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Investigating The Angular Momentum Of Dusty Plasma Multi-Rings, Isaac M. Long, Kiser Z. Colley 2021 Ohio Northern University

Investigating The Angular Momentum Of Dusty Plasma Multi-Rings, Isaac M. Long, Kiser Z. Colley

ONU Student Research Colloquium

Multi-ring dusty plasma systems were created using a grooved rf electrode. These complex plasma systems had distinct sections consisting of a certain number of rings (1 ring section, 2 ring section, 3 ring section, 4 ring section). These rings had the tendency to rotate azimuthally about the center of the electrode, which allowed for a sectional angular velocity (ω) to be calculated. It was determined that as the number of dust rings (therefore the mass) increased, ω decreased which agrees with conservation of angular momentum. The pressure was also varied and it was found that as pressure increased, the width ...


Stellarator Optimization With Poloidal Field Coils, Haley Wilson, Andrew Ware, Aaron Bader, Chris Hegna 2021 The University Of Montana

Stellarator Optimization With Poloidal Field Coils, Haley Wilson, Andrew Ware, Aaron Bader, Chris Hegna

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

Stellarators are devices that use magnetic fields to optimize the conditions needed for plasmas to undergo fusion. Unlike tokamaks, stellarators do not rely on a plasma current but can produce a helical magnetic field using only external coils. In a stellarator, the coils surrounding the plasma are called modular coils and those that follow the plasma are called poloidal field coils. Modular coils can be difficult to build if they are too complex. An effort is underway to develop coil conditions that meet both physics and engineering constraints. The FOCUS code was developed to flexibly optimize stellarator coil configurations [C ...


Equations Of State For Warm Dense Carbon From Quantum Espresso, Derek J. Schauss 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Equations Of State For Warm Dense Carbon From Quantum Espresso, Derek J. Schauss

Theses and Dissertations

Warm dense plasma is the matter that exists, roughly, in the range of 10,000 to 10,000,000 Kelvin and has solid-like densities, typically between 0.1 and 10 grams per centimeter. Warm dense fluids like hydrogen, helium, and carbon are believed to make up the interiors of many planets, white dwarfs, and other stars in our universe. The existence of warm dense matter (WDM) on Earth, however, is very rare, as it can only be created with high-energy sources like a nuclear explosion. In such an event, theoretical and computational models that accurately predict the response of certain ...


Single And Multi-Photon Laser Induced Fluorescence For Electric Thruster And Fusion Applications, Thomas E. Steinberger 2021 West Virginia University

Single And Multi-Photon Laser Induced Fluorescence For Electric Thruster And Fusion Applications, Thomas E. Steinberger

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Single and Multi-photon Laser Induced Fluorescence for Electric Thruster and Fusion Applications

Thomas Edward Steinberger

Laser-based diagnostics are increasingly sought after to investigate a variety of plasmas due to their non-perturbative capabilities. Specifically, laser induced fluorescence (LIF) provides a highly localized and precise spectroscopic technique to measure absolute density, temperature, and bulk flow. In this work, LIF and two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) are used to investigate electric propulsion and fusion-relevant plasmas, respectively. Ion velocity distribution functions (IVDF) of singly ionized atomic iodine (I II) are measured for the first time and lineshape characteristics are presented for the diagnosis ...


Beam Spin Asymmetry In Semi-Inclusive Electroproduction Of Hadron Pairs, M. J. Amaryan, M. Hattawy, S. E. Kuhn, Y. Prok, J. Zhang, Z. W. Zhao, et al., CLAS Collaboration 2021 Old Dominion University

Beam Spin Asymmetry In Semi-Inclusive Electroproduction Of Hadron Pairs, M. J. Amaryan, M. Hattawy, S. E. Kuhn, Y. Prok, J. Zhang, Z. W. Zhao, Et Al., Clas Collaboration

Physics Faculty Publications

A first measurement of the longitudinal beam spin asymmetry ALU in the semi-inclusive electroproduction of pairs of charged pions is reported. ALU is a higher-twist observable and offers the cleanest access to the nucleon twist-3 parton distribution function e(x). Data have been collected in the Hall-B at Jefferson Lab by impinging a 5.498-GeV electron beam on a liquid-hydrogen target, and reconstructing the scattered electron and the pion pair with the CLAS detector. One-dimensional projections of the AsinLUϕR moments are extracted for the kinematic variables of interest in the valence quark region. The understanding ...


