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Full-Text Articles in Plasma and Beam Physics

Spectroscopic End Point Detection With An Electron Beam Evaporator, Ryan Mcgraw Mar 2024

Spectroscopic End Point Detection With An Electron Beam Evaporator, Ryan Mcgraw

University Honors Theses

Spectroscopic end point detection is a common tool used for measuring slope changes in wavelength intensity. Using algorithms able to apply this concept, coatings will be able to be dynamically measured in real time and stopped at the appropriate level to ensure process uniformity. It is currently applied to reductive processes such as etching, where the surface will start to be eaten away, creating a plasma. When the entire amount of a material on a substrate has been eaten away, the plasma will change color as it is beginning to etch a different material. Using a spectrometer, this point where …


Thermocatalytic Plasma-Assisted Dry Reforming Of Methane Over Ni/Al2o3 Catalyst, Tyler Wong Dec 2023

Thermocatalytic Plasma-Assisted Dry Reforming Of Methane Over Ni/Al2o3 Catalyst, Tyler Wong

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Plasma catalysis is an advantageous approach that combines the effects of plasma with the enhancements of a catalyst. By utilizing a nickel catalyst in the plasma discharge zone of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), it can give an enhancement to the electrical field, boost microdischarges, and increase conversion and selectivity rates of CH4 and CO2 in the dry reforming of methane (DRM) reaction.

Industrial application of nickel catalysts in DBD Plasma DRM process are limited by poor stability, which is caused by the sintering of active metal particles and coke deposition on the catalyst surface. In this work, …


Detailed Characterization Of A Khz-Rate Laser-Driven Fusion At A Thin Liquid Sheet With A Neutron Detection Suite, Benjamin M. Knight, Connor Gautam, Colton R. Stoner, Bryan V. Egner, Joseph R. Smith, Christopher M. Orban, Juan J. Manfredi, Kyle Frische, Michael L. Dexter, Enam A. Chowdury, Anil K. Patniak Nov 2023

Detailed Characterization Of A Khz-Rate Laser-Driven Fusion At A Thin Liquid Sheet With A Neutron Detection Suite, Benjamin M. Knight, Connor Gautam, Colton R. Stoner, Bryan V. Egner, Joseph R. Smith, Christopher M. Orban, Juan J. Manfredi, Kyle Frische, Michael L. Dexter, Enam A. Chowdury, Anil K. Patniak

Faculty Publications

We present detailed characterization of laser driven fusion and neutron production (∼105/second) employing 8 mJ, 40fs laser pulses on a thin (< 1 µm) D2O liquid sheet employing a measurement suite. At relativistic intensity (∼5×1018W/cm2) and high repetition-rate (1 kHz), the system produces consistent D-D fusion, allowing for consistent neutron generation. Evidence of D-D fusion neutron production is verified b y a measurement suite with three independent detection systems: an EJ-309 organic scintillator with pulse-shape discrimination, a 3He proportional counter, and a set of 36 bubble detectors. Time-of-flight analysis of the scintillator data shows …


Adaptive Plasmonic Metasurfaces For Radiative Cooling And Passive Thermoregulation, Azadeh Didari-Bader, Nooshin M. Estakhri, Nasim Mohammadi Estrakhri Jun 2023

Adaptive Plasmonic Metasurfaces For Radiative Cooling And Passive Thermoregulation, Azadeh Didari-Bader, Nooshin M. Estakhri, Nasim Mohammadi Estrakhri

Engineering Faculty Articles and Research

In this work, we investigate a class of planar photonic structures operating as passive thermoregulators. The radiative cooling process is adjusted through the incorporation of a phase change material (Vanadium Dioxide, VO2) in conjunction with a layer of transparent conductive oxide (Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide, AZO). VO2 is known to undergo a phase transition from the “dielectric” phase to the “plasmonic” or “metallic” phase at a critical temperature close to 68°C. In addition, AZO shows plasmonic properties at the long-wave infrared spectrum, which, combined with VO2, provides a rich platform to achieve low reflections across the …


