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Identifying Factors Of Microparticles Modified With Arginine Derivatives That Induce Phenotypic Shifts In Macrophages, Alexander J. Dunn-Sale, Kaitlin M. Bratlie 2017 Iowa State University

Identifying Factors Of Microparticles Modified With Arginine Derivatives That Induce Phenotypic Shifts In Macrophages, Alexander J. Dunn-Sale, Kaitlin M. Bratlie

Kaitlin M. Bratlie

Macrophages are key players in the progression of many diseases, ranging from rheumatoid arthritis to cancer. Drug delivery systems have the potential not only to transport payloads to diseased tissue but also to influence cell behavior. Here, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (pNIPAm-co-AAc) microparticles were modified with 14 different arginine derivatives. These particles were then incubated with interleukin-4 or lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages or naïve macrophages (RAW 264.7). The phenotypic state of the macrophages was assessed by measuring arginase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion, and nitrite production. Partial least-squares analysis revealed material properties and descriptors that shifted the macrophage phenotype for the ...


The Response Of Schwann Cells To Weak Dc Electric Fields, Alexander T. Lai, Jianming Li 2017 Purdue University

The Response Of Schwann Cells To Weak Dc Electric Fields, Alexander T. Lai, Jianming Li

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Schwann cells are glial cells that serve the vital role of supporting neurons in the peripheral nervous system. While their primary function is to provide insulation (myelin) for axons, they also help regenerate injured axons by digesting severed axons and providing scaffolding to guide the regeneration process. This specific role of Schwann cells makes them highly important cellular targets following nerve injury. Although some efforts have been made to encourage Schwann cell migration after nerve damage, the use of electric fields to control cell responses remain unexplored; therefore, this experiment serves to characterize the behavior of Schwann cells to weak ...


Establishing A Lung Model For Evaluation Of Engineered Lung Microbiome Therapies, Kathryn F. Atherton, Stephen Miloro, Jenna Rickus 2017 Purdue University

Establishing A Lung Model For Evaluation Of Engineered Lung Microbiome Therapies, Kathryn F. Atherton, Stephen Miloro, Jenna Rickus

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Benzene, a toxin and carcinogen found in air polluted by cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and industrial processes, is associated with the development of leukemia and lymphoma. Other than avoiding exposure, there is no current method to deter the effects of benzene. One potential strategy to prevent these effects is to engineer the bacteria of the human lung microbiome to degrade benzene. To evaluate this novel approach, we must verify that the bacteria remain viable within the lung microenvironment. To do so, lungs were harvested from rats and swabbed to determine the contents of the original lung microbiome. Then green fluorescent ...


Fundamental Characterization Of Oxygen Nanobubbles, John Hamlin, Yi Wen, Joseph Irudayaraj 2017 Purdue University

Fundamental Characterization Of Oxygen Nanobubbles, John Hamlin, Yi Wen, Joseph Irudayaraj

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

A hypoxic environment is created by tumors’ incredible growth rate. Hypoxia provides radioresistance to the tumors, thus making radiation treatment less effective. The issue is that increasing the radiation leads to increased side effects in patients. Our goal for the oxygen-filled nanobubble is to deliver oxygen to the tumor to lessen radioresistance and make radiation treatment more efficient. However, we need preliminary research to understand and improve the nanobubbles before further research and implementation. To do this, we synthesized different batches of nanobubbles to optimize the production method and find the best container and temperature to store nanobubbles. We measured ...


Pathogenic Dna Detection Using Dna Hairpins: A Non-Linear Hybridization Chain Reaction Platform, Lance Novak, Tamara L. Kinzer-Ursem 2017 Purdue University

Pathogenic Dna Detection Using Dna Hairpins: A Non-Linear Hybridization Chain Reaction Platform, Lance Novak, Tamara L. Kinzer-Ursem

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Currently, 3.2 billion people are at risk of being infected with malaria, with 1.2 billion of those being at high risk (>1 in 1000 chance of getting malaria in a year). Thus, there is a need for a biosensor that is highly sensitive, cost effective, and simple to use for point-of-care diagnosis. The biosensing platform, PathVis, has achieved this by measuring changes in fluid properties after a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). LAMP is a DNA amplification system that requires enzymes and a temperature of 65degrees C. LAMP currently limits PathVis by being costly, requiring refrigeration, and difficult to ...


