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Cardiovascular System Commons

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A Perfusion Decellularization Heart Model - An Interesting Tool For Cell-Matrix Interaction Studies, Mihai Meșină, Ion Mîndrilă, Cristian Mesina, Cosmin Vasile Obleagă, Octavian Istrătoaie 2019 Fundeni Clinical Institute of Bucharest, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Bucharest, Romania

A Perfusion Decellularization Heart Model - An Interesting Tool For Cell-Matrix Interaction Studies, Mihai Meșină, Ion Mîndrilă, Cristian Mesina, Cosmin Vasile Obleagă, Octavian Istrătoaie

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Objective. In this paper, we present a technique for whole human, pig, or rat heart decellularization in order to obtain a tool for cell-matrix interaction studies and to obtain the extracellular matrix scaffold with applications to the study of cardiac connective tissue architecture for tissue bioengineering.

Material and methods. In order to achieve tissue decellularization we present two separate protocols, the first for large animal hearts (e.g., pig hearts) and human hearts, the second for smaller hearts (e.g., rat hearts). We have performed the cardiac decellularization technique on 20 pig hearts, 5 human hearts, and 20 rat hearts ...


Aortoduodenal Fistula Forms From Primary Aortic Stump Graft In A Two-Time Multi-Visceral Transplant Patient With Presentation Of Gastrointestinal Bleed And Bowel Perforation: A Case Report, Brielle Corrente 2019 Duquesne University

Aortoduodenal Fistula Forms From Primary Aortic Stump Graft In A Two-Time Multi-Visceral Transplant Patient With Presentation Of Gastrointestinal Bleed And Bowel Perforation: A Case Report, Brielle Corrente

Graduate Student Research Symposium

Usually not diagnosed until open laparotomy, aortoduodenalfistulas (ADF) are one of the rarest complications of intestinal transplant surgery. With an incidence rate of only 0.04% at autopsy and only 250 documented cases since the early 1800’s, aortoduodenal fistulas are the most deadly complications of intestinal transplantation with a mortality rate of 100% without surgical intervention. A 39 year old, two-time multi-visceral transplant African American female patient suffered from a primary aortoduodenal fistula formation in a primary modified multi-visceral transplant aortic stump graft site. With emergency open laparotomy repair, revascularization of the secondary multi-visceral transplant was performed, saving the ...


An Anatomical And Functional Analysis Of Digital Arteries, Katie Highsmith 2019 University of Lynchburg

An Anatomical And Functional Analysis Of Digital Arteries, Katie Highsmith

Student Scholar Showcase

Blood flow to the tissue of the hands and digits is efficiently regulated by vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Through a series of cadaveric dissection, we examined arteries in the hands and digits, including ulnar artery, radial artery, palmar arteries, and digital arteries, for their distribution (branching) patterns and morphological parameters (e.g., thickness, length between branches, external and internal diameters). Using data directly collected from three female cadavers as input variables to our mathematical model, we simulated vasoconstriction (-20% and -10% diameter) and vasodilation (+10% and +20 diameter) to evaluate the extent of changes in blood volume and flow within the ...


Histone Deacetylase 1 And 2 Are Essential For Early Cardiac Development, Zachary J. Milstone 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Histone Deacetylase 1 And 2 Are Essential For Early Cardiac Development, Zachary J. Milstone

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital anomaly, affecting approximately 1% of all live births each year. Although clinical interventions are improving, many affected infants do not survive to adulthood. Congenital cardiac defects originate from disturbances during development, making the study of mammalian cardiogenesis critical to improving outcomes for infants with congenital heart disease. Development of the mammalian heart involves epigenetically-driven specification and commitment of a diverse landscape of cardiac progenitors. Recent studies determined that chromatin modifying enzymes play a previously underappreciated role in the pathogenesis of congenital heart defects. This thesis investigates the functions of Hdac1 and Hdac2 ...


