Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biological Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1192 Full-Text Articles 1804 Authors 560140 Downloads 47 Institutions

All Articles in Biological Engineering

Faceted Search

1192 full-text articles. Page 3 of 32.

Electrospun Spiderskin Bandage For Epidermal Protection And Recovery, Michael David Paskett 2017 Utah State University

Electrospun Spiderskin Bandage For Epidermal Protection And Recovery, Michael David Paskett

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Spider silk is one of nature's most promising biomaterial s for a variety of applications, however, due to the inability to farm spiders, transgenic hosts are required for large-scale production. With the unique combination of strength, elasticity, and biocompatibility, spider silk has an incredible potential for use in the human body. This study was conducted to merge two major applications of spider silk for the creation of a novel bandaging product. Electrospinning technology was utilized to create a spider silk/polymer bandage matrix to be applied with an aqueous spider silk skin adhesive.

In designing the bandaging matrix , the ...


Amending Phb With Algal Biomass To Enhance Biodegradability, Amanda R. Stoudt 2017 Utah State University

Amending Phb With Algal Biomass To Enhance Biodegradability, Amanda R. Stoudt

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Pollution due to petroleum-based plastic is a growing problem all over the world. Petroleum-based plastics that fill landfills and oceans take hundreds of years to degrade. One possible solution to this growing problem is to increase the use of bioplastics. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a widely studied bioplastic that is biodegradable in both soil and marine environments. However, PHB use is limited due to its poor mechanical properties. Past researchers have investigated the use of natural additives, primarily different types of plant fibers, to enhance both the mechanical properties and degradation rates of bioplastics. The purpose of this project was to ...


Anaerobic Digestion Of Wastewater: Effects Of Inoculants And Nutrient Management On Biomethane Production And Treatment, Jason Peterson 2017 Utah State University

Anaerobic Digestion Of Wastewater: Effects Of Inoculants And Nutrient Management On Biomethane Production And Treatment, Jason Peterson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to population expiation and the increased awareness of the impact on the environment by wastewater treatment, improved wastewater treatment systems are needed to treat municipal and agricultural wastewater. Treating wastewater with oxygen decreases carbon compounds at the expense of energy to move carbon and oxygen to be in contact with each other. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater can reduce the cost by utilizing microbes to treat high amounts of carbon in wastewater without the need for extensive oxygen requirement. With a proper balance of nutrients, microbes also produce methane, a renewable energy source.

It has been suggested that microalgae be ...


Development Of Spectroscopic Methods For Dynamic Cellular Level Study Of Biochemical Kinetics And Disease Progression, Anna M. Sitarski 2017 University of Maine

Development Of Spectroscopic Methods For Dynamic Cellular Level Study Of Biochemical Kinetics And Disease Progression, Anna M. Sitarski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

One of the current fundamental objectives in biomedical research is understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease progression. Recent work in genetics support the stochastic nature of disease progression on the single cell level. For example, recent work has demonstrated that cancer as a disease state is reached after the accumulation of damages that result in genetic errors. Other diseases like Huntingtons, Parkinsons, Alzheimers, cardiovascular disease are developed over time and their cellular mechanisms of disease transition are largely unknown. Modern techniques of disease characterization are perturbative, invasive and fully destructive to biological samples. Many methods need a probe or ...


Hemolysis As A Rapid Screening Technique For Assessing The Toxicity Of Native Surfactin And A Genetically Engineered Derivative, William J. Colonna, Mustafa E. Marti, John A. Nyman, Chris Green, Charles Glatz 2017 Iowa State University

Hemolysis As A Rapid Screening Technique For Assessing The Toxicity Of Native Surfactin And A Genetically Engineered Derivative, William J. Colonna, Mustafa E. Marti, John A. Nyman, Chris Green, Charles Glatz

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

If biosurfactants are to achieve their promise in environmental oil-spill remediation, their toxicity to marine life must be assessed. A killifish larvae assay is commonly used as a measure of toxicity but is difficult and nonlinear in response. Red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis has also been the basis for assays of some surfactant levels. Here we present a modified sheep RBC suspension assay and compare its response to that of the fish assay for surfactin and its genetically modified variant fatty-acyl-glutamate (FA-Glu). This is the first report of hemolytic activity as a property of FA-Glu. The method's potential for ...