Localized Blood Occlusion Generation In An In-Vitro Circulatory Catheter System, Ryan D. Harris, Qi Yang, Hyowon Lee 2017 Purdue University

Localized Blood Occlusion Generation In An In-Vitro Circulatory Catheter System, Ryan D. Harris, Qi Yang, Hyowon Lee

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Hydrocephalus is a debilitating neurological disorder that involves the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in a ventricle of the brain. The implantation of a catheter commonly treats hydrocephalus with drainage. These catheters have a short lifespan due to obstruction from biological materials. Shunt systems have an extremely high failure rate of more than 40% failed within 1 year and up to 85% failed within 10 years. Previously, polymer-based flexible implantable magnetic micro-actuators were developed to clean up the catheter by mechanical vibration. We have demonstrated clearing of bacteria attachment and are proceeding to examine clearing effects on larger clotting materials, such ...


An Automated Device To Increase Screening Throughput Of Zebrafish Larvae, Fuoad Saliou-Sulley 2017 University of Maine

An Automated Device To Increase Screening Throughput Of Zebrafish Larvae, Fuoad Saliou-Sulley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The use of the zebrafish as an animal model alternative to mammalian species has spawned research advancements in several medical fields. Since the zebrafish shares a high degree of sequence and functional homology with mammals, studies using this organism can provide in-depth insight into host response to disease and provide a platform for testing a range of treatment options. The optical transparency of zebrafish at early stages of development permits easy assessment of the effects of treatments, occurrence of tumors and other abnormal growth, disease progression, and immune response, to name only a few. These characteristics make it ideal for ...


Managing Exoelectrogenic Microbial Community Development Through Bioprocess Control For Conversion Of Biomass-Derived Streams, Alex James Lewis 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Managing Exoelectrogenic Microbial Community Development Through Bioprocess Control For Conversion Of Biomass-Derived Streams, Alex James Lewis

Doctoral Dissertations

Bioelectrochemical systems are an emerging technology capable of utilizing aqueous waste streams generated during biomass conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to produce valuable co-products and thus, have potential to be integrated into biorefineries. In a microbial electrolysis cell, organic compounds are converted to electrons, protons, and CO2 by fermentative and exoelectrogenic bacteria in the anode compartment. By having the ability to extract electrons from waste streams, these systems can treat water while also producing hydrogen, and thus can improve the efficiency of biomass to fuel production by minimizing external hydrogen requirement and enabling water recycle. The overall goal of this ...


Evaluating Thermal Comfort Of Broiler Chickens During Transportation Using Heat Index And Simulated Electronic Chickens, Kaushik Luthra 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluating Thermal Comfort Of Broiler Chickens During Transportation Using Heat Index And Simulated Electronic Chickens, Kaushik Luthra

Theses and Dissertations

Broilers experience high physiological stress during pre-slaughter transport, especially under extremes of thermal environment. Characterization of thermal environment on the trailer is crucial to identify stress-prone regions during transportation. At the same time, Broilers experience high physiological stress during pre-slaughter transport, especially under extremes of thermal environment. Characterization of thermal environment on the trailer is crucial to identify stress-prone regions during transportation. At the same time, quantification of heat loss of the broilers loaded on trailers is important in understanding the well-being of the broilers. We have developed four electronic chickens (E-chickens) to simulate the sensible heat loss of live ...


Mushroom Inoculation On Switchgrass Feedstock During Storage: Effects Of Subsequent Pre-Processing For Intended Biofuels Production, Amandeep Singh Turay 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Mushroom Inoculation On Switchgrass Feedstock During Storage: Effects Of Subsequent Pre-Processing For Intended Biofuels Production, Amandeep Singh Turay

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this project was to examine the effect of fungal treatment and liquid hot water pretreatment of switchgrass combine in view of increasing glucose release. The fungal treatment consisted of incubating Pleurotus ostreatus in square switchgrass bales, at 50% moisture content for 25 days, 54 days, and 82 days. The digestibility of the switchgrass biomass was subsequently evaluated using Accelerase 1500 enzyme. Lignin is an important barrier to enzymatic hydrolysis, and it was stipulated that incubation with P. ostreatus would disrupt plant cell walls, resulting in enhanced saccharification. Three different concentrations of P. ostreatus were evaluated: 0%, 2 ...