Setting Constraints On The Lunar Exosphere: A Comprehensive Analysis Of Velocity Resolved Sodium And Potassium Line Profile Measurements, Dona Chathuni P. Kuruppuaratchi 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Setting Constraints On The Lunar Exosphere: A Comprehensive Analysis Of Velocity Resolved Sodium And Potassium Line Profile Measurements, Dona Chathuni P. Kuruppuaratchi

PhD Dissertations and Master's Theses

This dissertation outlines and presents the most comprehensive set of velocity-resolved measurements of sodium D2 (5889.9509 Å) lines taken over multiple lunations spanning seven years (2011 – 2017). These data are used to study the morphology and dynamics of the lunar exosphere. Additionally, potassium D1 (7698.9646 Å) is used as a complement to sodium. The two species approach, with sodium being the main attraction, provides constraints on the critical drivers of the lunar exosphere. Observations were made at the National Solar Observatory McMath – Pierce Telescope, Kitt Peak, Arizona where I personally collected both sodium and potassium data over about ...


Effects Of The Radiation Belt On The Plasmasphere Distribution, Stefan Thonnard 2020 Utah State University

Effects Of The Radiation Belt On The Plasmasphere Distribution, Stefan Thonnard

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the interaction of plasma, ions and electrons created by Solar illumination in the Earth’s upper atmosphere, that travels along magnetic field lines filling the Plasmasphere, and the naturally occurring trapped particles known as the outer radiation belt. Although these two science disciplines have been largely worked independent of each other due the vast differences in the energy of the particles, recent satellite observations indicate a large population of particles with lower energy and greater mass also exist in the outer radiation belt. This study shows that during conditions of low solar output in an 11-year cycle ...


Applications Of Cathodoluminescence In Plasmonic Nanostructures And Ultrathin Inas Quantum Layers, Qigeng Yan 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Applications Of Cathodoluminescence In Plasmonic Nanostructures And Ultrathin Inas Quantum Layers, Qigeng Yan

Theses and Dissertations

Due to the advanced focusing ability, characterization methods based on the electron-beam excitation have been broadly applied to investigate nanomaterials. Structural or compositional information is commonly acquired using electron microscopes. Moreover, taking advantage of the super spatial resolution of the focused electron beam, optical properties of nanomaterials can be also obtained. Herein, general concepts and processes of the interaction between electrons and materials are studied. Two specific optical nanomaterials, including plasmonic nanostructures and semiconductor quantum layers, are investigated by the cathodoluminescence (CL) measurement.

Surface plasmonic resonance can be generated when high-energy electrons strike the interface between the dielectric medium and ...


Investigation Of The Chemical Kinetics In An Atmospheric Cold Plasma Towards Co2 Conversion, Daniel Piatek 2020 Seton Hall University

Investigation Of The Chemical Kinetics In An Atmospheric Cold Plasma Towards Co2 Conversion, Daniel Piatek

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (CO2) to methanol (CH3OH) is a promising route for utilization of excess and residual CO2. The conversion of CO to methanol is a well-developed process but the ability to use CO2 as a feed gas still requires high pressures (30-300 atm) to attain conversion. In this work, the hydrogenation of CO2 is explored using H2O as well as H2 in an atmospheric pressure nonthermal (cold) plasma created with a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Different gas mixtures such as argon (Ar) and helium (He) are used to understand their interactions in the process of CO2 hydrogenation ...