Arterial Distribution Of The Human Aorta: An Examination Of The Evolutionary, Developmental, And Physiological Bases Of Asymmetry., Brandon Oddo, Cooker Storm 2019 Pepperdine University

Arterial Distribution Of The Human Aorta: An Examination Of The Evolutionary, Developmental, And Physiological Bases Of Asymmetry., Brandon Oddo, Cooker Storm

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The study of anatomy contends that “form follows function”; a disciplinary theme purporting that anatomical structures (i.e., cells, tissues, and organs) have a shape that serves its proper function. With this in mind, it is unclear why human arterial distribution off the aortic arch is asymmetrical, while the corresponding venous anatomy is symmetrical. We investigated the evolutionary, developmental, and physiological bases for the asymmetry of aortic arch branches in humans. First, we investigated the cardiovascular anatomy of ancestral species to determine if, and at what level, anatomical divergence (from aortic symmetry to asymmetry) occurs. Second, we examined the formation ...


Getting Into The Thick (And Thin) Of It, Thomas C. Irving, Roger Craig 2019 Illinois Institute of Technology

Getting Into The Thick (And Thin) Of It, Thomas C. Irving, Roger Craig

Radiology Publications

The heart is a highly regulated system in which a combination of mechanisms work together to match cardiac output to the needs of the body. Loss of this regulation characterizes many cardiomyopathies, where muscle is either hypo- or hypercontractile. For many years, x-ray diffraction has been used to study the structural basis of myofilament length-dependent activation...


Oral Saline Consumption And The Exercise Pressor Reflex, John J. Del Vecchio, Evan L. Matthews Dr., Peter A. Hosick Dr. 2019 Montclair State University

Oral Saline Consumption And The Exercise Pressor Reflex, John J. Del Vecchio, Evan L. Matthews Dr., Peter A. Hosick Dr.

Research Data

The Volume Pilot Study data represents information from participants' health history questionnaire and measurements of changes in blood pressure, heart rate, hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum sodium, and plasma volume during blood draws taken every 30 minutes for 3 hours.

The HG and CPT information was taken in the second part of the study. This data includes participant demographics and various cardiovascular measurements taken during baseline (5min), handgrip exercise (2min), post-exercise ischemia (2min), and recovery (2min). It also includes cardiovascular measurements taken during the cold pressor test which includes baseline (2min), cold pressor test (2min), and recovery (2min)


Effects Of Acute Hypoxia On Danio Rerio, Karly Crail 2019 The University of Akron

Effects Of Acute Hypoxia On Danio Rerio, Karly Crail

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this research experiment was to determine the effects of acute hypoxia on the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) cardiovascular system and assess the critical oxygen level at which embryonic function is compromised. This goal was achieved by exposing embryos to decreasing oxygen concentrations, (6.0 mg/L-0 mg/L) and observing the heart under an inverted microscope. Data analysis was conducted to determine end systolic volume, end diastolic volume, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac output. It was hypothesized that hypoxia would stimulate cardiac activity, because in early developmental stages, tissues are supplied with oxygen through bulk diffusion ...


Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Analysis Of The Equine Aortic Valve, Amber McElhinney 2019 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Analysis Of The Equine Aortic Valve, Amber Mcelhinney

Honors Theses and Capstones

This research focused on 3D echocardiography of the aortic valve (AV) in horses. Aortic regurgitation (AR) can be a common finding in older horses, and in severe cases can result in decreased performance and even sudden cardiac death. Standard AR diagnosis includes 2D echocardiography from the right side of the horse. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) records a pyramid of tissue, showing structures in the heart difficult to visualize in 2D methods, and can be more accurate as it does not rely as heavily on placement of the transducer. Nine images of normal AV’s were assessed, and still frames of anatomical ...


There Is No Association Between The Number Of Stent Retriever Passes And The Incidence Of Hemorrhagic Transformation For Patients Undergoing Mechanical Thrombectomy, Ameer E. Hassan, Hari Kotta, Umar Shariff, Laurie Preston, Wondwossen G. Tekle, Adnan Qureshi 2019 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

There Is No Association Between The Number Of Stent Retriever Passes And The Incidence Of Hemorrhagic Transformation For Patients Undergoing Mechanical Thrombectomy, Ameer E. Hassan, Hari Kotta, Umar Shariff, Laurie Preston, Wondwossen G. Tekle, Adnan Qureshi

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Background: Previous research has focused on the association between hemorrhagic transformation (HT) incidence and pre-procedural variables (i.e., baseline variables) rather than the association between HT incidence and endovascular treatment (EVT) procedural variables (e.g., stent retriever passes).

