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Determining Bulk Aerosol Absorption From Off Axis Backscattering Using Rayleigh Beacon Laser Pulses, Julie C. Grossnickle 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Determining Bulk Aerosol Absorption From Off Axis Backscattering Using Rayleigh Beacon Laser Pulses, Julie C. Grossnickle

Theses and Dissertations

Aerosol absorption and scattering can play a key role in degrading high energy laser performance in the form of thermal blooming and beam attenuation. Aerosol absorption properties are not completely understood, and thus affect how we are able to quantify expected high energy laser weapon performance. The Air Force Institute of Technology Center for Directed Energy (AFIT CDE) developed both Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) and the High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) code to characterize atmospheric radiative transfer effects and evaluate expected directed energy weapon system performance. These packages enable modeling of total irradiance at given ...


Laser Shock Peening Pressure Impulse Determination Via Empirical Data-Matching With Optimization Software, Colin C. Engebretsen 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Laser Shock Peening Pressure Impulse Determination Via Empirical Data-Matching With Optimization Software, Colin C. Engebretsen

Theses and Dissertations

Laser shock peening (LSP) is a form of work hardening by means of laser induced pressure impulse. LSP imparts compressive residual stresses which can improve fatigue life of metallic alloys for structural use. The finite element modeling (FEM) of LSP is typically done by applying an assumed pressure impulse, as useful experimental measurement of this pressure impulse has not been adequately accomplished. This shortfall in the field is a current limitation to the accuracy of FE modeling, and was addressed in the current work. A novel method was tested to determine the pressure impulse shape in time and space by ...


Laser Induced Thermal Degradation Of Carbon Fiber-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Laminates, Joshua A. Key 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Laser Induced Thermal Degradation Of Carbon Fiber-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Laminates, Joshua A. Key

Theses and Dissertations

Recent advancements in fiber laser technology have increased interest in target material interactions and the development of thermal protection layers for tactical laser defense. A significant material of interest is carbon fiber reinforced polymers due to their increased use in aircraft construction. In this work, the thermal response of carbon fiber-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid composites exposed to average irradiances of 0.87-6.8 W/cm2 were observed using a FLIR sc6900 thermal camera. The camera had a pixel resolution of 640x512 which resulted in a spatial resolution of 0.394x0.383 mm/pixel for the front and 0.463x0 ...


Cn And C2 Spectroscopy On The Pulsed Ablation Of Graphite In The Visible Spectrum, Brandon A. Pierce 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Cn And C2 Spectroscopy On The Pulsed Ablation Of Graphite In The Visible Spectrum, Brandon A. Pierce

Theses and Dissertations

An experimental study was conducted on the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of graphite using a KrF laser at a fluence of 3.8 J/cm2 in Air, Ar, He, and N2. Optical emissions spectroscopy revealed the C2 Swan sequences and the CN Violet sequences. A spectroscopic model was developed to extract the molecular rotational and vibrational temperatures of each excited species for t=0.5-10 microseconds after laser irradiation. The rovibrational temperatures were found to vary with background gas for the CN Violet; however, only the vibrational temperature varied between He and the other background gases for ...


Si Nanocrystal Synthesis Via Double Implantation And Variable Implantation, James M. Gaudet 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Si Nanocrystal Synthesis Via Double Implantation And Variable Implantation, James M. Gaudet

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Silicon (Si) nanocrystals (nc) precipitated from silicon-implanted silicon oxide (SiO2) are of interest as a novel light source for illumination, biomedical applications, optical computing, etc. They have some advantages over conventional III-V compound semiconductor nanocrystals produced by colloidal synthesis. They are compatible with Si/SiO2 based semiconductor processing, are stable, non-toxic at point of synthesis and consumption, and their luminescence falls with the infrared transmission window of biological materials. Unfortunately, synthesis of Si-nc embedded SiO2 is uneconomical and is not as amenable to precise control of the size distribution of nanocrystals as is the case for III-V ...


