecht, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock

Thomas D. Wheelock

A combined catalyst and sorbent was developed for reacting CO with steam to produce H2 in a single reaction stage at 600 °C by employing the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. The combined material was in the form of spherical pellets where each pellet consisted of a CaO core for absorbing byproduct CO2 surrounded by a porous shell of Al2O 3 which supported a Ni catalyst. The best results were achieved by incorporating 5 wt % limestone in the shell material to suppress coking. By employing the best core-in-shell pellets and supplying a 3:1 mol ratio of steam to CO ...


A Combined Catalyst And Sorbent For Enhancing Hydrogen Production From Coal Or Biomass, Justinus A. Satrio, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock 2016 Iowa State University

A Combined Catalyst And Sorbent For Enhancing Hydrogen Production From Coal Or Biomass, Justinus A. Satrio, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock

Thomas D. Wheelock

Future large-scale production of H2 for use as a clean fuel will likely depend upon gasifying coal or biomass followed by steam reforming the resulting gas mixture and separating the CO2 byproduct. The process of steam reforming and CO2 separation can be greatly simplified by utilizing a new material that combines a reforming catalyst with a sorbent for CO2. Such a material was prepared in the form of small pellets with cores made of calcium and magnesium oxides and shells made largely of alumina impregnated with a nickel catalyst. Subsequent laboratory performance tests of the material showed that CO, CH4 ...


Development Of A Cao-Based Co2 Sorbent With Improved Cyclic Stability, Karl O. Albrecht, Kyle S. Wagenbach, Justinus A. Satrio, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock 2016 Iowa State University

Development Of A Cao-Based Co2 Sorbent With Improved Cyclic Stability, Karl O. Albrecht, Kyle S. Wagenbach, Justinus A. Satrio, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock

Thomas D. Wheelock

The carbonation of CaO is an attractive method for removing CO2 from hot gas mixtures. However, regeneration and reuse of a CaO-based sorbent causes a gradual decline in absorption capacity, which ultimately limits the life of the material. Various methods have been proposed for increasing the life cycle performance of a CaO-based sorbent. Two of these methods were selected for further investigation. One method incorporates an “inert” material in the sorbent, while a second method stabilizes the sorbent through controlled sintering. Promising results were achieved with both methods when they were applied separately to a sorbent derived from a natural ...


Improving The Stability Of A Cao-Based Sorbent For Co 2 By Thermal Pretreatment, Dursun Can Ozcan, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock 2016 Iowa State University

Improving The Stability Of A Cao-Based Sorbent For Co 2 By Thermal Pretreatment, Dursun Can Ozcan, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock

Thomas D. Wheelock

Although the reversible absorption of CO 2 by CaO at high temperature has been proposed as a promising method for capturing and removing CO 2 from hot gas streams produced by the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes, the activity of the sorbent has invariably declined when applied over many cycles of CO 2 absorption and desorption. The objective of the present investigation was to extend the life cycle performance of the absorbent through improved thermal pretreatment as the absorbent was prepared from limestone, dolomite, calcium acetate, or plaster of Paris. The first three materials were converted to ...


Arakniprint: 3d Printing Of Synthetic Spider Silk To Produce Biocompatible And Resorbable Biomaterials, Ashley Ruben, Brianne Bell, Chase Spencer, Craig Soelberg, Dan Gil, Thomas Harris, Richard Decker, Timothy A. Taylor, Randolph V. Lewis 2016 Utah State University

Arakniprint: 3d Printing Of Synthetic Spider Silk To Produce Biocompatible And Resorbable Biomaterials, Ashley Ruben, Brianne Bell, Chase Spencer, Craig Soelberg, Dan Gil, Thomas Harris, Richard Decker, Timothy A. Taylor, Randolph V. Lewis

Research Week

At $3.07 billion in 2013, the 3D printing industry was projected to reach $12.8 billion in 2018 and exceed $21 billion by 2020 (Wohlers and Caffrey, 2013). A lucrative part of this expanding industry includes printing biocompatible medical implants, devices, and tissue scaffolds. A common problem encountered with traditional devices, implants, and tissue scaffolds is that they are not unique to the patient and lack the necessary strength and biocompatibility. To answer these demands, customizable devices are being produced from patient medical scans and CAD designs using 3D printers. These printers traditionally use thermoplastics because of the ease ...


Secretion Of Bioplastic Polymers From Methanotrophic Bacteria Grown Using Natural Gas, Chad L. Nielsen, Charles D. Miller 2016 Utah State University

Secretion Of Bioplastic Polymers From Methanotrophic Bacteria Grown Using Natural Gas, Chad L. Nielsen, Charles D. Miller

Research Week

Biodegradable bioplastics show promise as a replacement for traditional plastics. Cost of production due to the cost of feedstocks and separation/purification processes are the main obstacles to widespread use of bioplastics. The possibility of reducing these costs through using methane gas as a feedstock and genetically transforming a methanotrophic bacterium to secrete bioplastics was investigated through experimentation. The bacteria are a promising option for bioplastic production.


Hyaluronic Acid-Conjugated Liposome Nanoparticles For Targeted Delivery To Cd44 Overexpressing Glioblastoma Cells, Stephen L. Hayward, Christina L. Wilson, Srivatsan Kidambi 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Hyaluronic Acid-Conjugated Liposome Nanoparticles For Targeted Delivery To Cd44 Overexpressing Glioblastoma Cells, Stephen L. Hayward, Christina L. Wilson, Srivatsan Kidambi

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a highly prevalent and deadly brain malignancy characterized by poor prognosis and restricted disease management potential. Despite the success of nanocarrier systems to improve drug/gene therapy for cancer, active targeting specificity remains a major hurdle for GBM. Additionally, since the brain is a multi-cell type organ, there is a critical need to develop an approach to distinguish between GBM cells and healthy brain cells for safe and successful treatment. In this report, we have incorporated hyaluronic acid (HA) as an active targeting ligand for GBM. To do so, we employed HA conjugated liposomes (HALNPs) to ...


Brain Tumor In A Dish: Glioma/Astrocyte Co-Cultures As A Model For In Vitro Studies, Erin Eickman, Christina Wilson, Srivatsan Kidambi 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Brain Tumor In A Dish: Glioma/Astrocyte Co-Cultures As A Model For In Vitro Studies, Erin Eickman, Christina Wilson, Srivatsan Kidambi

UCARE Research Products

This study seeks to engineer an in vitro co-culture model to elucidate the role of glioma-astrocyte interactions on molecular changes in the tumor microenvironment. The use of patterned co-cultures created with polyelectrolyte multilayers and micromolding in capillaries will allow tthe investigation of cell-cell communication. This study will lead to better understanding of the role of healthy cells in cancer progression and potential treatment options.


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