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First Exclusive Measurement Of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering Off 4He: Toward The 3d Tomography Of Nuclei, M. Hattawy, N. A. Baltzell, R. Dupré, K. Hafidi, S. Stepanyan, S. Bültmann, R. De Vita, A. El Alaoui, L. El Fassi, H. Egiyan, B. Torayev, D. Adikaram, M. J. Amaryan, G. Charles, M. Khachatryan, A. Klein, S. E. Kuhn, M. Mayer, Y. Prok, L. B. Weinstein, Z. W. Zhao 2017 Old Dominion University

First Exclusive Measurement Of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering Off 4He: Toward The 3d Tomography Of Nuclei, M. Hattawy, N. A. Baltzell, R. Dupré, K. Hafidi, S. Stepanyan, S. Bültmann, R. De Vita, A. El Alaoui, L. El Fassi, H. Egiyan, B. Torayev, D. Adikaram, M. J. Amaryan, G. Charles, M. Khachatryan, A. Klein, S. E. Kuhn, M. Mayer, Y. Prok, L. B. Weinstein, Z. W. Zhao

Physics Faculty Publications

We report on the first measurement of the beam-spin asymmetry in the exclusive process of coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering off a nucleus. The experiment uses the 6 GeV electron beam from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) accelerator at Jefferson Lab incident on a pressurized 4He gaseous target placed in front of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The scattered electron is detected by CLAS and the photon by a dedicated electromagnetic calorimeter at forward angles. To ensure the exclusivity of the process, a specially designed radial time projection chamber is used to detect the recoiling 4 ...


Doubly-Excited State Effects On Two-Photon Double Ionization Of Helium By Time-Delayed, Oppositely Circularly-Polarized Attosecond Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Doubly-Excited State Effects On Two-Photon Double Ionization Of Helium By Time-Delayed, Oppositely Circularly-Polarized Attosecond Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

We study two-photon double ionization (TPDI) of helium by a pair of time-delayed (non-overlapping), oppositely circularly-polarized attosecond pulses whose carrier frequencies are resonant with 1Po doubly-excited states. All of our TPDI results are obtained by numerical solution of the two-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the six-dimensional case of circularly-polarized attosecond pulses, and they are analyzed using perturbation theory (PT). As compared with the corresponding nonresonant TPDI process, we find that the doubly-excited states change the character of vortex patterns in the two-electron momentum distributions for the case of back-to-back detection of the two ionized electrons in the polarization ...


First Direct Constraints On Fierz Interference In Free-Neutron Β Decay, K. P. Hickerson, X. Sun, Y. Bagdasarova, D. Bravo-Berguño, L. J. Broussard, M. A. -P. Brown, R. Carr, S. Currie, X. Ding, B. W. Filippone, A. García, P. Geltenbort, J. Hoagland, A. T. Holley, R. Hong, T. M. Ito, A. Knecht, C. -Y. Liu, J. L. Liu, M. Makela, R. R. Mammei, J. W. Martin, D. Melconian, M. P. Mendenhall, S. D. Moore, C. L. Morris, R. W. Pattie Jr., A. Pérez Galván, R. Picker, M. L. Pitt, Bradley R. Plaster 2017 California Institute of Technology

First Direct Constraints On Fierz Interference In Free-Neutron Β Decay, K. P. Hickerson, X. Sun, Y. Bagdasarova, D. Bravo-Berguño, L. J. Broussard, M. A. -P. Brown, R. Carr, S. Currie, X. Ding, B. W. Filippone, A. García, P. Geltenbort, J. Hoagland, A. T. Holley, R. Hong, T. M. Ito, A. Knecht, C. -Y. Liu, J. L. Liu, M. Makela, R. R. Mammei, J. W. Martin, D. Melconian, M. P. Mendenhall, S. D. Moore, C. L. Morris, R. W. Pattie Jr., A. Pérez Galván, R. Picker, M. L. Pitt, Bradley R. Plaster

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

Precision measurements of free-neutron β decay have been used to precisely constrain our understanding of the weak interaction. However, the neutron Fierz interference term bn, which is particularly sensitive to beyond-standard-model tensor currents at the TeV scale, has thus far eluded measurement. Here we report the first direct constraints on this term, finding bn = 0.067 ± 0.005stat+0.090-0.061sys, consistent with the standard model. The uncertainty is dominated by absolute energy reconstruction and the linearity of the β spectrometer energy response.