Characterization Of A Plasma Source Simulating Solar Wind Plasma In A Vacuum Chamber, Blake Anthony Folta 2020 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Characterization Of A Plasma Source Simulating Solar Wind Plasma In A Vacuum Chamber, Blake Anthony Folta

Masters Theses

"The United States has set an aggressive time line to not only return to the Moon, but also to establish a sustained human presence. In the Apollo missions dust was a significant factor, but the duration of those missions was short so dust and surface charging were problems, but they did not pose an immediate threat. For a long-term mission, these problems instead become incredibly detrimental. Because of this, research needs to be conducted to investigate these phenomena so that mitigation techniques can be developed and tested. To this end, this thesis serves to demonstrate the Gas and Plasma Dynamics ...


Minimizing The Duration Of Isolated Attosecond Pulses, Dian Peng, Anthony F. Starace, Hua-Chieh Shao, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Minimizing The Duration Of Isolated Attosecond Pulses, Dian Peng, Anthony F. Starace, Hua-Chieh Shao, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap

Anthony F. Starace Publications

We investigate theoretically how the duration of an isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) can be minimized by carefully selecting frequencies of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectra produced by ultrashort driving laser pulses. Based on numerical calculations of HHG by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a single H atom, we provide three strategies for generating shorter IAPs. First, when the high-frequency region of an HHG plateau is selected one should use frequencies below the cutoff. Second, for a wide HHG plateau the low-frequency region can produce shorter IAPs than the high-frequency region. Third, we propose a method of producing IAPs with ...


Control Of Charged Particle Dynamics And Electron Power Absorption Dynamics Utilizing Voltage Waveform Tailoring In Capacitively Driven Radio-Frequency Plasmas, Steven W. Brandt 2020 West Virginia University

Control Of Charged Particle Dynamics And Electron Power Absorption Dynamics Utilizing Voltage Waveform Tailoring In Capacitively Driven Radio-Frequency Plasmas, Steven W. Brandt

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In this work, experimental measurements and analysis of numerical simulations are performed for capacitively coupled plasmas driven by tailored voltage waveforms under conditions which examine complicating factors present in industrial processes, including the influence of resonance effects, electronegative gases or gas mixtures, and plasma-surface interactions at a changing plasma-surface interface. Furthermore, the influence of different tailored voltage waveforms on the spatio-temporal electron power absorption, the generation of a DC self-bias, and on process relevant plasma parameters like ion energy distribution functions is investigated to provide a more complete understanding of the underlying fundamental plasma physics responsible for sustaining the discharge ...


Birefringent Optofluidic Gratings, Sergio Calixto, JOSE L. GARCIA-CORDERO, DIANA F. CEDILLO-ALCANTAR, Izabela Naydenova, GUILLERMO GARNICA 2020 Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico

Birefringent Optofluidic Gratings, Sergio Calixto, Jose L. Garcia-Cordero, Diana F. Cedillo-Alcantar, Izabela Naydenova, Guillermo Garnica

Articles

A set of parallel microfluidic channels behaving as a diffraction grating operating in the Raman-Nath regime has been fabricated and studied. The diffraction efficiency of such structure can be tuned by selecting a liquid with a particular refractive index and/or optical anisotropy. Alternatively the optical properties of the liquid can be characterised by measuring the diffraction efficiency and the state of polarization of the diffracted beam. In this work, the microfluidic channels under study have been filled with penicillin molecules dissolved in water. Due to the chirality of the penicillin, the liquid has been found to have circular birefringence ...


Interfacial Current Distribution Between Helium Plasma Jet And Water Solution, Sui Wang, Dingxin Liu, Zifeng Wang, Yifan Liu, Qiaosong Li, Xiaohua Wang, Michael G. Kong, Mingzhe Rong 2020 Old Dominion University

Interfacial Current Distribution Between Helium Plasma Jet And Water Solution, Sui Wang, Dingxin Liu, Zifeng Wang, Yifan Liu, Qiaosong Li, Xiaohua Wang, Michael G. Kong, Mingzhe Rong

Bioelectrics Publications

The plasma-liquid interaction holds great importance for a number of emerging applications such as plasma biomedicine, yet a main fundamental question remains about the nature of the physiochemical processes occurring at the plasma-liquid interface. In this paper, the interfacial current distribution between helium plasma jet and water solution was measured for the first time by means of the splitting electrode method, which was borrowed from the field of arc plasma. For a plasma plume in continuous mode, it was found that the mean absolute current distribution at the plasma-liquid interface typically had an annular shape. This shape could be affected ...