Improving Escherichia Coli Membrane Integrity And Fatty Acid Production By Expression Tuning Of Fadl And Ompf, Zaigao Tan, William Black, Jong Moon Yoon, Jacqueline V. Shanks, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Improving Escherichia Coli Membrane Integrity And Fatty Acid Production By Expression Tuning Of Fadl And Ompf, Zaigao Tan, William Black, Jong Moon Yoon, Jacqueline V. Shanks, Laura R. Jarboe

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Background

Construction of microbial biocatalysts for the production of biorenewables at economically viable yields and titers is frequently hampered by product toxicity. Membrane damage is often deemed as the principal mechanism of this toxicity, particularly in regards to decreased membrane integrity. Previous studies have attempted to engineer the membrane with the goal of increasing membrane integrity. However, most of these works focused on engineering of phospholipids and efforts to identify membrane proteins that can be targeted to improve fatty acid production have been unsuccessful.

Results

Here we show that deletion of outer membrane protein ompF significantly increased membrane integrity, fatty ...


Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D. 2017 Brigham Young University - Provo

Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D.

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Currently, the only permanent cure for Type 1 Diabetes is a pancreatic or islet transplant. With the shortage of donors, we are progressing research towards alternative therapies by differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells into derived pancreatic β-cells that can be transplanted and used as treatment for Type 1 Diabetes. We are investigating methods to increase the yield of fully derived, insulin producing pancreatic β-cells and are additionally researching the use of hydrophilized expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for use in cell containment devices. These devices could offer a future alternative for islet transplantation in human patients.


Molecular Modeling Of Antibody-Antigen Binding Near Solid Surfaces, Derek Bush, Thomas Knotts 2017 Brigham Young University

Molecular Modeling Of Antibody-Antigen Binding Near Solid Surfaces, Derek Bush, Thomas Knotts

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Antibody microarrays are biosensors that have the potential to revolutionize molecular detection in medicine, scientific research, and national defense. However, current microarrays are not widely used due to problems including poor reproducibility and signal quality, unbalanced antibody performance, and cross-reactivity. Prior work in the area focused mainly on the stability of the antibody alone and not its affinity for its antigen. This presentation shows results of using molecular simulation to determine how different types of surfaces affect antigen binding to surface-tethered antibodies. The results offer an unprecedented, molecular-level view into these protein-protein-surface interactions and how to drive binding to occur.


High Rate Detection Of Volatile Products Using Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry: Combining An Electrode-Coated Membrane With Hydrodynamic Flow In A Wall-Tube Configuration, Subramanian Venkatachalam, Robert J. Angelici, L. Keith Woo, Andrew C. Hillier 2017 Iowa State University

High Rate Detection Of Volatile Products Using Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry: Combining An Electrode-Coated Membrane With Hydrodynamic Flow In A Wall-Tube Configuration, Subramanian Venkatachalam, Robert J. Angelici, L. Keith Woo, Andrew C. Hillier

L. Keith Woo

We present an experimental system that combines differential electrochemical mass spectrometry with hydrodynamic flow consisting of an impinging jet in a wall-tube configuration. This assembly allows simultaneous detection of electrochemical signals along with monitoring of dissolved gas species using differential electrochemical mass spectrometry under well-defined hydrodynamic conditions and over a wide range of mass transfer rates. The working electrode is deposited directly onto a thin, hydrophobic membrane, which also serves as the inlet to the mass spectrometer. This inlet provides extremely rapid mass detection as well as a high flux of products from the electrode surface into the mass spectrometer ...


Effect Of L-Ascorbic Acid And All-Trans Retinoic Acid On Smooth Muscle Cells Cultured On Pcl Scaffolds, Brandon Chaffay 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Effect Of L-Ascorbic Acid And All-Trans Retinoic Acid On Smooth Muscle Cells Cultured On Pcl Scaffolds, Brandon Chaffay

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of vascular tissue engineering (VTE) is to fabricate tissues that are both mechanically and biologically competent similar to the native vessel they are intended to replace. To this end, the incorporation of sufficient extracellular matrix elastin and collagen is important. The objective of this thesis work was to evaluate the effect of two biochemical factors, l-ascorbic acid (AA) and all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), on elastin synthesis when coronary artery smooth muscle cells were cultured on 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. First, porous PCL scaffolds were fabricated using a solvent casting and particulate leaching approach. The effect of different ...