Imaging Electronic Motions By Ultrafast Electron Diffraction, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Imaging Electronic Motions By Ultrafast Electron Diffraction, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Recently ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy have reached unprecedented temporal resolution, and transient structures with atomic precision have been observed in various reactions. It is anticipated that these extraordinary advances will soon allow direct observation of electronic motions during chemical reactions. We therefore performed a series of theoretical investigations and simulations to investigate the imaging of electronic motions in atoms and molecules by ultrafast electron diffraction. Three prototypical electronic motions were considered for hydrogen atoms. For the case of a breathing mode, the electron density expands and contracts periodically, and we show that the time-resolved scattering intensities reflect such changes ...


Bulk Properties Of The Medium Produced In Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions From The Beam Energy Scan Program, L. Adamczyk, James K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed, N. N. Ajitanand, I. Alekseev, D. M. Anderson, R. Aoyama, A. Aparin, D. Arkhipkin, E. C. Aschenauer, M. U. Ashraf, A. Attri, G. S. Averichev, X. Bai, V. Bairathi, A. Behera, R. Bellwied, A. Bhasin, A. K. Bhati, P. Bhattarai, J. Bielcik, J. Bielcikova, L. C. Bland, I. G. Bordyuzhin, J. Bouchet, J. D. Brandenburg, A. V. Brandin, D. Brown, Renee H. Fatemi, Suvarna Ramachandran 2017 AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Bulk Properties Of The Medium Produced In Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions From The Beam Energy Scan Program, L. Adamczyk, James K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed, N. N. Ajitanand, I. Alekseev, D. M. Anderson, R. Aoyama, A. Aparin, D. Arkhipkin, E. C. Aschenauer, M. U. Ashraf, A. Attri, G. S. Averichev, X. Bai, V. Bairathi, A. Behera, R. Bellwied, A. Bhasin, A. K. Bhati, P. Bhattarai, J. Bielcik, J. Bielcikova, L. C. Bland, I. G. Bordyuzhin, J. Bouchet, J. D. Brandenburg, A. V. Brandin, D. Brown, Renee H. Fatemi, Suvarna Ramachandran

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We present measurements of bulk properties of the matter produced in Au+Au collisions at √SNN = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV using identified hadrons (π±, K±, p, and p¯) from the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) results for multiplicity densities dN/dy, average transverse momenta ⟨pT⟩, and particle ratios are presented. The chemical and kinetic freeze-out dynamics at these energies are discussed and presented as a function of collision centrality and energy. These results constitute the systematic measurements of bulk properties of matter formed ...


Energy-Resolved Coherent Diffraction From Laser-Driven Electronic Motion In Atoms, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-Resolved Coherent Diffraction From Laser-Driven Electronic Motion In Atoms, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

We investigate theoretically the use of energy-resolved ultrafast electron diffraction to image laser-driven electronic motion in atoms. A chirped laser pulse is used to transfer the valence electron of the lithium atom from the ground state to the first excited state. During this process, the electronic motion is imaged by 100-fs and 1-fs electron pulses in energy-resolved diffraction measurements. Simulations show that the angle-resolved spectra reveal the time evolution of the energy content and symmetry of the electronic state. The time-dependent diffraction patterns are further interpreted in terms of the momentum transfer. For the case of incident 1-fs electron pulses ...