Interpretations Of Bicoherence In Space & Lab Plasma Dynamics, Gregory Allen Riggs 2020 West Virginia University

Interpretations Of Bicoherence In Space & Lab Plasma Dynamics, Gregory Allen Riggs

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The application of bicoherence analysis to plasma research, particularly in non-linear, coupled-wave regimes, has thus far been significantly belied by poor resolution in time, and/or outright destruction of frequency information. Though the typical power spectrum cloaks the phase-coherency between frequencies, Fourier transforms of higher-order convolutions provide an n-dimensional spectrum which is adept at elucidating n-wave phase coherence. As such, this investigation focuses on the utility of the normalized bispectrum for detection of wave-wave coupling in general, with emphasis on distinct implications within the scope of non-linear plasma physics. Interpretations of bicoherent features are given for time series ...


A Review Of Ball Lightning Models, Amir Abdallah, Kyle Castleberry, Anyauna Spikes, Khadeem Coumarbatch, Joshua Ballard-Myer, Nick Palmer, Hasitha Mahabaduge 2019 Georgia College and State University

A Review Of Ball Lightning Models, Amir Abdallah, Kyle Castleberry, Anyauna Spikes, Khadeem Coumarbatch, Joshua Ballard-Myer, Nick Palmer, Hasitha Mahabaduge

Georgia Journal of Science

Ball lightning is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the atmosphere. However due to its brevity and rarity, its occurrence is not well understood. Three models based on electromagnetic properties are discussed in this paper to explain the rare phenomenon of ball lightning. The first model incorporates the idea of electron bunching, electrons moving with different velocities. This creates a plasma bubble by recombining electrons with ionized gas to form plasma that is stabilized by a standing microwave. The second model explains the idea of streamers being tangled and linked in a magnetic field while stabilized by the conservation of ...


Effect Of Ar(3p54p; 2p)+M -> Ar(3p54s; 1s)+M Branching Ratio On Optically Pumped Rare Gas Laser Performance, Daniel J. Emmons II, David E. Weeks 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Effect Of Ar(3p54p; 2p)+M -> Ar(3p54s; 1s)+M Branching Ratio On Optically Pumped Rare Gas Laser Performance, Daniel J. Emmons Ii, David E. Weeks

Faculty Publications

Optically pumped rare gas laser performance is analyzed as a function of the Ar(3p54p; 2p) + M → Ar(3p54s; 1s) + M branching ratios. Due to the uncertainty in the branching ratios, a sensitivity study is performed to determine the effect on output and absorbed pump laser intensities. The analysis is performed using a radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge as the source of metastable production for a variety of Argon in Helium mixtures over pressures ranging from 200 to 500 Torr. Peak output laser intensities show a factor of 7 increase as the branching ratio is increased ...


Charged Fusion Product Plasma Diagnostics In Spherical Tokamaks, Alexander Netepenko 2019 Florida International University

Charged Fusion Product Plasma Diagnostics In Spherical Tokamaks, Alexander Netepenko

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Charged fusion products from the D(d,p)t reaction, protons (p) and tritons (t), can be detected to obtain time and position dependent information on the fusion reaction profile in plasmas heated with neutral particles beams. We have developed a prototype instrument consisting of charged particle detectors with ion-implanted-silicon surface barrier detectors. Each detector is combined with two replaceable collimators in such a way that it can accept protons and tritons emitted from a well-defined area inside the plasma. The detectors thus provide curved views across the plasma volume.

Combining the data of all six detectors allows one to ...


Experimental Testing Of A 3d-Printed Metamaterial Slow Wave Structure For High Power Microwave Generation, Antonio B. de Alleluia 2019 The University of New Mexico

Experimental Testing Of A 3d-Printed Metamaterial Slow Wave Structure For High Power Microwave Generation, Antonio B. De Alleluia

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

A metamaterial (MTM) high power microwave (HPM) vacuum electron device (VED) was developed using 3D printing technology. The specific geometric pattern of the source can produce both negative permittivity and permeability to interact with a relativistic electron beam. The electron beam is generated using a pulsed electron accelerator with a maximum energy of 700 keV and lasting approximately 16 ns. The design of this novel VED consists of a circular waveguide loaded with complementary split-ring resonators in a linear periodic arrangement in which the relativistic beam travels guided by a magnetic field. The electrons interact with the MTM producing electromagnetic ...