Characterization Of A Novel Double Cooled Electrode Dbd Reactor For Ozone Generation, Gustavo Duarte 2020 Seton Hall University

Characterization Of A Novel Double Cooled Electrode Dbd Reactor For Ozone Generation, Gustavo Duarte

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) is used to generate atmospheric or higher-pressure non-thermal plasmas and has found various commercial applications such as in industrial large-scale ozone generation. Ozone (O3 ) is a powerful chemical reactant that is used to kill bacteria, to deodorize and to perform water purification. The effectiveness of the DBD reactors depends on the electrode arrangements, gap lengths, dielectric materials, operating gases and feed gas quality to name a few. However, the production of O3 is heat sensitive. In order to prevent O3 destruction thermal cooling of the DBD is needed. The industry approach to ...


Topics In Gravitational Wave Physics, Aaron David Johnson 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Topics In Gravitational Wave Physics, Aaron David Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

We begin with a brief introduction to gravitational waves. Next we look into the origin of the Chandrasekhar transformations between the different equations found by perturbing a Schwarzschild black hole. Some of the relationships turn out to be Darboux transformations. Then we turn to GW150914, the first detected black hole binary system, to see if the nonlinear memory might be detectable by current and future detectors. Finally, we develop an updated code for computing equatorial extreme mass ratio inspirals which will be open sourced as soon as it has been generalized for arbitrary inclinations.


Cherenkov Gamma Ray Detectors On High-Energy-Density Systems, Kevin Daniel Meaney 2020 University of New Mexico

Cherenkov Gamma Ray Detectors On High-Energy-Density Systems, Kevin Daniel Meaney

Physics & Astronomy ETDs

High energy density (HED) systems are some of the most extreme environments ever created by mankind. Systems with pressures greater than 1 MBar can only be created by a handful of devices on earth, often utilizing high intensity lasers or pulsed power machines. HED systems offer a view into an extreme form of matter only seen in stellar cores, supernovas and other powerful astrophysical systems. Creating HED systems on Earth offer the possibility, if the physics and technology can be matured, to one day create a fusion power plant. If a system is hot and dense enough, the fusion reaction ...


Hot Electron Chemistry On Bimetallic Plasmonic Nanoparticles, Bryn E. Merrill, Bingjie Zhang, Jerry LaRue 2020 Chapman University

Hot Electron Chemistry On Bimetallic Plasmonic Nanoparticles, Bryn E. Merrill, Bingjie Zhang, Jerry Larue

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Catalysis provides pathways for efficient and selective chemical reactions through the lowering of energy barriers for desired products. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) show excellent promise as plasmonic catalysts. Localized surface plasmon resonances are oscillations of the electron bath at the surface of a nanoparticle that generate energetically intense electric fields and rapidly decay into energetically excited electrons. The excited electrons have the potential to destabilize strongly bound oxygen atoms through occupation of accessible anti-bonding orbitals. Tuning the anti-bonding orbitals to make them accessible for occupancy will be achieved by coating the AuNP in a thin layer of another transition metal, such ...


Characterizing Plasma With Emission Tomography-Feasibility Study On Synthetic And Experimental Data, M. Nikolić, A. Samolov, A. Godunov, L. Vušković,, S. Popović 2020 Old Dominion University

Characterizing Plasma With Emission Tomography-Feasibility Study On Synthetic And Experimental Data, M. Nikolić, A. Samolov, A. Godunov, L. Vušković,, S. Popović

Physics Faculty Publications

We present a feasibility study on different tomographic algorithms to overcome the issues of finite sets of projection data, limited viewing angles, and noisy data, which cause the tomographic reconstruction to be an ill-posed inversion problem. We investigated three approaches: single angle Abel inversion, two angle approach, and multiple angle 2D plasma tomography. These methods were tested on symmetric and asymmetric sample functions and on experimental results from a supersonic flowing argon microwave plasma sustained in a cylindrical quartz cavity. The analysis focused on the afterglow region of the microwave flow where a plasmoid-like formation was observed. We investigated the ...