Biomanufacturing Through Igem-An International Student Competition, Asif Rahman, Ryan J. Putman, Neal Hengge, Charles D. Miller 2017 Utah State University

Biomanufacturing Through Igem-An International Student Competition, Asif Rahman, Ryan J. Putman, Neal Hengge, Charles D. Miller

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

The foundations of synthetic biology are built on molecular biology and genetic engineering. One of the purposes of synthetic biology is to make biology easier to engineer by the creation of standardized biological parts and devices. There are a wide range of potential applications for synthetic biology and a variety of approaches to constructing parts and systems. Undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students from around the world apply synthetic biology principles at the annual International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition to demonstrate functioning biological systems created from standardized parts. The iGEM competition will continue to add to the ...


Understanding The Mechanics Of Tissue Growth In Engineered Scaffolds: Case Of Cartilage Tissue, Umut Akalp 2017 University of Colorado at Boulder

Understanding The Mechanics Of Tissue Growth In Engineered Scaffolds: Case Of Cartilage Tissue, Umut Akalp

Civil Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Tissue failure due to aging or diseases reduces the quality of life for individuals. In the case of cartilage tissue, the current solution is to use implants to fulfill the functional duties of native tissue. However, this approach has limitations, such as periodic replacement and number of the required operations. Tissue engineering provides an alternative approach in which the aim is to regenerate the native tissue by a population of cells encapsulated in a scaffold (i.e. hydrogels). Although this approach is promising, there are several limitations regarding the design of these scaffolds which can be overcome only by the ...


Fractionation And Characterization Of Lignin Streams From Genetically Engineered Switchgrass, Enshi Liu 2017 University of Kentucky

Fractionation And Characterization Of Lignin Streams From Genetically Engineered Switchgrass, Enshi Liu

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Development of biomass feedstocks with desirable traits for cost-effective conversion is one of the main focus areas in biofuels research. As suggested by techno-economic analyses, the success of a lignocellulose-based biorefinery largely relies on the utilization of lignin to generate value-added products, i.e. fuels and chemicals. The fate of lignin and its structural/compositional changes during pretreatment have received increasing attention; however, the effect of genetic modification on the fractionation, depolymerization and catalytic upgrading of lignin from genetically engineered plants is not well understood. This study aims to fractionate and characterize the lignin streams from a wild-type and two ...


Theoretically Proposed Optimal Frequency For Ultrasound Induced Cartilage Restoration, April D. Miller, Anuradha Subramanian, Hendrik Viljoen 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Theoretically Proposed Optimal Frequency For Ultrasound Induced Cartilage Restoration, April D. Miller, Anuradha Subramanian, Hendrik Viljoen

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers

Background: Matching the frequency of the driving force to that of the system’s natural frequency of vibration results in greater amplitude response. Thus we hypothesize that applying ultrasound at the chondrocyte’s resonant frequency will result in greater deformation than applying similar ultrasound power at a frequency outside of the resonant bandwidth. Based on this resonant hypothesis, our group previously confirmed theoretically and experimentally that ultrasound stimulation of suspended chondrocytes at resonance (5 MHz) maximized gene expression of load inducible genes. However, this study was based on suspended chondrocytes. The resonant frequency of a chondrocyte does not only depend ...


Alternative Treatment Technologies For Low-Cost Industrial And Municipal Wastewater Management, Alan J. Hodges 2017 Utah State University

Alternative Treatment Technologies For Low-Cost Industrial And Municipal Wastewater Management, Alan J. Hodges

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Roughly the same volume of water that rushes over the Niagara Falls is produced as wastewater in North America. This wastewater is treated through a variety of means to ensure that it can be safely returned to the natural ecosystem. This thesis examines two novel means for this treatment, one biological and one physical-chemical in nature, namely, Rotating Algae Biofilm Reactor treatment and expanded shale augmented coagulation-flocculation.

Rotating algae biofilm reactors (RABRs) support biofilm algae growth, and in turn, the algae take up harmful contaminants from the wastewater. This system was tested in wastewater from petroleum refining operations. The efficacy ...


