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Title: Fully Interactive And Refined Resolution Simulations Of The Martian Dust Cycle By The Marswrf Model, Claus Gebhardt, Abdelgadir Abuelgasim, Ricardo M. Fonseca, Javier Martín-Torres, Maria-Paz Zorzano 2020 United Arab Emirates University

Title: Fully Interactive And Refined Resolution Simulations Of The Martian Dust Cycle By The Marswrf Model, Claus Gebhardt, Abdelgadir Abuelgasim, Ricardo M. Fonseca, Javier Martín-Torres, Maria-Paz Zorzano

National Space Science & Technology Center Datasets

The Mars climate model MarsWRF was run with fully interactive dust parametrization, assuming an infinite surface dust reservoir. Changing the horizontal resolution from 5°×5° to 2°×2° produced different dust cycle variability and dust source regions. The higher spatial resolution allowed for a better representation of the surface topography and associated surface dust lifting by wind stress, that is more consistent with observations. Global Dust Storm Events typically occurred if dust storm activity at northern Hellas Planitia connected with that at southern Chryse Planitia.


Lip Thrust Apparatus, Ian M. Wilson, Alvin K. Cheong 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Lip Thrust Apparatus, Ian M. Wilson, Alvin K. Cheong

Mechanical Engineering

This document contains the background information, defined scope of work, preliminary design philosophy, conceptual design development, and final design choices along with its corresponding manufacturing and design verification plans. It also includes the preliminary testing and prototyping necessary in bringing our verification prototype to its final configuration for delivery. Finally, it includes the entire manufacturing process followed in creating the final project and the extensive testing performed to ensure it meets the defined engineering specifications. The aerodynamic phenomenon being analyzed and demonstrated in our final deliverable can be seen in a scenario where when a propeller is enclosed in a ...


John Houbolt: The Unsung Hero Of The Apollo Moon Landings, William F. Causey 2020 Purdue University

John Houbolt: The Unsung Hero Of The Apollo Moon Landings, William F. Causey

Purdue University Press Book Previews

In May 1961, President Kennedy announced that the United States would attempt to land a man on the moon and return him safely to the earth before the end of that decade. Yet NASA did not have a specific plan for how to accomplish that goal. Over the next fourteen months, NASA vigorously debated several options. At first the consensus was to send one big rocket with several astronauts to the moon, land and explore, and then take off and return the astronauts to earth in the same vehicle. Another idea involved launching several smaller Saturn V rockets into the ...


The Effect Of Passive And Active Boundary-Layer Fences On Delta Wing Performance At Low Reynolds Number, Anna C. Demoret 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

The Effect Of Passive And Active Boundary-Layer Fences On Delta Wing Performance At Low Reynolds Number, Anna C. Demoret

Theses and Dissertations

The effect of passive and active boundary-layer fences (BLFs) on performance is evaluated on a NACA 0012 delta wing (croot = 14in, ctip = 2.8in, Λ = 45°, b = 23.5in) at a Reynolds number (Re) of 5.0 x 105 based on the root chord. The performance improvements of a passive BLF are replicated and improved upon using an active flow control (AFC) fluidic fence created by a wall-normal steady-blowing jet from a slot. The application of a passive BLF at a spanwise location of 70% z/b resulted in an 8.7% increase in CLmax compared ...


Space-Based Localization Of Radio Frequency Transmitters Utilizing Macaulay Resultant And Heuristic Optimization Methods, Jessica M. Wightman 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Space-Based Localization Of Radio Frequency Transmitters Utilizing Macaulay Resultant And Heuristic Optimization Methods, Jessica M. Wightman

Theses and Dissertations

This research focuses on radio frequency geolocation of space objects utilizing space-based platforms. Geolocation has long been the solution for locating objects. In particular, this study examines the scenario of two cooperative receivers geolocating a transmitter in close proximity. An algorithm is developed to calculate the initial estimated transmitter location and projected orbital trajectory. The algorithm uses the Macaulay method of solving a system of polynomials as well as heuristic optimization techniques to locate a transmitter with respect to receivers at different time intervals. For the scenarios investigated, both Macaulay and heuristic optimization methods achieve initial relative orbit determination.