Modeling De Novo Granulation Of Anaerobic Sludge, Anna Doloman, Honey Varghese, Charles D. Miller, Nicholas Flann 2017 Utah State University

Modeling De Novo Granulation Of Anaerobic Sludge, Anna Doloman, Honey Varghese, Charles D. Miller, Nicholas Flann

Computer Science Faculty and Staff Publications

Background: A unique combination of mechanical, physiochemical and biological forces influences granulation during processes of anaerobic digestion. Understanding this process requires a systems biology approach due to the need to consider not just single-cell metabolic processes, but also the multicellular organization and development of the granule.

Results: In this computational experiment, we address the role that physiochemical and biological processes play in granulation and provide a literature-validated working model of anaerobic granule de novo formation. The agent-based model developed in a cDynoMiCs simulation environment successfully demonstrated a de novo granulation in a glucose fed system, with the average specific methanogenic ...


Development And Characterization Of Tissue Engineered Blood Vessel Mimics Under "Diabetic" Conditions, Shelby Gabrielle Kunz 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Development And Characterization Of Tissue Engineered Blood Vessel Mimics Under "Diabetic" Conditions, Shelby Gabrielle Kunz

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The development of tissue engineered blood vessel mimics for the testing of intravascular devices in vitro has been established in the Cal Poly tissue engineering lab. Due to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients and minimal accessible studies regarding the interactions between diabetes and intravascular devices used to treat vascular disease, there is a need for the development of diabetic models that more accurately represents diabetic processes occurring in the blood vessels, primarily endothelial dysfunction. This thesis aimed to create a diabetic blood vessel mimic by implementing a high glucose environment for culturing human endothelial cells from healthy ...


Epitaxially Grown Collagen Fibrils Reveal Diversity In Contact Guidance Behavior Among Cancer Cells, Juan Wang, Joseph W. Petefish, Andrew C. Hillier, Ian C. Schneider 2017 Iowa State University

Epitaxially Grown Collagen Fibrils Reveal Diversity In Contact Guidance Behavior Among Cancer Cells, Juan Wang, Joseph W. Petefish, Andrew C. Hillier, Ian C. Schneider

Andrew C. Hillier

Invasion of cancer cells into the surrounding tissue is an important step during cancer progression and is driven by cell migration. Cell migration can be random, but often it is directed by various cues such as aligned fibers composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), a process called contact guidance. During contact guidance, aligned fibers bias migration along the long axis of the fibers. These aligned fibers of ECM are commonly composed of type I collagen, an abundant structural protein around tumors. In this paper, we epitaxially grew several different patterns of organized type I collagen on mica and compared the morphology ...


Decoding And Reprogramming Fungal Iterative Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases, Daya Yu, Fuchao Xu, Shuwei Zhang, Jixun Zhan 2017 Utah State University

Decoding And Reprogramming Fungal Iterative Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases, Daya Yu, Fuchao Xu, Shuwei Zhang, Jixun Zhan

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) assemble a large group of structurally and functionally diverse natural products. While the iterative catalytic mechanism of bacterial NRPSs is known, it remains unclear how fungal NRPSs create products of desired length. Here we show that fungal iterative NRPSs adopt an alternate incorporation strategy. Beauvericin and bassianolide synthetases have the same C1-A1-T1-C2-A2-MT-T2a-T2b-C3 domain organization. During catalysis, C3 and C2 take turns to incorporate the two biosynthetic precursors into the growing depsipeptide chain that swings between T1 and T ...