Algae-Based Biofilm Productivity And Treatment Of Dairy Wastewater: Effects Of Temperature And Organic Carbon Concentration, Zachary T. Fica 2017 Utah State University

Algae-Based Biofilm Productivity And Treatment Of Dairy Wastewater: Effects Of Temperature And Organic Carbon Concentration, Zachary T. Fica

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Production of dairy and associated products is a source of millions of gallons of wastewater every year. Water used in cleaning feeding stalls as well as the liquid component of the animal waste are two of the major volumetric components of this wastewater. This water is nutrient rich, often limiting the viability as a land applied fertilizer. However, these same nutrients could be used as an inexpensive feedstock for the cultivation of algae, which can then be used to produce downstream products including animal feed and aquaculture.

As part of this study, algal biomass was cultivated on dairy wastewater from ...


A Comprehensive Dosimetric Study On Switching From A Type-B To A Type-C Dose Algorithm For Modern Lung Sbrt, Christina Zhou, Nathan Bennion, Rongtao Ma, Xiaoying Liang, Shuo Wang, Kristina Zvolanek, Megan Hyun, Xiaobo Li, Sumin Zhou, Weining Zhen, Chi Lin, Andrew Wahl, Dandan Zheng 2017 University of Chicago

A Comprehensive Dosimetric Study On Switching From A Type-B To A Type-C Dose Algorithm For Modern Lung Sbrt, Christina Zhou, Nathan Bennion, Rongtao Ma, Xiaoying Liang, Shuo Wang, Kristina Zvolanek, Megan Hyun, Xiaobo Li, Sumin Zhou, Weining Zhen, Chi Lin, Andrew Wahl, Dandan Zheng

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Background: Type-C dose algorithms provide more accurate dosimetry for lung SBRT treatment planning. However, because current dosimetric protocols were developed based on conventional algorithms, its applicability for the new generation algorithms needs to be determined. Previous studies on this issue used small sample sizes and reached discordant conclusions. Our study assessed dose calculation of a Type-C algorithm with current dosimetric protocols in a large patient cohort, in order to demonstrate the dosimetric impacts and necessary treatment planning steps of switching from a Type-B to a Type-C dose algorithm for lung SBRT planning.

Methods: Fifty-two lung SBRT patients were included, each ...


A Computational Study Of Vegf Production By Patterned Retinal Epithelial Cell Colonies As A Model For Neovascular Macular Degeneration, Qanita Bani Baker, Gregory J. Podgorski, Elizabeth Vargis, Nicholas Flann 2017 Jordan University of Science and Technology

A Computational Study Of Vegf Production By Patterned Retinal Epithelial Cell Colonies As A Model For Neovascular Macular Degeneration, Qanita Bani Baker, Gregory J. Podgorski, Elizabeth Vargis, Nicholas Flann

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: The configuration of necrotic areas within the retinal pigmented epithelium is an important element in the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the exudative (wet) and non-exudative (dry) forms of the disease, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells respond to adjacent atrophied regions by secreting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that in turn recruits new blood vessels which lead to a further reduction in retinal function and vision. In vitro models exist for studying VEGF expression in wet AMD (Vargis et al., Biomaterials 35(13):3999–4004, 2014), but are limited in the patterns of necrotic and intact RPE ...


Production Of Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesives From Catalytic Pyrolysis Oil, Angela M. Akude 2017 Utah State University

Production Of Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesives From Catalytic Pyrolysis Oil, Angela M. Akude

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Phenol-formaldehyde adhesives are important adhesives known to have superior water resistance capacity and high mechanical strength when utilized in wood-based applications. Due to unsustainability and environmental issues associated with the use of fossil fuels, there is an urgent need to look for alternative raw materials, which are renewable in nature. Pinyon-juniper biomass has been found to be a suitable replacement for petroleum-based phenol because it is renewable, abundant, and readily available.

In this thesis, bio-oil produced from the pyrolysis of pinyon-juniper biomass using red mud alumina catalyst was used to produce wood adhesives. The characterization of pinyon-juniper bio-oil showed the ...


A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao

Theses and Dissertations

Foodborne diseases are a growing public health problem. In recent years, many rapid detection methods have been reported, but most of them are still in lab research and not practical for use in the field. In this study, a portable and automatic biosensing instrument was designed and constructed for separation and detection of target pathogens in food samples using nanobead-based magnetic separation and quantum dots (QDs)-labeled fluorescence measurement. The instrument consisted of a laptop with LabVIEW software, a data acquisition card (DAQ), a fluorescent detector, micro-pumps, stepper motors, and 3D printed tube holders. First, a sample in a syringe ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress