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Building And Integrating An Information Security Trustworthiness Framework For Aviation Systems, Anna Baron Garcia 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Building And Integrating An Information Security Trustworthiness Framework For Aviation Systems, Anna Baron Garcia

Dissertations and Theses

The aviation infrastructure is broadly composed of aircraft, air traffic control systems, airports and public airfields. Much attention has been given to physical security along the years this industry has been expanding; and now, in the new age of interconnection devices, a growing concern about cybersecurity has risen.

The never-ending improvement of new digital technology has given birth to a new generation of electronic-enabled (e-enabled) aircraft that implement a remarkable amount of new technologies such as IP-enabled networks, COTS (commercial off-the- shelf) components, wireless connectivity, and global positioning systems (GPSs). For example, aircraft manufacturers are building wireless systems to reduce ...


Design And Manufacture Of An Inertial Cascade Impactor For Industrial Hygiene Purposes, Hector Joel Gortaire 2019 Old Dominion University

Design And Manufacture Of An Inertial Cascade Impactor For Industrial Hygiene Purposes, Hector Joel Gortaire

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Inertial cascade impactors are devices commonly used for industrial hygiene and pharmaceutical studies. Their main purpose is to separate particulate matter suspended in aerosols according to their sizes, which can vary from over 10 µm to 0.5 µm. Their versatility and ease of operation make them suitable for on-site sampling; however, designing them requires a careful consideration of the different geometric parameters that characterize them.

In this thesis, a 5-stage inertial cascade impactor was designed, modelled, constructed, and tested. The main design parameter was the volumetric flow rate, 40 l/min, which was provided by a vacuum pump. By ...


An Investigation Of General Criteria For Assessing Space Flight Systems Of Diverse Mission Concept Designs, Cindy L. Daniels 2019 Old Dominion University

An Investigation Of General Criteria For Assessing Space Flight Systems Of Diverse Mission Concept Designs, Cindy L. Daniels

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to investigate the general criteria for assessing the technical implementation risk factors of proposed space science missions at the mission concept stage. According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Flight Program and Project Management Handbook (NASA, 2012), the mission concept review objectives are “To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed mission concept(s) and its fulfillment of the program's needs and objectives. To determine whether the maturity of the concept and associated planning are sufficient to begin Phase A” (p.33). Experts previously defined two technical risk factors, to assess ...


Comparison Of Support Methods For Static Aerodynamic Testing And Validation Of A Magnetic Suspension And Balance System, Cameron K. Neill 2019 Old Dominion University

Comparison Of Support Methods For Static Aerodynamic Testing And Validation Of A Magnetic Suspension And Balance System, Cameron K. Neill

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Magnetic suspension wind tunnels offer an alternative to traditional physical support methods. They allow for the collection of support interference free data and broader dynamic test capabilities than existing methods. Determination of dynamic aerodynamic characteristics is a crucial portion of the design of new re-entry capsules. A NASA initiative restored the 6-inch Magnetic Suspension and Balance System to support the design of a new MSBS for a supersonic wind tunnel. Before a new MSBS can be constructed, the characteristics of the current MSBS must be examined.

This thesis discusses the calibration and validation of the 6-inch MSBS. After calibration, three ...


Development And Initial Evaluation Of A Reinforced Cue Detection Model To Assess Situation Awareness In Commercial Aircraft Cockpits, Aysen K. Taylor 2019 Old Dominion University

Development And Initial Evaluation Of A Reinforced Cue Detection Model To Assess Situation Awareness In Commercial Aircraft Cockpits, Aysen K. Taylor

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Commercial transport aircraft of today vary greatly from early aircraft with regards to how the aircraft are controlled and the feedback provided from the machine to the human operator. Over time, as avionics systems became more automated, pilots had less direct control over their aircraft. Much research exists in the literature about automation issues, and several major accidents over the last twenty years spurred interest about how to maintain the benefits of automation while improving the overall human-machine interaction as the pilot is considered the last line of defense.

An important reason for maintaining or even improving overall pilot situation ...


Model-Assisted Validation Of A Strain-Based Dense Sensor Network, Jin Yan, Xiaosong Du, Simon Laflamme, Leifur Leifsson, Chao Hu, An Chen 2019 Iowa State University

Model-Assisted Validation Of A Strain-Based Dense Sensor Network, Jin Yan, Xiaosong Du, Simon Laflamme, Leifur Leifsson, Chao Hu, An Chen

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Recent advances in sensing are empowering the deployment of inexpensive dense sensor networks (DSNs) to conduct structural health monitoring (SHM) on large-scale structural and mechanical systems. There is a need to develop methodologies to facilitate the validation of these DSNs. Such methodologies could yield better designs of DSNs, enabling faster and more accurate monitoring of states for enhancing SHM. This paper investigates a model-assisted approach to validate a DSN of strain gauges under uncertainty. First, an approximate physical representation of the system, termed the physics-driven surrogate, is created based on the sensor network configuration. The representation consists of a state-space ...


Incidence Of An Astronaut Not Sealing The Pressure Garment Visor On Reentry, Cameron M. Smith, Trent Tresch 2019 Portland State University

Incidence Of An Astronaut Not Sealing The Pressure Garment Visor On Reentry, Cameron M. Smith, Trent Tresch

Cameron Smith

Audiovisual records of a Project Mercury pilot’s activities during an orbital flight indicate that his visor was left open during reentry and descent to the sea surface, phases of flight during which cabin pressure loss was to be mitigated by suit pressurization; however, the suit could not have been pressurized with the visor open. Thus, for a presently unknown reason, a critical safety step—sealing the visor and making a pressure suit integrity test before reentry—was overlooked in this flight. Later, Space Shuttle flights were carried out with visors unsealed for much of the launch and landing phases ...


Piezoelectric Sensor Crack Detection On Airframe Systems, Kevin J. Lin 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Piezoelectric Sensor Crack Detection On Airframe Systems, Kevin J. Lin

Theses and Dissertations

In 2008, the Department of Defense published a guidebook for a methodology named Condition-Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) which capabilities include improving productivity, shortening maintenance cycles, lowering costs, and increasing availability and reliability. This push replaces existing inspection criteria, often conducted as non-destructive testing (NDT), with structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. The SHM system addressed utilizes guided Lamb waves generated by piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) to detect the existence, size, and location of damage from through-thickness cracks around a rivet hole. The SHM field lacks an experiment testing how small changes in receiver sensor distances affect damage detection. In addition ...


Computational Aerothermodynamic Analysis Of Satellite Trans-Atmospheric Skip Entry Survivability, John J. Runco 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Computational Aerothermodynamic Analysis Of Satellite Trans-Atmospheric Skip Entry Survivability, John J. Runco

Theses and Dissertations

Computational aerothermodynamic analysis is presented for a spacecraft in low Earth orbit performing an atmospheric skip entry maneuver. Typically, atmospheric reentry is a terminal operation signaling mission end-of-life and, in some instances, executed for spacecraft disposal. A variation on reentry – skip entry – is an aeroassisted trans-atmospheric maneuver in which a spacecraft utilizes the effects of aerodynamic drag in order to reduce energy prior to a terminal entry, pinpoint a targeted entry, or change orbital elements such as inclination. Spacecraft performing a skip entry enable new modes of maneuver to enhance operations in nominal or possibly contested mission environments. The present ...


Control Strategies For Multi-Evaporator Vapor Compression Cycles, Sunderlin D. Jackson 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Control Strategies For Multi-Evaporator Vapor Compression Cycles, Sunderlin D. Jackson

Theses and Dissertations

Next-generation military aircraft must be able to handle highly transient thermal loads that exceed the ability of current aircraft thermal subsystems. Vapor compression cycle systems are a particular refrigeration technology that is an attractive solution for dealing with this challenge, due primarily to their high efficiency. However, there are several barriers to realizing the benefits of vapor cycles systems for controlling thermal loads in military aircraft. This thesis focuses on addressing the challenge of controlling vapor cycles in the presence of highly transient evaporator heat loads. Specifically, a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) is designed for a simple vapor cycle system ...