Confocal Laser Induced Fluorescence With Comparable Spatial Localization To The Conventional Method, Derek S. Thompson, Miguel F. Henriquez, Earl E. Scime, Timothy N. Good 2017 West Virginia University

Confocal Laser Induced Fluorescence With Comparable Spatial Localization To The Conventional Method, Derek S. Thompson, Miguel F. Henriquez, Earl E. Scime, Timothy N. Good

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We present measurements of ion velocity distributions obtained by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) using a single viewport in an argon plasma. A patent pending design, which we refer to as the confocal fluorescence telescope, combines large objective lenses with a large central obscuration and a spatial filter to achieve high spatial localization along the laser injection direction. Models of the injection and collection optics of the two assemblies are used to provide a theoretical estimate of the spatial localization of the confocal arrangement, which is taken to be the full width at half maximum of the spatial optical response. The ...


Screening And Plasma Oscillations In An Electron Gas In The Hydrodynamic Approximation, Eugene B. Kolomeisky, Joseph P. Straley 2017 University of Virginia

Screening And Plasma Oscillations In An Electron Gas In The Hydrodynamic Approximation, Eugene B. Kolomeisky, Joseph P. Straley

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

A hydrodynamic theory of screening in a generic electron gas of arbitrary dimensionality is given that encompasses all previously studied cases and clarifies the predictions of the many-body approach. We find that long-wavelength plasma oscillations are classical phenomena with quantum-mechanical effects playing no explicit role. The character of the oscillations is solely dictated by the dimensionality of the electron system and its equation of state in the neutral limit. Materials whose excitations are described by the Dirac dispersion law—such as doped graphene or a Weyl semimetal—are no exception to this rule.


Analysis Of Ar(1s5) Metastable Populations In High Pressure Argon-Helium Gas Discharges, Daniel J. Emmons II 2017 Air Force Institute of Technology

Analysis Of Ar(1s5) Metastable Populations In High Pressure Argon-Helium Gas Discharges, Daniel J. Emmons Ii

Theses and Dissertations

Simulations of an argon-helium plasma are performed for two high pressure discharge scenarios to find a uniform, large-volume plasma with Ar(1s5) metastable densities on the order of 1013 cm-3 for use as the ground state in an optically pumped rare gas laser. An analysis of a pulsed direct current discharge is performed for a 7% argon in helium mixture at a pressure of 270 Torr using both zero and one-dimensional models. Kinetics of species relevant to the operation of an optically pumped rare gas laser are analyzed throughout the pulse duration to identify key reaction pathways. Simulations ...


Aberration Correction In Photoemission Microscopy And Applications In Photonics And Plasmonics, Rolf Könenkamp 2017 Portland State University

Aberration Correction In Photoemission Microscopy And Applications In Photonics And Plasmonics, Rolf Könenkamp

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

We report on the design, assembly, operation and application of an aberration-corrected photoemission electron microscope. The instrument used novel hyperbolic mirror-correctors with two and three electrodes that allowed simultaneous correction of spherical and chromatic aberrations. A spatial resolution of 5.4nm was obtained with this instrument in 2009, and 4.7nm in subsequent years. New imaging methodology was introduced involving interferometric imaging of light diffraction. This methodology was applied in nano-photonics and in the characterization of surface-plasmon polaritons. Photonic crystals and waveguides, optical antennas and new plasmonic devices such as routers, localizers and filters were designed and demonstrated using the ...


Interaction Between Air Plasma-Produced Aqueous 1o2 And The Spin Trap Dmpo In Electron Spin Resonance, Chen Chen, Fanying Li, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G. Kong 2017 Old Dominion University

Interaction Between Air Plasma-Produced Aqueous 1o2 And The Spin Trap Dmpo In Electron Spin Resonance, Chen Chen, Fanying Li, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

A series of electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments is done to quantitatively measure the concentrations of aqueous 1O2 and OH produced by a surface micro-discharge air plasma device. 1O2 is tested to be existed in the plasma treated solution by using the spin trap of TEMP. However, the unexpected DMPOX spectrum is observed in measuringOH by the spin trap of 5,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrroline-N-Oxide (DMPO). With more chemical scavenger experiments, it is found that removal of aqueous 1O2 leads to the disappearance of DMPOX in ESR. Therefore, the generation of DMPOX is directly related to the ...


