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C25: The “Spot Sign”: A Predictor Of Hematoma Expansion, Mckenzie Merritt 2021 Roseman University of Health Sciences

C25: The “Spot Sign”: A Predictor Of Hematoma Expansion, Mckenzie Merritt

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Neurophysiology Of Space Medicine: A Literature Review, Jose R. Velasquez 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Neurophysiology Of Space Medicine: A Literature Review, Jose R. Velasquez

MEDI 9331 Scholarly Activities Clinical Years

Space medicine is becoming an essential and expanding clinical discipline. Acquiring a deeper and complete picture understanding of the multi-systemic response due to space on human health and function is essential to ensure the success of future space exploration. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed using PubMed and focused on the current neurophysiologic findings of the central nervous system’s response to space. Ground-based analogues, which mimic the effects of microgravity, and actual spaceflight studies have been used to analyze these physiologic adaptations to space. Overall, cerebellar, sensorimotor and vestibular brain regions seem to be affected the most ...


Quantifying And Mitigating Motor Phenotypes Induced By Antisense Oligonucleotides In The Central Nervous System [Preprint], Michael P. Moazami, Julia M. Rembetsy-Brown, Feng Wang, Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Alexandra Weiss, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Mona Motwani, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Robert H. Brown Jr., Jonathan K. Watts 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Quantifying And Mitigating Motor Phenotypes Induced By Antisense Oligonucleotides In The Central Nervous System [Preprint], Michael P. Moazami, Julia M. Rembetsy-Brown, Feng Wang, Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Alexandra Weiss, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Mona Motwani, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Robert H. Brown Jr., Jonathan K. Watts

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are emerging as a promising class of therapeutics for neurological diseases. When injected directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, ASOs distribute broadly across brain regions and exert long-lasting therapeutic effects. However, many phosphorothioate (PS)-modified gapmer ASOs show transient motor phenotypes when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid, ranging from reduced motor activity to ataxia or acute seizure-like phenotypes. The effect of sugar and phosphate modifications on these phenotypes has not previously been systematically studied. Using a behavioral scoring assay customized to reflect the timing and nature of these effects, we show that both sugar and phosphate modifications influence ...


Measuring Mitochondrial Respiration In Vivo: From Mouse To Human, Arthur Orchanian, Brennan Schilling, Bruce Berkowitz PhD 2021 Wayne State University

Measuring Mitochondrial Respiration In Vivo: From Mouse To Human, Arthur Orchanian, Brennan Schilling, Bruce Berkowitz Phd

Medical Student Research Symposium

Introduction: The mitochondrial energy ecosystem can be non-invasively interrogated in photoreceptors by combing a clinical tool, optical coherence tomography (OCT), with a mitochondrial protonophore (2,4 dinitrophenol, DNP). It remains unclear if only supra-clinical doses of DNP will be useful for mouse studies or if lower but clinically relevant doses of DNP would facilitate translation from mice to humans.

Methods: The experiment was a paired longitudinal design that took place over 2 days. On day 1, C57BL/6J mice were overnight dark adapted, then light-adapted for 5 h before OCT examination before regaining consciousness; a similar procedure was followed on ...


Glial Cell Dysfunction In C9orf72-Related Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis And Frontotemporal Dementia, Mehdi Ghasemi, Kiandokht Keyhanian, Catherine Douthwright 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Glial Cell Dysfunction In C9orf72-Related Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis And Frontotemporal Dementia, Mehdi Ghasemi, Kiandokht Keyhanian, Catherine Douthwright

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Since the discovery of the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) repeat expansion mutation in 2011 as the most common genetic abnormality in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progress in understanding the signaling pathways related to this mutation can only be described as intriguing. Two major theories have been suggested-(i) loss of function or haploinsufficiency and (ii) toxic gain of function from either C9orf72 repeat RNA or dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) generated from repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. Each theory has provided various signaling pathways that potentially participate in ...


Neuronal Post-Developmentally Acting Sax-7s/L1cam Can Function As Cleaved Fragments To Maintain Neuronal Architecture In C. Elegans [Preprint], Virginie E. Desse, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Paola N. Perrat, Claire Y. Benard 2021 Université du Québec à Montréal

Neuronal Post-Developmentally Acting Sax-7s/L1cam Can Function As Cleaved Fragments To Maintain Neuronal Architecture In C. Elegans [Preprint], Virginie E. Desse, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Paola N. Perrat, Claire Y. Benard

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Whereas remarkable advances have uncovered mechanisms that drive nervous system assembly, the processes responsible for the lifelong maintenance of nervous system architecture remain poorly understood. Subsequent to its establishment during embryogenesis, neuronal architecture is maintained throughout life in the face of the animal’s growth, maturation processes, the addition of new neurons, body movements, and aging. The C. elegans protein SAX-7, homologous to the vertebrate L1 protein family, is required for maintaining the organization of neuronal ganglia and fascicles after their successful initial embryonic development. To dissect the function of sax-7 in neuronal maintenance, we generated a null allele and ...