Apparatus And Instrumentation Design For Investigation Of Surface Impact Effects On Superconductivity, Austin Back May 2023

Apparatus And Instrumentation Design For Investigation Of Surface Impact Effects On Superconductivity, Austin Back

All Theses

The effects of ion irradiation on the physical properties of materials make EBITs an invaluable tool for many scientific and engineering fields. Many experiments rely on the use of these lab setups to test for device reliability, explore surface physics phenomena, and replicate the environment for many physical systems that are not readily accessible. We seek to extend the capabilities of these experiments using the CUEBIT and a new sample holder installed in section 3.

This thesis begins by presenting an overview of the CUEBIT and the basic operations of the equipment. This is followed by a brief explanation of …


The Magnetic Field Of Protostar-Disk-Outflow Systems, Mahmoud Sharkawi Apr 2023

The Magnetic Field Of Protostar-Disk-Outflow Systems, Mahmoud Sharkawi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Recent observations of protostellar cores reveal complex magnetic field configurations that are distorted in the innermost disk region. Unlike the prestellar phase, where the magnetic field geometry is simpler with an hourglass configuration, magnetic fields in the protostellar phase are sculpted by the formation of outflows and rapid rotation. This gives rise to a significant azimuthal (or toroidal) component that has not yet been analytically modelled in the literature. Moreover, the onset of outflows, which act as angular momentum transport mechanisms, have received considerable attention in the past few decades. Two mechanisms: 1) the driving by the gradient of a …


Numerical Simulation Of Steady-State Thermal Blooming With Natural Convection, Jeremiah S. Lane, Justin Cook, Martin Richardson, Benjamin F. Akers Mar 2023

Numerical Simulation Of Steady-State Thermal Blooming With Natural Convection, Jeremiah S. Lane, Justin Cook, Martin Richardson, Benjamin F. Akers

Faculty Publications

This work investigates steady-state thermal blooming of a high-energy laser in the presence of laser-driven convection. While thermal blooming has historically been simulated with prescribed fluid velocities, the model introduced here solves for the fluid dynamics along the propagation path using a Boussinesq approximation to the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. The resultant temperature fluctuations were coupled to refractive index fluctuations, and the beam propagation was modeled using the paraxial wave equation. Fixed-point methods were used to solve the fluid equations as well as to couple the beam propagation to the steady-state flow. The simulated results are discussed relative to recent experimental …


The Behavior Of Partially Coherent Twisted Space-Time Beams In Atmospheric Turbulence, Milo W. Hyde Iv Jan 2023

The Behavior Of Partially Coherent Twisted Space-Time Beams In Atmospheric Turbulence, Milo W. Hyde Iv

Faculty Publications

We study how atmospheric turbulence affects twisted space-time beams, which are non-stationary random optical fields whose space and time dimensions are coupled with a stochastic twist. Applying the extended Huygens–Fresnel principle, we derive the mutual coherence function of a twisted space-time beam after propagating a distance z through atmospheric turbulence of arbitrary strength. We specialize the result to derive the ensemble-averaged irradiance and discuss how turbulence affects the beam’s spatial size, pulse width, and space-time twist. Lastly, we generate, in simulation, twisted space-time beam field realizations and propagate them through atmospheric phase screens to validate our analysis.