Ionization Enhancement And Suppression By Phase-Locked Ultrafast Pulse Pairs, David B. Foote, Y. Lin, Liang-Wen Pi, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Anthony F. Starace, W. T. Hill 2017 University of Maryland at College Park

Ionization Enhancement And Suppression By Phase-Locked Ultrafast Pulse Pairs, David B. Foote, Y. Lin, Liang-Wen Pi, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Anthony F. Starace, W. T. Hill

Anthony F. Starace Publications

We present the results of a study of ionization of Xe atoms by a pair of phase-locked pulses, which is characterized by interference produced by the twin peaks. Two types of interference are considered: ordinary optical interference, which changes the intensity of the composite pulse and thus the ion yield, and a quantum interference, in which the excited electron wave packets interfere. We use the measured Xe+ yield as a function of the temporal delay and/or relative phase between the peaks to monitor the interferences and compare their relative strengths. We model the interference with a pulse intensity function ...


Nonlinear Waves, Instabilities And Singularities In Plasma And Hydrodynamics, Denis Albertovich Silantyev 2017 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Nonlinear Waves, Instabilities And Singularities In Plasma And Hydrodynamics, Denis Albertovich Silantyev

Mathematics & Statistics ETDs

This work concentrates on Langmuir wave filamentation instability in the kinetic regime of plasma and computation of Stokes wave with high precision using conformal maps.

Nonlinear effects are present in almost every area of science as soon as one tries to go beyond the first order approximation. In particular, nonlinear waves emerge in such areas as hydrodynamics, nonlinear optics, plasma physics, quantum physics, etc. The results of this work are related to nonlinear waves in two areas, plasma physics and hydrodynamics, united by concepts of instability, singularity and advanced numerical methods used for their investigation.

The first part of this ...


Adiabatic-Limit Coulomb Factors For Photoelectron And High-Order-Harmonic Spectra, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, A. A. Minina, S. V. Popruzhenko, Anthony F. Starace 2017 Voronezh State University, Russia

Adiabatic-Limit Coulomb Factors For Photoelectron And High-Order-Harmonic Spectra, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, A. A. Minina, S. V. Popruzhenko, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

A momentum-dependent Coulomb factor in the probability for nonlinear ionization of atoms by a strong low-frequency laser field is calculated analytically in the adiabatic approximation. Expressions for this Coulomb factor, valid for an arbitrary laser pulse waveform, are obtained and analyzed in detail for the cases of linear and circular polarizations. The dependence of the Coulomb factor on the photoelectron momentum is shown to be significant in both cases. Using a similar technique, the Coulomb factor for emission of high-order harmonics by an atom in a bichromatic laser field is also calculated. In contrast to the case of a single-frequency ...


Optimization And Control Of Production Of Graphene, Atharva Hans, Nimish M. Awalgaonkar, Majed Alrefae, Ilias Bilionis, Timothy S. Fisher 2017 Purdue University

Optimization And Control Of Production Of Graphene, Atharva Hans, Nimish M. Awalgaonkar, Majed Alrefae, Ilias Bilionis, Timothy S. Fisher

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Graphene is a 2-dimensional element of high practical importance. Despite its exceptional properties, graphene’s real applications in industrial or commercial products have been limited. There are many methods to produce graphene, but none has been successful in commercializing its production. Roll-to-roll plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is used to manufacture graphene at large scale. In this research, we present a Bayesian linear regression model to predict the roll-to-roll plasma system’s electrode voltage and current; given a particular set of inputs. The inputs of the plasma system are power, pressure and concentration of gases; hydrogen, methane, oxygen, nitrogen and ...


Design And Fabrication Of An Electrical Breakdown Facility, Prit Chovatiya, Animesh Sharma, Alexey Shashurin 2017 Purdue University

Design And Fabrication Of An Electrical Breakdown Facility, Prit Chovatiya, Animesh Sharma, Alexey Shashurin

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Usage of traditional experimental instrumentation has not kept up with the rate of advancement in the modern educational material. Teaching aids used in academia have to be updated to ensure effective understanding of content among the students. The use of outdated vacuum chambers as visual aids in plasma physics classrooms have proven to be ineffective for the students and teachers, due to limited viewing ports on the metallic walls of the vacuum chamber for viewing the plasma discharge phenomenon. It is important to address this challenge, which invigorates the need for the use of a transparent vacuum chamber as a ...