A Tunable, Three-Dimensional In Vitro Culture Model Of Growth Plate Cartilage Using Alginate Hydrogel Scaffolds, Alek G. Erickson, Taylor D. Laughlin, Sarah Romereim, Catherine Sargus-Patino, Angela K. Pannier, Andrew T. Dudley 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

A Tunable, Three-Dimensional In Vitro Culture Model Of Growth Plate Cartilage Using Alginate Hydrogel Scaffolds, Alek G. Erickson, Taylor D. Laughlin, Sarah Romereim, Catherine Sargus-Patino, Angela K. Pannier, Andrew T. Dudley

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Defining the final size and geometry of engineered tissues through precise control of the scalar and vector components of tissue growth is a necessary benchmark for regenerative medicine, but it has proved to be a significant challenge for tissue engineers. The growth plate cartilage that promotes elongation of the long bones is a good model system for studying morphogenetic mechanisms because cartilage is composed of a single cell type, the chondrocyte; chondrocytes are readily maintained in culture; and growth trajectory is predominately in a single vector. In this cartilage, growth is generated via a differentiation program that is spatially and ...


Mri Applications In Tissue Engineering, Shadi Othman 2017 University of the Pacific

Mri Applications In Tissue Engineering, Shadi Othman

Science Seminar Series

Shadi Othman of the School of Engineering and Computer Science Bioengineering Program, will speak on his research on MRI applications in tissue engineering.


Pairing Of Anaerobic And Aerobic Treatment Of Petroleum Wastewater, Zachary Fica 2017 Utah State University

Pairing Of Anaerobic And Aerobic Treatment Of Petroleum Wastewater, Zachary Fica

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

The objective of this project was to treat petroleum refinery wastewater using a combination of anaerobic and aerobic processes, namely an Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor paired with a Rotation Algae Biofilm Reactor (RABR), respectively, to produce a treated effluent. The treatment method developed needed to produce a cost-effective and efficient way to decrease nitrogen, phosphorous, total suspended solids (TSS), and COD concentrations to below State of Utah limitations. It was demonstrated that RABR treatment was capable of reducing effluent concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and TSS to State of Utah limitations. RABR treatment did not significantly reduce COD from ...


Production Of Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesives From Catalytic Pyrolysis Oil, Angela M. Akude 2017 Utah State University

Production Of Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesives From Catalytic Pyrolysis Oil, Angela M. Akude

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Phenol-formaldehyde adhesives are important adhesives known to have superior water resistance capacity and high mechanical strength when utilized in wood-based applications. Due to unsustainability and environmental issues associated with the use of fossil fuels, there is an urgent need to look for alternative raw materials, which are renewable in nature. Pinyon-juniper biomass has been found to be a suitable replacement for petroleum-based phenol because it is renewable, abundant, and readily available.

In this thesis, bio-oil produced from the pyrolysis of pinyon-juniper biomass using red mud alumina catalyst was used to produce wood adhesives. The characterization of pinyon-juniper bio-oil showed the ...


Optogenetic Investigations Of The Prebötzinger Complex: Support For The Dbx1 Core Hypothesis, Francis D. Pham 2017 College of William and Mary

Optogenetic Investigations Of The Prebötzinger Complex: Support For The Dbx1 Core Hypothesis, Francis D. Pham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The preBötzinger complex (preBötC) is the central pattern generator for inspiratory behaviors. Previous studies on perinatal mice and in vitro suggest that Dbx1-derived neurons within the preBötC form the core oscillator. Here, we provide support for the Dbx1 core hypothesis and show that Dbx1-derived neurons are essential for respiratory rhythmogenesis in adult mice. Using optogenetic strategies, we transiently hyperpolarized Dbx1 neurons of the preBötC in vitro and in adult mice. In both cases, the inspiratory rhythm was disrupted. It is possible that axons from Dbx1 neurons projecting into the preBötC were also hyperpolarized, leading to disfacilitation. To determine if this ...


Anaerobic Digestion Of Wastewater: Effects Of Inoculants And Nutrient Management On Biomethane Production And Treatment, Jason Peterson 2017 Utah State University

Anaerobic Digestion Of Wastewater: Effects Of Inoculants And Nutrient Management On Biomethane Production And Treatment, Jason Peterson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to population expiation and the increased awareness of the impact on the environment by wastewater treatment, improved wastewater treatment systems are needed to treat municipal and agricultural wastewater. Treating wastewater with oxygen decreases carbon compounds at the expense of energy to move carbon and oxygen to be in contact with each other. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater can reduce the cost by utilizing microbes to treat high amounts of carbon in wastewater without the need for extensive oxygen requirement. With a proper balance of nutrients, microbes also produce methane, a renewable energy source.

It has been suggested that microalgae be ...


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