Measurement Of Electron Density And Temperature From Laser-Induced Nitrogen Plasma At Elevated Pressure (1–6 Bar), Ashwin P. Rao, Mark Gragston, Anil K. Patnaik, Paul S. Hsu, Michael B. Shattan 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Measurement Of Electron Density And Temperature From Laser-Induced Nitrogen Plasma At Elevated Pressure (1–6 Bar), Ashwin P. Rao, Mark Gragston, Anil K. Patnaik, Paul S. Hsu, Michael B. Shattan

Faculty Publications

Laser-induced plasmas experience Stark broadening and shifts of spectral lines carrying spectral signatures of plasma properties. In this paper, we report time-resolved Stark broadening measurements of a nitrogen triplet emission line at 1–6 bar ambient pressure in a pure nitrogen cell. Electron densities are calculated using the Stark broadening for different pressure conditions, which are shown to linearly increase with pressure. Additionally, using a Boltzmann fit for the triplet, the electron temperature is calculated and shown to decrease with increasing pressure. The rate of plasma cooling is observed to increase with pressure. The reported Stark broadening based plasma diagnostics ...


Nonlinear Characterizing Of A New Titanium Nitride On Aluminum Oxide Metalens, Michael A. Cumming 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Nonlinear Characterizing Of A New Titanium Nitride On Aluminum Oxide Metalens, Michael A. Cumming

Theses and Dissertations

A sample metalens generated from Titanium Nitride deposited onto Aluminum Oxide was designed to focus at 10 microns with a beam centered at 800nm, and when analyzed with high intensity illumination was found to have a focal length of 9.650 ±.003µm at an intensity of 16.93[MW/cm2 ]. Analyzing this change by comparing it to a Fresnel Lens’ physics shows that for this lens, the effective nonlinear index of refraction is certainly greater than the nonlinear index of just Titanium Nitride itself, at −1.6239 × 10−15[m2/W] compared to the materials −1.3 × 10 ...


Characterization Of Argon And Ar/Cl2 Plasmas Used For The Processing Of Niobium Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities, Jeremy J. Peshl 2019 Old Dominion University

Characterization Of Argon And Ar/Cl2 Plasmas Used For The Processing Of Niobium Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities, Jeremy J. Peshl

Physics Theses & Dissertations

The plasma processing of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities has shown significant promise as a complementary or possible replacement for the current wet etch processes. Empirical relationships between the user-controlled external parameters and the effectiveness of Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) for the removal of surface layers of bulk niobium have been previously established. However, a lack of a physical description of the etching discharge, particularly as the external parameters are varied, limits the development of this technology. A full understanding of how these external parameters affect both the amount of material removed and the physical properties of the plasma would aid ...


Pulse Power Effects On Transient Plasma Ignition For Combustion, David Wayne Alderman II 2019 Old Dominion University

Pulse Power Effects On Transient Plasma Ignition For Combustion, David Wayne Alderman Ii

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Transient plasma ignition (TPI) uses highly non-equilibrium plasmas, driven by less than 100 nanosecond, high-voltage pulses, to initiate combustion. The effects of pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and ultrashort nanosecond rise times on TPI are investigated in this work using lean, stoichiometric, and rich air-fuel mixtures at atmospheric pressure. Experimental data show the transient plasmas driven by ultrashort rise time, high voltage pulses at high PRF’s enhance the combustion of lean or stoichiometric air-methane mixtures in a static chamber. In particular, increasing PRF enhances the combustion performance by means of reduced delay times independent of the equivalence ratio of the ...


Obituary: Anthony Starace (1945-2019), 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Obituary: Anthony Starace (1945-2019)

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Anthony Starace, George Holmes University Professor of physics, died Sept. 5 from complications related to pancreatitis. He was 74.

Starace was born July 24, 1945, in the Queens borough of New York City. He graduated from Stuyvesant High School and earned his bachelor’s degree from Columbia University in 1966 before moving west to the University of Chicago, where he earned his doctorate under adviser Ugo Fano in 1971. It was in Chicago that he met Katherine Fritz of Beatrice, Nebraska, his wife of 51 years.

Following a postdoctoral appointment at Imperial College London, Starace moved to Lincoln as an ...


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