Spacecraft Position Estimation And Attitude Determination Using Terrestrial Illumination Matching, Liberty M. Shockley 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Spacecraft Position Estimation And Attitude Determination Using Terrestrial Illumination Matching, Liberty M. Shockley

Theses and Dissertations

An algorithm to conduct spacecraft position estimation and attitude determination via terrestrial illumination matching (TIM) is presented consisting of a novel method that uses terrestrial lights as a surrogate for star fields. Although star sensors represent a highly accurate means of attitude determination with considerable spaceflight heritage, with Global Positioning System (GPS) providing position, TIM provides a potentially viable alternative in the event of star sensor or GPS malfunction or performance degradation. The research defines a catalog of terrestrial light constellations, which are then implemented within the TIM algorithm for position acquisition of a generic spacecraft bus. With the algorithm ...


Design And Analysis Of A Compact Combustor For Integration With A Jetcat P90 Rxi, Daniel Holobeny 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Design And Analysis Of A Compact Combustor For Integration With A Jetcat P90 Rxi, Daniel Holobeny

Theses and Dissertations

Ultra Compact Combustors are a novel approach to modern gas turbine combustor designs that look to reduce the overall combustor length and weight. A previous study integrated an Ultra Compact Combustor into a JetCat P90 RXi turbine engine and achieved self-sustained operation with a length savings of 33% relative to the stock combustor. However, that combustor could not operate across the full stock engine performance range due to flameout at increased mass ow rates as reactions were pushed out of the primary zone. To ensure reactions stayed in the primary zone, a new design with a larger combustor volume was ...


Development Of A Small Scale Rotating Detonation Engine, Joseph R. Dechert 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Development Of A Small Scale Rotating Detonation Engine, Joseph R. Dechert

Theses and Dissertations

The Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE) has been researched extensively in recent years, but the minimum size limits of an RDE have not been well investigated. The goal of this research was to build an RDE small enough to produce a detonation frequency above 20 kHz with a single detonation wave while also reducing the engine's mass ow rate. An engine with these design characteristics would reduce hazards associated with previous RDE testing. This research objective resulted in the design of an RDE with an outer diameter sized at 28 mm using ethylene and nitrous oxide as a fuel and ...


Laser Shock Peening Pressure Impulse Determination Via Empirical Data-Matching With Optimization Software, Colin C. Engebretsen 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Laser Shock Peening Pressure Impulse Determination Via Empirical Data-Matching With Optimization Software, Colin C. Engebretsen

Theses and Dissertations

Laser shock peening (LSP) is a form of work hardening by means of laser induced pressure impulse. LSP imparts compressive residual stresses which can improve fatigue life of metallic alloys for structural use. The finite element modeling (FEM) of LSP is typically done by applying an assumed pressure impulse, as useful experimental measurement of this pressure impulse has not been adequately accomplished. This shortfall in the field is a current limitation to the accuracy of FE modeling, and was addressed in the current work. A novel method was tested to determine the pressure impulse shape in time and space by ...


Modeling Hybrid Composites Using Tsai-Wu And Hashin Failure Criterion, Candice R. Roberts 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Modeling Hybrid Composites Using Tsai-Wu And Hashin Failure Criterion, Candice R. Roberts

Theses and Dissertations

Hybrid composites require further study and testing for future use in various fields. This study focuses on simulating a Hybrid Composite using IM7-977-3 laminae with steel foils in Abaqus under bolt loading by using Hashin and Tsai-Wu failure criterion. Initial simulations contain only the IM7-977-3 composite with cohesive layers. Foil samples were then tested for accurate material properties from which the simulations were then updated to include steel foils. The two models show that Tsai-Wu failure criterion, while great for anisotropic material in tension, does not prove accuracy around the hole of the composite material which is in compression. Hashin ...