The Post-Shock Nonequilibrium Relaxation In A Hypersonic Plasma Flow Involving Reflection Off A Thermal Discontinuity, Anna Markhotok Jan 2023

The Post-Shock Nonequilibrium Relaxation In A Hypersonic Plasma Flow Involving Reflection Off A Thermal Discontinuity, Anna Markhotok

Physics Faculty Publications

The evolution in the post shock nonequilibrium relaxation in a hypersonic plasma flow was investigated during a shock’s reflection off a thermal discontinuity. Within a transitional period, the relaxation zone parameters past both, the reflected and transmitted waves, evolve differently compared to that in the incident wave. In a numerical example for the non-dissociating N2 gas heated to 5000 K/10,000 K across the interface and M = 3.5, the relaxation time for the transmitted wave is up to 50% shorter and the relaxation depth for both waves is significantly reduced, thus resulting in a weakened wave structure. The …


Quantum Efficiency Enhancement In Simulated Nanostructured Negative Electron Affinity Gaas Photocathodes, Md Aziz Ar Rahman, Shukui Zhang, Hani E. Elsayed-Ali Jan 2023

Quantum Efficiency Enhancement In Simulated Nanostructured Negative Electron Affinity Gaas Photocathodes, Md Aziz Ar Rahman, Shukui Zhang, Hani E. Elsayed-Ali

Physics Faculty Publications

Nanostructured negative electron affinity GaAs photocathodes for a polarized electron source are studied using finite difference time domain optical simulation. The structures studied are nanosquare columns, truncated nanocones, and truncated nanopyramids. Mie-type resonances in the 700–800 nm waveband, suitable for generation of polarized electrons, are identified. At resonance wavelengths, the nanostructures can absorb up to 99% of the incident light. For nanosquare columns and truncated nanocones, the maximum quantum efficiency (QE) at 780 nm obtained from simulation is 27%, whereas for simulated nanopyramids, the QE is ∼21%. The high photocathode quantum efficiency is due to the shift of Mie resonance …


On The Chronological Understanding Of The Homogeneous Dielectric Barrier Discharge, Xinpei Lu, Zhi Fang, Dong Dai, Tao Shao, Feng Liu, Cheng Zhang, Dawei Liu, Lanlan Nie, Chunqi Jiang Jan 2023

On The Chronological Understanding Of The Homogeneous Dielectric Barrier Discharge, Xinpei Lu, Zhi Fang, Dong Dai, Tao Shao, Feng Liu, Cheng Zhang, Dawei Liu, Lanlan Nie, Chunqi Jiang

Bioelectrics Publications

Dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) are widely utilised non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas with a diverse range of applications, such as material processing, surface treatment, light sources, pollution control, and medicine. Over the course of several decades, extensive research has been dedicated to the generation of homogeneous DBD (H-DBD), focussing on understanding the transition from H-DBD to filamentary DBD and exploring strategies to create and sustain H-DBD. This paper first discusses the influence of various parameters on DBD, including gas flow, dielectric material, surface conductivity, and mesh electrode. Secondly, a chronological literature review is presented, highlighting the development of H-DBD and the …


Experimental Studies Of Neutral Particles And The Isotope Effect In The Edge Of Tokamak Plasmas, Ryan Chaban Jan 2023

Experimental Studies Of Neutral Particles And The Isotope Effect In The Edge Of Tokamak Plasmas, Ryan Chaban

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The H-mode plasma edge is a region of steep gradients in density and temperature known as the “pedestal” which greatly increases energy confinement. The complex links between neutral-plasma interactions and both diffusive and convective transport in the pedestal must be understood to model, predict, and achieve the high performance required for a fusion power plant. This dissertation explores the effects of different hydrogenic isotope neutral particles and plasma transport from the edge pedestal region into the Scrape-Off Layer. Current experiments typically use deuterium (H with amu=2 or D), however future fusion power plants may startup with hydrogen (H), and eventually …


A High-Precision Electron Emission Model: Computational Methods For Nanoscale Structures, Alister J. Tencate Jan 2023

A High-Precision Electron Emission Model: Computational Methods For Nanoscale Structures, Alister J. Tencate

Graduate Research Theses & Dissertations

The high-intensity, high-brightness and precision frontiers for charged particle beams are an increasingly important focus for study. Electron microscopy has demonstrated high quality beams from a single nanotip emitter, and cathodes of structured nanoscale arrays show promise as ultracold electron sources. Optimization of the cathode design for precision applications necessitates a detailed treatment of the interplay between the structure geometry, quantum mechanical emission mechanism, and electromagnetic interactions between the emitted electrons and the boundary interface. This dissertation details the numerical tools developed to simulate these processes efficiently with enough fidelity to be accurate even in the ultracold regime.