The Mechanism Of Plasma Plume Termination For Pulse Excited Plasmas In A Quartz Tube, Mingzhe Rong, Wenjie Xia, Xiaohua Wang, Zhijie Liu, Dingxin Liu, Zhihu Liang, Xiaoning Zhang, Michael G. Kong 2017 Old Dominion University

The Mechanism Of Plasma Plume Termination For Pulse Excited Plasmas In A Quartz Tube, Mingzhe Rong, Wenjie Xia, Xiaohua Wang, Zhijie Liu, Dingxin Liu, Zhihu Liang, Xiaoning Zhang, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Although the formation and propagation of plasma plume for atmospheric pressure plasmas have been intensively studied, how does the plasma plume terminate is still little known. In this letter, helium plasma plumes are generated in a long quartz tube by pulsed voltages and a constant gas flow. The voltages have a variable pulse width (PW) from 0.5 μs to 200 μs. It is found that the plasma plume terminates right after the falling edge of each voltage pulse when PW < 20 μs, whereas it terminates before the falling edge. When PW is larger than 30 μs ...


Target-Based Coherent Beam Combining Of An Optical Phased Array Fed By A Broadband Laser Source, Milo W. Hyde IV, Jack E. McCrae, Glenn A. Tyler 2017 Air Force Institute of Technology

Target-Based Coherent Beam Combining Of An Optical Phased Array Fed By A Broadband Laser Source, Milo W. Hyde Iv, Jack E. Mccrae, Glenn A. Tyler

Faculty Publications

The target-based phasing of an optical phased array (OPA) fed by a broadband master oscillator laser source is investigated. The specific scenario examined here considers an OPA phasing through atmospheric turbulence on a rough curved object. An analytical expression for the detected or received intensity is derived. Gleaned from this expression are the conditions under which target-based phasing is possible. A detailed OPA wave optics simulation is performed to validate the theoretical findings. Key aspects of the simulation set-up as well as the results are thoroughly discussed.


Kinematical Vortices In Double Photoionization Of Helium By Attosecond Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, A. V. Meremianin, N. L. Manakov, S. X. Hu, L. B. Madsen, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Kinematical Vortices In Double Photoionization Of Helium By Attosecond Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, A. V. Meremianin, N. L. Manakov, S. X. Hu, L. B. Madsen, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Two-armed helical vortex structures are predicted in the two-electron momentum distributions produced in double photoionization (DPI) of the He atom by a pair of time-delayed elliptically polarized attosecond pulses with opposite helicities. These predictions are based upon both a first-order perturbation theory analysis and numerical solutions of the two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation in six spatial dimensions. The helical vortex structures originate from Ramsey interference of a pair of ionized two-electron wave packets, each having a total angular momentum of unity, and appear in the sixfold differential DPI probability distribution for any energy partitioning between the two electrons. The vortex structures ...


Microdischarges Utilized In Portable Gas Sensing And Their Atmospheric Contaminants, Colin H. Sillerud 2017 University of New Mexico

Microdischarges Utilized In Portable Gas Sensing And Their Atmospheric Contaminants, Colin H. Sillerud

Chemical and Biological Engineering ETDs

Portable applications of microdischarges such as the chemical detection, remediation of gaseous wastes, or the destruction of volatile organic compounds will mandate operation in the presence of contaminant species. This work examines the temporal evolution of microdischarge optical and ultraviolet emissions during pulsed operation by experimental methods. By varying the pulse length of a microdischarge initiated in a 4-hole silicon microcavity array operating in a 655 Torr ambient primarily composed of Ne, we were able to measure the emission growth rates for different contaminant species native to the discharge environment as a function of pulse length. It was found that ...


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