Design And Analysis Of A Disk-Oriented Engine Combustor, Bennett M. Staton 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Design And Analysis Of A Disk-Oriented Engine Combustor, Bennett M. Staton

Theses and Dissertations

In a novel approach to gas-turbine power production, an engine was designed and analyzed to use both a single-stage centrifugal compressor and single-stage radial in- ow turbine configured back-to-back. This air path reduced the axial length of the engine up to 60%, providing additional modularity in a gas-turbine engine that could be used to improve mobility of ground-based power units or increase the survivability of aircraft through the use of distributive propulsion. This increased modularity was made possible by the use of a circumferential ow combustor that substantially decreased the axial length of the burner and negated the need to ...


Fatigue Behavior Of An Advanced Melt-Infiltrated Sic/Sic Composite With Environmental Barrier Coating At 1200°C In Air And In Steam, Thaddeus M. Williams 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Fatigue Behavior Of An Advanced Melt-Infiltrated Sic/Sic Composite With Environmental Barrier Coating At 1200°C In Air And In Steam, Thaddeus M. Williams

Theses and Dissertations

Advanced aerospace applications such as aircraft turbine engine components, hypersonic flight vehicles, and spacecraft reentry thermal protection systems require structural materials that have superior long-term mechanical properties under high temperature, high pressure, and varying environmental factors, such as moisture. Because of their low density, high strength and fracture toughness at high temperatures SiC fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites are being evaluated for aircraft engine hot-section components. In these applications the composites will be subjected to various types of mechanical loadings at elevated temperatures in oxidizing environments. Because their constituents are intrinsically oxidation-prone, the most significant problem hindering SiC/SiC composites is ...


Solution Anneal Heat Treatments To Enhance Mechanical Performance Of Additively Manufactured Inconel 718, David J. Newell 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Solution Anneal Heat Treatments To Enhance Mechanical Performance Of Additively Manufactured Inconel 718, David J. Newell

Theses and Dissertations

The nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718) is an excellent candidate among aerospace alloys for laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF) manufacturing. As-built LPBF IN718 has a vertically aligned columnar (001) microstructure which translates into orthotropic mechanical behavior. The post-process heat treatments for IN718 were developed 60 years ago for wrought and cast processes and do not mitigate the columnar microstructure of the LPBF process. Recrystallization is required to remove the columnar microstructure, which would allow for parts to be fabricated on different machines or in different orientations but still achieve the same properties. This research investigated the microstructure of LPBF IN718 as ...


A Reference Architecture For Cubesat Development, Luke J. Farrell 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

A Reference Architecture For Cubesat Development, Luke J. Farrell

Theses and Dissertations

Developing a space vehicle is a complex and detailed process, and while CubeSats are smaller and more accessible than traditional satellites the design process is relatively unchanged. Creating a viable space vehicle design requires detailed analysis of a set of mission needs in order to define the mission, with this need set used to then create the specific mission requirements. These requirements are used to formulate a concept of operations, and then move into developing a physical system for executing the mission. The successful production of CubeSats within an organization is contingent upon the accurate execution of the general CubeSat ...


Evaluation Framework For Cislunar Space Domain Awareness (Sda) Systems, Simon R. Knister 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Evaluation Framework For Cislunar Space Domain Awareness (Sda) Systems, Simon R. Knister

Theses and Dissertations

Modern space missions are increasingly transiting cislunar space, requiring expansion of existing Space Traffic Management (STM) functions. Legacy Space Domain Awareness (SDA) systems were not purpose-built to detect and track cislunar objects, which could require acquisition of a new system of systems. There are numerous parameters that could be varied for each system, as well as the type and location of systems across the architecture. This research attempts to solve this problem by applying a model-based systems engineering (MBSE) approach to assess the performance and financial burden of a given system of systems. Fitness metrics are developed based upon the ...