Conventional simulation …


Drift Orbit Bifurcation Effects On Earth’S Radiation Belt Electrons, Jinbei Huang Jan 2023

Drift Orbit Bifurcation Effects On Earth’S Radiation Belt Electrons, Jinbei Huang

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Energetic charged particles trapped in the Earth’s radiation belt form a hazardous space environment for artificial electronic systems and astronauts. The study of Earth's radiation belt is becoming increasingly important with the development of communication technology, which plays a significant role in modern society. Earth’s radiation belt is highly dynamic, and the electron flux can drop by several orders of magnitude within a few hours which is called radiation belt dropout. The fast dropout of energetic electrons in the radiation belt, despite its significance, has not been thoroughly studied. One of the most compelling outstanding questions in Earth's radiation belt …


Energy Conversion In Plasmas Out Of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium: A Kinetic Theory Perspective, Mahmud Hasan Barbhuiya Jan 2023

Energy Conversion In Plasmas Out Of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium: A Kinetic Theory Perspective, Mahmud Hasan Barbhuiya

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The study of energy conversion in collisionless plasmas that are not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is at the leading edge of plasma physics research. Plasma constituents in such systems can exhibit highly structured phase space densities that deviate significantly from that of a Maxwellian. A standard approach has emerged in recent years for investigating energy conversion between bulk flow and thermal energy in collisionless plasmas using the non-LTE generalization of the first law of thermodynamics. The primary focus is placed on pressure-strain interaction (PS) term, with a particular emphasis on its non-LTE piece called Pi − D. Recent studies …


Electrical And Optical Characteristics Of Wide Pressure-Range Capacitive Coupled Rf Discharge, Diaa Ibrahim, Abdou Garamoon, Farouk Elakshar, Ashraf Alsharif Jan 2023

Electrical And Optical Characteristics Of Wide Pressure-Range Capacitive Coupled Rf Discharge, Diaa Ibrahim, Abdou Garamoon, Farouk Elakshar, Ashraf Alsharif

Al-Azhar Bulletin of Science

A homemade RF capacitive coupled discharge system operating in wide range of pressures (from low pressure up to atmospheric pressure) was constructed. Electrical and optical characteristics of the constructed system were measured for argon discharge operated at wide range of pressure (from low pressure up to atmospheric pressure) and RF power up to 150 Watt. The discharge was operated using two bare metallic copper electrodes with separation distance of 5 mm and it was kept constant in all discharge conditions. Discharge current and discharge voltage were measured for various power and argon gas pressure conditions. The electrical characteristics of the …


Dual Energy Electron Storage Ring Cooler Design For Relativistic Ion Beams, Bhawin Dhital Dec 2022

Dual Energy Electron Storage Ring Cooler Design For Relativistic Ion Beams, Bhawin Dhital

Physics Theses & Dissertations

Collider experiments demand small beam emittances in order to achieve high luminosity. For light particles such as electrons, there exists a natural synchrotron radiation damping resulting in low emittance beams at equilibrium. In the case of heavy particle beams such as proton or ion beams, there is no significant synchrotron radiation damping effect and some cooling mechanism is needed to get to low emittance beams. A dual energy storage ring cooler is a novel concept proposed to cool hadron beams at higher energies. The design consists of two rings: a low energy ring and a high energy ring connected by …


Sars-Cov-2 Spike Conformation Determines Plasma Neutralizing Activity Elicited By A Wide Panel Of Human Vaccines, John E. Bowen, Young-Jun Park, Cameron Stewart, Jack T. Brown, William K. Sharkey, Alexandra C. Walls, Anshu Joshi, Kumail Ahmed, Asefa Shariq, Najeeha Talat Iqbal Nov 2022