Objective: To assess the association, if any, that exists between the number of stent retriever passes per procedure and the incidence of HT for patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy.

Methods: An endovascular database from a comprehensive stroke center was used to collect data on EVT patients treated with Trevo, Solitaire, or Penumbra stent retrievers from the years 2012 to 2017. Statistical analyses were ...


New Paradigms In The Treatment Of Acute Complicated And Uncomplicated Type B Aortic Dissection, Eric S. Weiss 2018 Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center, Aurora Health Care

New Paradigms In The Treatment Of Acute Complicated And Uncomplicated Type B Aortic Dissection, Eric S. Weiss

Aurora Heart Failure / Transplant Faculty

The treatment of acute type B aortic dissection is a rapidly evolving field, due in a large part to the advent of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). This review will summarize the current literature on the management of both complicated and uncomplicated type B dissections, with special attention paid to emerging evidence supporting earlier aggressive treatment.


Mechanisms Of Left Ventricular Thrombus Formation In Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Novel Insights From Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography, Dhruv Chawla, Tracy Hammonds, Tadele Mengesha, Matt Umland, Khawaja Afzal Ammar, Vinay Thohan 2018 Aurora Cardiovascular Services

Mechanisms Of Left Ventricular Thrombus Formation In Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Novel Insights From Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography, Dhruv Chawla, Tracy Hammonds, Tadele Mengesha, Matt Umland, Khawaja Afzal Ammar, Vinay Thohan

Aurora Heart Failure / Transplant Faculty

Background: Patients suffering from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) are at increased risk for left ventricular (LV) thrombus and subsequent thromboembolism, yet anticoagulation is not routinely recommended for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) alone. We sought to determine the role of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) to quantify regional changes in cardiac function associated with LV thrombus, which may prospectively guide anticoagulation.

Purpose: Help enable cardiovascular clinicians to use 2D-STE to evaluate regional strain patterns among patients with HFrEF with and without LV thrombus. Our results suggest that statistically lower regional longitudinal strain patterns in a well-matched cohort ...


Innocent Heart Murmur., Arpan R. Doshi 2018 Children's Mercy Hospital

Innocent Heart Murmur., Arpan R. Doshi

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Heart murmur is the most common reason for a referral to a pediatric cardiologist. Virtually all children have a heart murmur during their childhood. Less than 1% of murmurs are pathological in children. Innocent/functional heart murmur is the most common type of heart murmur. There are multiple theories proposed to identify etiology of innocent heart murmur with varying consensus, but everybody agrees that innocent heart murmur does not carry any morbidity or mortality risk. Even today, heart murmur is associated with high physician uncertainty and parental anxiety. Extensive cardiac evaluation for such a benign finding is also associated with ...


Coarctation Of Aorta In Children., Arpan R. Doshi, Sathish Chikkabyrappa 2018 Children's Mercy Hospital

Coarctation Of Aorta In Children., Arpan R. Doshi, Sathish Chikkabyrappa

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Coarctation of aorta (CoA) is a discrete narrowing in aorta causing obstruction to the flow of blood. It accounts for 6-8% of all congenital heart diseases. With advances in fetal echocardiography rate of prenatal diagnosis of coarctation of aorta has improved but it still remains a challenging diagnosis to make prenatally. Transthoracic echocardiography is mainstay of making initial diagnosis and routine follow-up. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are great advanced imaging tools for two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging of aortic arch in complex cases. Based on type of coarctation, size of patient, severity of lesion, and associated ...