The Impact Of Changing The Size Of Aircraft Radar Displays On Visual Search In The Cockpit, Justin R. Marsh 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

The Impact Of Changing The Size Of Aircraft Radar Displays On Visual Search In The Cockpit, Justin R. Marsh

Theses and Dissertations

Advances in sensor technology have enabled our fighter aircraft to find, fix, track, target, engage (F2T2E) at greater distances, providing the operator with more data within the battlefield. Modern aircraft are designed with larger displays while our legacy aircraft are being retrofitted with larger cockpit displays to enable display of the increased data. While this modification has been shown to enable improvements in human performance of many cockpit tasks, this effect is often not measured nor fully understood at a more generalizable level. This research outlines an approach to comparing human performance across two display sizes in future F-16 cockpits ...


Development, Test And Evaluation Of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Systems In A Simulated Wide Area Search Scenario: An Implementation Of The Autonomous Systems Reference Architecture, Katherine E. Cheney, David D. King 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Development, Test And Evaluation Of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Systems In A Simulated Wide Area Search Scenario: An Implementation Of The Autonomous Systems Reference Architecture, Katherine E. Cheney, David D. King

Theses and Dissertations

The implementation and testing of autonomous and cooperative unmanned systems is challenging due to the inherent design complexity, infinite test spaces, and lack of autonomy specific measures. These challenges are limiting the USAF's ability to deploy and take advantage of tactical and strategic advantages offered by these systems. This research instantiates an Autonomous System Reference Architecture (ASRA) on a Wide Area Search (WAS) scenario as a test bed for rapid prototyping and evaluation of autonomous and cooperative systems. This research aims to pro- vide a framework to evaluate the system’s ability to achieve mission and autonomy objectives, develop ...


Design, Development, And Testing Of A Low Cost, Additively-Manufactured, Centrifugal Compressor, Aaron P. Bauer 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Design, Development, And Testing Of A Low Cost, Additively-Manufactured, Centrifugal Compressor, Aaron P. Bauer

Theses and Dissertations

The three objectives of this research were to: 1.) design, build, and test AM compressors to substitute into COTS micro-gas turbine engines, 2.) provide initial correlations between FEA and compressor failure speed, and 3.) characterize the effects of AM on compressor performance. These goals improved the design cycle cost and the design-validation time cycle. ULTEM 9085, 300-AMB, and Onyx-Kevlar temperature-dependent tensile properties were measured. FEA-predicted failure speeds of stock compressor designs led design improvements, potentially fulfilling the original compressor requirements. Physical testing of the stock and ULTEM 9085 compressors occurred. Comparing these compressors' performances demonstrated that low cost, AM materials ...


Detonation Confinement In A Radial Rotating Detonation Engine, Kavi Muraleetharan 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Detonation Confinement In A Radial Rotating Detonation Engine, Kavi Muraleetharan

Theses and Dissertations

Radial Rotating Detonation Engines (RRDE) have provided an opportunity for use of a pressure-gain combustor in a more compact form compared to an axial RDE. A successfully tested RRDE has operated over a wide range of test conditions and produced detonation modes with one, two, and three waves. The presence of multiple waves located the detonation waves to the outer radius, while one wave modes operated closer to the inner radius. Locating the detonation wave closer to the inner diameter resulted in less time for combustion prior to the radial turbine. Subsequently, this tended to decrease efficiency. To attempt to ...


Counter Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technologies And Operations, Randall K. Nichols, Hans C. Mumm, Wayne D. Lonstein, Julie J.C.H Ryan, Candice Carter, John-Paul Hood 2020 Kansas State University - Polytechnic Campus

Counter Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technologies And Operations, Randall K. Nichols, Hans C. Mumm, Wayne D. Lonstein, Julie J.C.H Ryan, Candice Carter, John-Paul Hood

NPP eBooks

As the quarter-century mark in the 21st Century nears, new aviation-related equipment has come to the forefront, both to help us and to haunt us. (Coutu, 2020) This is particularly the case with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). These vehicles have grown in popularity and accessible to everyone. Of different shapes and sizes, they are widely available for purchase at relatively low prices. They have moved from the backyard recreation status to important tools for the military, intelligence agencies, and corporate organizations. New practical applications such as military equipment and weaponry are announced on a regular basis – globally. (Coutu, 2020) Every ...


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