Sars-Cov-2 Spike Conformation Determines Plasma Neutralizing Activity Elicited By A Wide Panel Of Human Vaccines, John E. Bowen, Young-Jun Park, Cameron Stewart, Jack T. Brown, William K. Sharkey, Alexandra C. Walls, Anshu Joshi, Kumail Ahmed, Asefa Shariq, Najeeha Talat Iqbal

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Numerous safe and effective coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines have been developed worldwide that use various delivery technologies and engineering strategies. We show here that vaccines containing prefusion-stabilizing S mutations elicit antibody responses in humans with enhanced recognition of S and the S1 subunit relative to postfusion S as compared with vaccines lacking these mutations or natural infection. Prefusion S and S1 antibody binding titers positively and equivalently correlated with neutralizing activity, and depletion of S1-directed antibodies completely abrogated plasma neutralizing activity. We show that neutralizing activity is almost entirely directed to the S1 subunit and that variant cross-neutralization is mediated …


Classification Of Pixel Tracks To Improve Track Reconstruction From Proton-Proton Collisions, Kebur Fantahun, Jobin Joseph, Halle Purdom, Nibhrat Lohia Sep 2022

Classification Of Pixel Tracks To Improve Track Reconstruction From Proton-Proton Collisions, Kebur Fantahun, Jobin Joseph, Halle Purdom, Nibhrat Lohia

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper, machine learning techniques are used to reconstruct particle collision pathways. CERN (Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire) uses a massive underground particle collider, called the Large Hadron Collider or LHC, to produce particle collisions at extremely high speeds. There are several layers of detectors in the collider that track the pathways of particles as they collide. The data produced from collisions contains an extraneous amount of background noise, i.e., decays from known particle collisions produce fake signal. Particularly, in the first layer of the detector, the pixel tracker, there is an overwhelming amount of background noise that …


Kinetic Modeling Of Ionospheric Outflows Observed By The Visions-1 Sounding Rocket, Robert M. Albarran Ii Sep 2022

Kinetic Modeling Of Ionospheric Outflows Observed By The Visions-1 Sounding Rocket, Robert M. Albarran Ii

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

Plasma escape from the high-latitude ionosphere (ion outflow) serves as a significant source of heavy plasma to magnetospheric plasma sheet and ring current regions. Outflows alter mass density and reconnection rates, hence global responses of the magnetosphere. The VISIONS-1 (VISualizing Ion Outflow via Neutral atom imaging during a Substorm) sounding rocket was launched on Feb. 7, 2013 at 8:21 UTC from Poker Flat, Alaska, into an auroral substorm with the objective of identifying the drivers and dynamics of nightside ion outflow at altitudes where it is initiated, below 1000 km. Energetic ion data from the VISIONS-1 polar cap boundary crossing …


Distance Estimates To Evolved Stars Using Infrared Emission And Verification And Validation Of The Plasma Code Empire, Brandon M. Medina Aug 2022

Distance Estimates To Evolved Stars Using Infrared Emission And Verification And Validation Of The Plasma Code Empire, Brandon M. Medina

Physics & Astronomy ETDs

Gaining insight into the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way is important for understanding the universe on a large scale. Evolved stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch are useful for studying the Milky Way because their emission is peaked in the infrared, where interstellar extinction effects are not as dominant. To further understand the physical properties of these objects like luminosity and investigate the Galaxy's structure, we need distance estimates. Obtaining distance estimates for these evolved stars via trigonometric parallax measurements is time-consuming, so infrared surveys studying Asymptotic Giant Branch stars can benefit from other distance estimate methods. In …


Arrayed Waveguide Lens For Beam Steering, Mostafa Honari-Latifpour, Ali Binaie, Mohammad Amin Eftekhar, Nicholas Madamopoulos, Mohammad-Ali Miri Aug 2022