Equalization Of Four Cardiovascular Risk Algorithms After Systematic Recalibration: Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis Of 86 Prospective Studies, Lisa Pennells, Stephen Kaptoge, Angela Wood, Mike Sweeting, Xiaohui Zhao, Ian White, Stephen Burgess, Peter Willeit, Thomas Bolton, Karel G. M. Moons, Yvonne T. van der Schouw, Randi Selmer, Kay-Tee Khaw, Vilmundur Gudnason, Gerd Assman, Philippe Amouyel, Veikko Salomaa, Mika Kivimaki, Borge G. Nordestgaard, Michael J. Blaha, Lewis H. Kuller, Hermann Brenner, Richard F. Gillum, Christa Meisinger, Ian Ford, Matthew W. Knuiman, Annika Rosengren, Debbie A. Lawlor, Henry Volzke, Cyrus Cooper, Alejandro Marin Ibañez, Edoardo Casiglia, Jussi Kauhanen, Jackie A. Cooper, Beatriz Rodriguez, Johan Sundstrom, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Rachel Dankner, Paul J. Nietert, Karina W. Davidson, Robert B. Wallace, Dan G. Blazer, Cecilia Bjorkelund, Chiara Donfrancesco, Harlan M. Krumholz, Aulikki Nissinen, Barry R. Davis, Sean Coady, Peter H. Whincup, Torben Jorgensen, Pierre Ducimetiere, Maurizo Trevisan, Gunnar Engstrom, Carlos J. Crespo, Tom W. Meade, Marjolein Visser, Daan Kromhout, Stefan Kiechl, Makoto Daimon, Jackie F. Price, Agustin Gomez de la Camara, J. Wouter Jukema, Benoit Lamarche, Altan Onat, Leon A. Simons, Maryam Kavousi, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, John Gallacher, Jacqueline M. Dekker, Hisatomi Arima, Nawar Shara, Robert W. Tipping, Ronan Roussel, Eric J. Brunner, Wolfgang Koenig, Masaru Sakurai, Jelena Pavlovic, Ron T. Gansevoort, Dorothea Nagel, Uri Goldbourt, Elizabeth L. M. Barr, Luigi Palmieri, Inger Njolstad, Shinichi Sato, W. M. Monique Verschuren, Cherian V. Varghese, Ian Graham, Oyere Onuma, Philip Greenland, Mark Woodward, Majid Ezzati, Bruce M. Psaty, Naveed Sattar, Rod Jackson, Paul M. Ridker, Nancy R. Cook, Ralph B. D'Agostino Sr., Simone G. Thompson, John Danesh, Emanuele Di Angelantonio 2018 University of Cambridge

Equalization Of Four Cardiovascular Risk Algorithms After Systematic Recalibration: Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis Of 86 Prospective Studies, Lisa Pennells, Stephen Kaptoge, Angela Wood, Mike Sweeting, Xiaohui Zhao, Ian White, Stephen Burgess, Peter Willeit, Thomas Bolton, Karel G. M. Moons, Yvonne T. Van Der Schouw, Randi Selmer, Kay-Tee Khaw, Vilmundur Gudnason, Gerd Assman, Philippe Amouyel, Veikko Salomaa, Mika Kivimaki, Borge G. Nordestgaard, Michael J. Blaha, Lewis H. Kuller, Hermann Brenner, Richard F. Gillum, Christa Meisinger, Ian Ford, Matthew W. Knuiman, Annika Rosengren, Debbie A. Lawlor, Henry Volzke, Cyrus Cooper, Alejandro Marin Ibañez, Edoardo Casiglia, Jussi Kauhanen, Jackie A. Cooper, Beatriz Rodriguez, Johan Sundstrom, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Rachel Dankner, Paul J. Nietert, Karina W. Davidson, Robert B. Wallace, Dan G. Blazer, Cecilia Bjorkelund, Chiara Donfrancesco, Harlan M. Krumholz, Aulikki Nissinen, Barry R. Davis, Sean Coady, Peter H. Whincup, Torben Jorgensen, Pierre Ducimetiere, Maurizo Trevisan, Gunnar Engstrom, Carlos J. Crespo, Tom W. Meade, Marjolein Visser, Daan Kromhout, Stefan Kiechl, Makoto Daimon, Jackie F. Price, Agustin Gomez De La Camara, J. Wouter Jukema, Benoit Lamarche, Altan Onat, Leon A. Simons, Maryam Kavousi, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, John Gallacher, Jacqueline M. Dekker, Hisatomi Arima, Nawar Shara, Robert W. Tipping, Ronan Roussel, Eric J. Brunner, Wolfgang Koenig, Masaru Sakurai, Jelena Pavlovic, Ron T. Gansevoort, Dorothea Nagel, Uri Goldbourt, Elizabeth L. M. Barr, Luigi Palmieri, Inger Njolstad, Shinichi Sato, W. M. Monique Verschuren, Cherian V. Varghese, Ian Graham, Oyere Onuma, Philip Greenland, Mark Woodward, Majid Ezzati, Bruce M. Psaty, Naveed Sattar, Rod Jackson, Paul M. Ridker, Nancy R. Cook, Ralph B. D'Agostino Sr., Simone G. Thompson, John Danesh, Emanuele Di Angelantonio

Publications and Research

Aims: There is debate about the optimum algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk estimation. We conducted head-to-head comparisons of four algorithms recommended by primary prevention guidelines, before and after ‘recalibration’, a method that adapts risk algorithms to take account of differences in the risk characteristics of the populations being studied.