Optimal And Robust Neural Network Controllers For Proximal Spacecraft Maneuvers, B. Cole George 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Optimal And Robust Neural Network Controllers For Proximal Spacecraft Maneuvers, B. Cole George

Theses and Dissertations

Recent successes in machine learning research, buoyed by advances in computational power, have revitalized interest in neural networks and demonstrated their potential in solving complex controls problems. In this research, the reinforcement learning framework is combined with traditional direct shooting methods to generate optimal proximal spacecraft maneuvers. Open-loop and closed-loop feedback controllers, parameterized by multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural networks, are developed with evolutionary and gradient-based optimization algorithms. Utilizing Clohessy- Wiltshire relative motion dynamics, terminally constrained fixed-time, fuel-optimal trajectories are solved for intercept, rendezvous, and natural motion circumnavigation transfer maneuvers using three different thrust models: impulsive, finite, and continuous. In addition ...


Schlieren Imaging And Flow Analysis On A Cone/Flare Model In The Afrl Mach 6 Ludwieg Tube Facility, David A. Labuda 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Schlieren Imaging And Flow Analysis On A Cone/Flare Model In The Afrl Mach 6 Ludwieg Tube Facility, David A. Labuda

Theses and Dissertations

High-speed Schlieren photography was utilized to visualize flow in the Air Force Research Laboratory Mach 6 Ludwieg tube facility. A 7° half-angle cone/flare model with variable nosetip radius and flare angle options was used in the study. Testing was performed at two driver tube pressures, generating freestream Reynolds numbers of 10.0x106 and 19.8x106 per meter. The variable-angle flare portion of the model provided a method for adjusting the intensity of the adverse pressure gradient at the cone/flare junction. As expected from existing literature, boundary layer separation along the cone frustum occurred further upstream as ...


Comprehensive Study Of Study Of Optimal Synergetic Skip Entries With Dynamic Thrust Vectoring Control, Jeremiah M. Webb 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Comprehensive Study Of Study Of Optimal Synergetic Skip Entries With Dynamic Thrust Vectoring Control, Jeremiah M. Webb

Theses and Dissertations

The atmospheric skip entry has been studied since London's presentation in 1962 describing a more fuel efficient means of altering the orbital inclination of satellites. Since London, research over the decades since has traversed many aspects of this field with varying degrees of success. The present research employs the use of modern optimal control software, complex dynamics with minor simplifications, and thrust vectoring to re-approach the aerocruise atmospheric skip entry. Using the aerodynamics of the X-34, the aerocruise problem is first compared to the un-powered aeroglide where it is shown that the aerocruise is capable of increasing the inclination ...


Initial Stage Of Fluid-Structure Interaction Of A Celestial Icosahedron Shaped Vacuum Lighter Than Air Vehicle, Dustin P. Graves 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Initial Stage Of Fluid-Structure Interaction Of A Celestial Icosahedron Shaped Vacuum Lighter Than Air Vehicle, Dustin P. Graves

Theses and Dissertations

The analysis of a celestial icosahedron geometry is considered as a potential design for a Vacuum Lighter than Air Vehicle (VLTAV). The goal of the analysis is ultimately to understand the initial fluid-structure interaction of the VLTAV and the surrounding airflow. Up to this point, previous research analyzed the celestial icosahedron VLTAV in relation to withstanding a symmetric sea-level pressure applied to the membrane of the structure. This scenario simulates an internal vacuum being applied in the worst-case atmospheric environmental condition. The next step in analysis is to determine the aerodynamic effects of the geometry. The experimental setup for obtaining ...


Characterization And Anomalous Diffusion Analysis Of A 100w Low Power Annular Hall Effect Thruster, Megan N. Maikell 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Characterization And Anomalous Diffusion Analysis Of A 100w Low Power Annular Hall Effect Thruster, Megan N. Maikell

Theses and Dissertations

A Busek 100W low-power annular Hall effect thruster was characterized to determine the thruster’s best operating parameter range and to study plasma oscillations within the thruster. These experiments were conducted using xenon gas in the Space Propulsion Analysis and System Simulator chamber at the Air Force Institute of Technology on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The thruster’s performance characteristics were evaluated at nominal discharge voltages and constant total mass flow rate, solenoid current, and keeper current to determine the operating conditions optimizing divergence angle, beam efficiency, and discharge loss. This was accomplished using a Faraday probe to determine the ...