Arrayed Waveguide Lens For Beam Steering, Mostafa Honari-Latifpour, Ali Binaie, Mohammad Amin Eftekhar, Nicholas Madamopoulos, Mohammad-Ali Miri

Publications and Research

Integrated planar lenses are critical components for analog optical information processing that enable a wide range of applications including beam steering. Conventional planar lenses require gradient index control which makes their on-chip realization challenging. Here, we introduce a new approach for beam steering by designing an array of coupled waveguides with segmented tails that allow for simultaneously achieving planar lensing and off-chip radiation. The proposed arrayed waveguide lens is built on engineering the evanescent coupling between adjacent channels to realize a photonic lattice with an equi-distant ladder of propagation constants that emulates the continuous parabolic index profile. Through coupled-mode analysis …


Ultrashort Pulse Laser Filamentation Electrical And Optical Diagnostic Comparison, James E. Wymer Aug 2022

Ultrashort Pulse Laser Filamentation Electrical And Optical Diagnostic Comparison, James E. Wymer

Optical Science and Engineering ETDs

Results presented here examine the effect of changing gas pressure on the radio frequency (RF) emissions of an ultrashort pulse laser filament plasma and how those emissions vary longitudinally in the laser focal region. We use a WR284 rectangular waveguide with a 1.5 cm hole that allows the beam through. A 3.2 GHz microwave signal is emitted in the waveguide, and signals are received through a waveguide-to-coax antenna connected to an HP8470B Schottky diode. By enabling and disabling the 3.2 GHz signal, we measure both the self-emitted RF from a USPL filament and subsequently the degree of attenuation a filament …


A Progress Report On Numerical Methods For Bgk-Type Kinetic Equations, Evan Habbershaw, Steven M. Wise Jul 2022

A Progress Report On Numerical Methods For Bgk-Type Kinetic Equations, Evan Habbershaw, Steven M. Wise

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Mathematics

In this report we review some preliminary work on the numerical solution of BGK-type kinetic equations of particle transport. Such equations model the motion of fluid particles via a density field when the kinetic theory of rarefied gases must be used in place of the continuum limit Navier-Stokes and Euler equations. The BGK-type equations describe the fluid in terms of phase space variables, and, in three space dimensions, require 6 independent phase-space variables (3 for space and 3 for velocity) for accurate simulation. This requires sophisticated numerical algorithms and efficient code to realize predictions over desired space and time scales. …


Synthesis Of Cuo/Zno And Mgo/Zno Core/Shell Nanoparticles With Plasma Jets And Study Of Their Structural And Optical Properties, Raghad S. Mohammed, Kadhim A. Aadim, Khalid A. Ahmed May 2022

Synthesis Of Cuo/Zno And Mgo/Zno Core/Shell Nanoparticles With Plasma Jets And Study Of Their Structural And Optical Properties, Raghad S. Mohammed, Kadhim A. Aadim, Khalid A. Ahmed

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

This paper reports the synthesis of CuO/ZnO and MgO/ZnO core/shell nanoparticles using atmospheric plasma jets. The characterization of the synthesized CuO/ZnO and MgO/ZnO core/shell nanoparticles were confirmed by a series of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–Vis spectroscopy. The XRD analysis confirmed no other peaks related to the secondary phases for CuO, MgO, or ZnO, indicating the purity of these nanoparticles. Additionally, EDX analysis confirmed the formation of high purity CuO/ZnO and MgO/ZnO core/shell nanoparticles. The surface morphology, which represented the high agglomeration rate, was investigated using …


Structural And Spectroscopic Analysis For Silver Bulk And Nanoparticles, Hajir M. Fadhil, Khaleel I. Hassoon, Hyder A. Salih May 2022

Structural And Spectroscopic Analysis For Silver Bulk And Nanoparticles, Hajir M. Fadhil, Khaleel I. Hassoon, Hyder A. Salih