Methods & Results: Using individual-participant data on 360737 participants without CVD at baseline in 86 prospective studies from 22 countries, we compared the Framingham risk score (FRS), Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), pooled cohort equations (PCE), and Reynolds risk score (RRS). We calculated measures of risk discrimination and calibration, and modelled ...


Waardenburg Syndrome And Left Persistent Superior Vena Cava, Driss Raissi, Alexander Christie, Kimberly Applegate 2018 University of Kentucky

Waardenburg Syndrome And Left Persistent Superior Vena Cava, Driss Raissi, Alexander Christie, Kimberly Applegate

Radiology Faculty Publications

Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder secondary to neural crest cell developmental abnormalities. It is predominantly described as an auditory-pigmentary syndrome with diverse patient presentation, typically involving congenital sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation abnormalities of the skin, hair, and iris. Other developmental abnormalities that may be associated with this syndrome are Hirschsprung's disease and a myriad of cardiovascular congenital defects. We present a case of a young girl with WS who found to have a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) draining into the coronary sinus. The prevalence of PLSVC is increased in patients with chromosomal and ...


Identification Of New Genes In Congenital Heart Defects, Naomi Siddiquee 2018 University of Georgia

Identification Of New Genes In Congenital Heart Defects, Naomi Siddiquee

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease, occurring in 1 in 3000 live births. TOF is a combination of four heart defects that affect normal blood flow. Shone’s Syndrome is another rare congenital heart disease consisting of left-sided obstructive heart lesions. Although the diagnosis of both diseases is confirmed by clinical evaluation and physical examination, their pathogenesis is unknown. This research aimed to identify and characterize new genetic variants in hereditary cardiac diseases, specifically Tetralogy of Fallot and Shone’s Syndrome. Exome sequencing identified 20 nucleotide variants in different genes among TOF ...


Hyperhomocysteinemia As A Risk Factor For Vascular Contributions To Cognitive Impairment And Dementia, Brittani R. Price, Donna M. Wilcock, Erica M. Weekman 2018 University of Kentucky

Hyperhomocysteinemia As A Risk Factor For Vascular Contributions To Cognitive Impairment And Dementia, Brittani R. Price, Donna M. Wilcock, Erica M. Weekman

Physiology Faculty Publications

Behind only Alzheimer’s disease, vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the second most common cause of dementia, affecting roughly 10–40% of dementia patients. While there is no cure for VCID, several risk factors for VCID, such as diabetes, hypertension, and stroke, have been identified. Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine, termed hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), are a major, yet underrecognized, risk factor for VCID. B vitamin deficiency, which is the most common cause of HHcy, is common in the elderly. With B vitamin supplementation being a relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic, the treatment of HHcy-induced VCID would seem ...


The Role Of Cholinergic Signaling In Cardiac Function, Rachel Reingold 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of Cholinergic Signaling In Cardiac Function, Rachel Reingold

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in Canada. Treatment currently focuses on preventing the increase of sympathetic signaling seen in heart failure. However, it has recently been noted that cardiac function is dependent on parasympathetic tone. Previous studies have demonstrated the development of heart failure when cholinergic targets are knocked out in cardiomyocytes. Transgenic mouse models that have increased cholinergic transmission show protection against cardiovascular insults. We have shown that transgenic mice overexpressing vesicular acetylcholine transporter in cholinergic cells show cardiovascular protection in response to ex vivo insults. As well, this protection is seen when cholinergic ...


Editorial: Ion Channel Trafficking And Cardiac Arrhythmias, Marcel A. G. van der Heyden, Brian P. Delisle, Hugues Abriel 2018 University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands

Editorial: Ion Channel Trafficking And Cardiac Arrhythmias, Marcel A. G. Van Der Heyden, Brian P. Delisle, Hugues Abriel

Physiology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


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