Multi-Path Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System For Performance Limited Aircraft With Flight Tests: Project Have Medusa, Kenneth C. Gahan 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Multi-Path Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System For Performance Limited Aircraft With Flight Tests: Project Have Medusa, Kenneth C. Gahan

Theses and Dissertations

A multi-path automatic ground collision avoidance system (Auto-GCAS) for performance limited aircraft was further developed and improved to prevent controlled flight into terrain. This research includes flight test results from the United States Test Pilot School's Test Management Project (TMP) titled Have Multi-Path Escape Decisions Using Sophisticated Algorithms (MEDUSA). Currently, the bomber and mobility air- craft communities lack an Auto-GCAS. The F-16 Auto-GCAS was proven successful for fighter-type aircraft with seven aircraft and eight lives saved from 2014 to 2018. The newly developed and tested Rapidly Selectable Escape Trajectory (RSET) sys- tem included a 5-path implementation which continuously updated ...


Tracking Shock Movement On The Surface Of An Oscillating, Straked Semispan Delta Wing, Justin A. Pung 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Tracking Shock Movement On The Surface Of An Oscillating, Straked Semispan Delta Wing, Justin A. Pung

Theses and Dissertations

A recent research effort, sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, numerically investigated the unsteady aerodynamic flow field around an oscillating, straked, delta wing. The study was centered on determining the importance of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting as a driver for a nonlinear motion known as limit cycle oscillations. The current effort focused on creating a computational model to compare to the results of previous tests and modeling efforts and discover new information regarding the onset of LCO. The computational model was constructed using the Cartesian overset capabilities of the CREATE-AV™ fixed wing fluid dynamics solver Kestrel ...


Wall Model Large Eddy Simulation Of A Diffusing Serpentine Inlet Duct, Ryan J. Thompson 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Wall Model Large Eddy Simulation Of A Diffusing Serpentine Inlet Duct, Ryan J. Thompson

Theses and Dissertations

The modeling focus on serpentine inlet ducts (S-duct), as with any inlet, is to quantify the total pressure recovery and ow distortion after the inlet, which directly impacts the performance of a turbine engine fed by the inlet. Accurate prediction of S-duct ow has yet to be achieved amongst the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) community to improve the reliance on modeling reducing costly testing. While direct numerical simulation of the turbulent ow in an S-duct is too cost prohibitive due to grid scaling with Reynolds number, wall-modeled large eddy simulation (WM-LES) serves as a tractable alternative. US3D, a hypersonic research ...


Simulation And Piloted Simulator Study Of An Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System For Performance Limited Aircraft, James D. Carpenter 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Simulation And Piloted Simulator Study Of An Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System For Performance Limited Aircraft, James D. Carpenter

Theses and Dissertations

The F-16 Automatic-Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto-GCAS) has been a resounding success since implementation in Nov 2014, saving 8 pilots and 7 aircraft from Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT). However, there is no implemented Auto- GCAS for "heavy" performance limited aircraft. This research endeavors to expand on the success of F-16 Auto-GCAS to other aircraft in the Air Force inventory such as the C-130, C-17, and B-1. MIL-STD-1797 classifies performance limited aircraft as large, heavy, and low to medium maneuverability. Using a stitched Learjet-25D model (LJ-25D), an Auto-GCAS algorithm was developed to predict multiple escape-maneuver trajectories, compare these paths to ...


Investigation Of Endwall Vortex Manipulation In High Lift Turbines Caused By Active Endwall Forcing, Horatio J. Babcock 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Investigation Of Endwall Vortex Manipulation In High Lift Turbines Caused By Active Endwall Forcing, Horatio J. Babcock

Theses and Dissertations

With the increased demand for lighter, more fuel efficient and smaller gas turbine engines, the impetus to reduce the weight and size of the turbine has become apparent. One approach to reduce this weight is to reduce the number of blades in the turbine. However, to maintain power output, each blade must be capable of supporting a greater amount of lift. While several high-lift turbine profiles have been detailed in literature, most of these profiles have increased endwall losses, despite their desirable mid-span characteristics. To mitigate this endwall loss, a number of active and passive flow approaches have been studied ...


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