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

In this research work, a pulsed Nd-YْAG laser having a wavelength of 1064 nm and energy (400-700 mJ (has been utilized as a source in an induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) experiment to determine the density of electron and the tem-perature of Ag-plasma. Two forms of silver (as a bulk and as a compressed nano powder) have been used as targets in the LIBSs setup. The aim of the present work is to study the impact of target properties and laser energy on the plasma fea-tures formed by the interaction between a pulsed laser and these two forms of silver. The …


Particle-In-Cell Simulations Of Ion Dynamics In A Pinched-Beam Diode, Jesse C. Foster, John W. Mcclory, S. B. B. Swanekamp, D. D. Hinshelwood, A. S. Richardson, Paul E. Adamson, J. W. Schumer, R. W. James, P. F. Ottinger, D. Mosher May 2022

Particle-In-Cell Simulations Of Ion Dynamics In A Pinched-Beam Diode, Jesse C. Foster, John W. Mcclory, S. B. B. Swanekamp, D. D. Hinshelwood, A. S. Richardson, Paul E. Adamson, J. W. Schumer, R. W. James, P. F. Ottinger, D. Mosher

Faculty Publications

article-in-cell simulations of a 1.6 MV, 800 kA, and 50 ns pinched-beam diode have been completed with emphasis placed on the quality of the ion beams produced. Simulations show the formation of multiple regions in the electron beam flow characterized by locally high charge and current density (“hot spots”). As ions flow through the electron-space-charge cloud, these hot spots electrostatically attract ions to produce a non-uniform ion current distribution. The length of the cavity extending beyond the anode-to-cathode gap (i.e., behind the cathode tip) influences both the number and amplitude of hot spots. A longer cavity length increases the number …


Tokamak 3d Heat Load Investigations Using An Integrated Simulation Framework, Thomas Looby May 2022

Tokamak 3d Heat Load Investigations Using An Integrated Simulation Framework, Thomas Looby

Doctoral Dissertations

Reactor class nuclear fusion tokamaks will be inherently complex. Thousands of interconnected systems that span orders of magnitude in physical scale must operate cohesively for the machine to function. Because these reactor class tokamaks are all in an early design stage, it is difficult to quantify exactly how each subsystem will act within the context of the greater systems. Therefore, to predict the engineering parameters necessary to design the machine, simulation frameworks that can model individual systems as well as the interfaced systems are necessary. This dissertation outlines a novel framework developed to couple otherwise disparate computational domains together into …


Towards The Production Of A Self-Consistent Phase Space Distribution, Austin Hoover May 2022

Towards The Production Of A Self-Consistent Phase Space Distribution, Austin Hoover

Doctoral Dissertations

A self-consistent phase space distribution is a charged particle beam in which the electric field has a linear dependence on the particle coordinates, and in which the linearity of the electric field is conserved as the beam is transported through arbitrary linear focusing fields. These features could increase the possible beam intensity in a circular accelerator by minimizing/eliminating the space charge tune shift/spread. Additionally, the uniform density of known self-consistent distributions would be ideal for fixed-target applications. Finally, certain self-consistent distributions can be flattened by exploiting the relationships between their phases space coordinates and would therefore be useful in a …


Electrothermal Plenum Thruster Simulations Varying Input Pressure And Voltage, Naomi Nicole Ingram May 2022

Electrothermal Plenum Thruster Simulations Varying Input Pressure And Voltage, Naomi Nicole Ingram

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

A radiofrequency electrothermal thruster is designed and simulated to create a low ionization energy plasma from a neutral propellant using a radio-frequency power. With an asymmetrical surface area ratio between the grounded and powered electrode, ion-neutral charge exchange collisions occurring within the propellant result in propellant heating. The Electrothermal Plenum Thruster conducts this propellant heating in an annular plenum chamber in attempt to maximize propellant heating. A software called CFD-ACE+ is utilized to demonstrate the effects of an enhanced sheath from the asymmetrical power coupling arrangement. Two sets of simulations are run to understand how input variables affect the plasma …