Investigation Of Mnxni1-Xo Thin Films Using Pulsed Laser Deposition, Md Ashif Anwar 2020 Missouri State University

Investigation Of Mnxni1-Xo Thin Films Using Pulsed Laser Deposition, Md Ashif Anwar

MSU Graduate Theses

The exchange bias (EB) effect, especially in nanomaterials, is highly promising for use in antiferromagnet-based spintronics applications. NiO is a well known antiferromagnetic material with a high Néel temperature (525K) and can exhibit ferromagnetism/ ferrimagnetism by adding other magnetic transition elements. Our previous work has shown that the antiferromagnetic characteristics of conventional NiO insulating nanostructured material can be altered to have substantial ferrimagnetic characteristics by doping NiO with Mn or Co. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was used to grow heterostructures comprised of a nanostructured thin NiO film deposited on the surface of a MgO (100) and Al2O3 ...


240— Target Characterization Using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, Matthew G. Klein, Anthony C. Cooper, Jovahn A. Roumell 2020 SUNY Geneseo

240— Target Characterization Using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, Matthew G. Klein, Anthony C. Cooper, Jovahn A. Roumell

GREAT Day

Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) is a non-destructive ion-beam analytical technique that is used to determine properties of a target such as thickness, areal density, and elemental composition. This scattering is the result of Coulomb forces between the target atoms and the incident particle. The energy spectrum of the scattered ions depends on the atomic number of the target atoms as well as the target thickness.


1d Fluid Model Of Rf-Excited Cold Atmospheric Plasmas In Helium With Air Gas Impurities, Yifan Liu, Dingxin Liu, Jishen Zhang, Bowen Sun, Aijun Yang, Michael G. Kong 2020 Old Dominion University

1d Fluid Model Of Rf-Excited Cold Atmospheric Plasmas In Helium With Air Gas Impurities, Yifan Liu, Dingxin Liu, Jishen Zhang, Bowen Sun, Aijun Yang, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs) in helium with air gas impurities (HeþAir for abbreviation) compromise the discharge stability of helium and the chemical reactivity of air, having great prospects for various applications such as plasma biomedicine. However, different kinds of reactive species are produced in HeþAir CAPs but only a few of them could be measured, and the plasma chemistry is so complex that the reported simulation models are simplified to a large extent, such as neglecting the space variation of CAPs by using a 0D model. As a result, much remains unknown for HeþAir CAPs, which hinders the development of ...


Optimizing Llrf Parameters In The Electron-Ion Collider, William M. Bjorndahl 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Optimizing Llrf Parameters In The Electron-Ion Collider, William M. Bjorndahl

Physics

To improve particle interaction in the future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), we investigated different feedback implementations to control the accelerating voltage and examined the power and beam phase for each instance. Using MATLAB, we studied three feedback mechanisms: Direct, One Turn, and Feedforward. Enacting feedforward yielded the best performance. To minimize the klystron power consumption, we analyzed different Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) parameters such as detuning. Combining theory and simulated results, we found the optimal detuning value that minimizes klystron power consumption.


Conduction Mapping For Quality Control Of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing, Chance M. Baxter 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Conduction Mapping For Quality Control Of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing, Chance M. Baxter

Theses and Dissertations

A process was developed to identify potential defects in previous layers of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) 3D printed metal parts using a mid-IR thermal camera to track infrared 3.8-4 m band emission over time as the part cooled to ambient temperature. Efforts focused on identifying anomalies in thermal conduction. To simplify the approach and reduce the need for significant computation, no attempts were made to calibrate measured intensity, extract surface temperature, apply machine learning, or compare measured cool-down behavior to computer model predictions. Raw intensity cool-down curves were fit to a simplified functional form designed ...


Determining Bulk Aerosol Absorption From Off Axis Backscattering Using Rayleigh Beacon Laser Pulses, Julie C. Grossnickle 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Determining Bulk Aerosol Absorption From Off Axis Backscattering Using Rayleigh Beacon Laser Pulses, Julie C. Grossnickle

Theses and Dissertations

Aerosol absorption and scattering can play a key role in degrading high energy laser performance in the form of thermal blooming and beam attenuation. Aerosol absorption properties are not completely understood, and thus affect how we are able to quantify expected high energy laser weapon performance. The Air Force Institute of Technology Center for Directed Energy (AFIT CDE) developed both Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) and the High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) code to characterize atmospheric radiative transfer effects and evaluate expected directed energy weapon system performance. These packages enable modeling of total irradiance at given ...


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