Cardiac Arrest And Global Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Role Of Mitochondria And Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Signaling., Jennifer L. Bradley 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Cardiac Arrest And Global Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Role Of Mitochondria And Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Signaling., Jennifer L. Bradley

Theses and Dissertations

We explored the effects of cardiac arrest on mitochondria populations and heart whole tissue lysate proteomics utilizing the Weil Institute’s in vivo rat model of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We have discovered that brain mitochondria are more sensitive to global ischemia compared to heart mitochondria. Additionally, complex I is the most sensitive electron transport chain complex to ischemic injury and is a major control point of the rate of oxidative phosphorylation following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Preservation of brain mitochondrial activity and function during cardiac arrest may enhance outcomes and recovery.

A recent article focusing on acute ...


A Meta-Analysis Of Brain Dna Methylation Across Sex, Age And Alzheimer’S Disease Points For Accelerated Epigenetic Aging In Neurodegeneration [Preprint], C. Pellegrini, Danielle Fernandes Durso, Maria Giulia Bacalini 2020 IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna

A Meta-Analysis Of Brain Dna Methylation Across Sex, Age And Alzheimer’S Disease Points For Accelerated Epigenetic Aging In Neurodegeneration [Preprint], C. Pellegrini, Danielle Fernandes Durso, Maria Giulia Bacalini

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by specific alterations of brain DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns. Age and sex, two major risk factors for AD, are also known to largely affect the epigenetic profiles in the brain, but their contribution to AD-associated DNAm changes has been poorly investigated. In this study we considered publicly available DNAm datasets of 4 brain regions (temporal, frontal, entorhinal cortex and cerebellum) from healthy adult subjects and AD patients, and performed a meta-analysis to identify sex-, age- and AD-associated epigenetic profiles. We showed that DNAm differences between males and females tend to be shared between the ...


Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin Receptor-Expressing Neurons In The Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus Regulates Maternal Behavior, Kaustubh Sharma 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin Receptor-Expressing Neurons In The Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus Regulates Maternal Behavior, Kaustubh Sharma

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin is involved in the regulation of social behaviors, including social recognition, pair bonding, and sex-specific parental behaviors in a variety of species. Oxytocin triggers these social behaviors by binding to oxytocin receptors (OXTR) in various parts of the brain. Oxytocin-induced sex-typical behavior, therefore, suggests a sexual dimorphic distribution of OXTR in the brain. In recent years, the oxytocin system in the brain received tremendous attention as a potential pharmacological target for treatment of many psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, autism spectrum disorders, and even sex-specific psychiatric disorder like postpartum depression (PPD). An important problem and a ...


Pancreatic Polypeptide But Not Other Members Of The Neuropeptide Y Family Shows A Moderate Association With Perceived Anxiety In Obese Men, Selina Johanna Schaper, Tobias Hofmann, Ellen Wolk, Elena Weibert, Matthias S. F. Rose, Andreas Stengel 2020 Humboldt University of Berlin

Pancreatic Polypeptide But Not Other Members Of The Neuropeptide Y Family Shows A Moderate Association With Perceived Anxiety In Obese Men, Selina Johanna Schaper, Tobias Hofmann, Ellen Wolk, Elena Weibert, Matthias S. F. Rose, Andreas Stengel

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) are important mediators in the bidirectional communication along the gut-brain-axis. Best known for their role in the regulation of appetite and food intake they are considered to play a crucial role in the development of obesity. Additionally, mounting evidence indicates a regulatory function in anxiety, mood and stress resilience with potential sex differences. In the present study, we examined the associations of NPY, PYY, and PP plasma levels with anxiety, depressiveness and perceived stress in obese patients. We analyzed 144 inpatients (90 female, 54 male, BMI mean: 49.4 ...


Lc–Ms/Ms-Based In Vitro And In Vivo Investigation Of Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity By Simultaneous Quantitation Of Mannitol And Sucrose, Behnam Noorani, Ekram Ahmed Chowdhury, Faleh Alqahtani, Yeseul Ahn, Dhavalkumar Patel, Abraham Al-Ahmad, Reza Mehvar, Ulrich Bickel 2020 Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center

Lc–Ms/Ms-Based In Vitro And In Vivo Investigation Of Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity By Simultaneous Quantitation Of Mannitol And Sucrose, Behnam Noorani, Ekram Ahmed Chowdhury, Faleh Alqahtani, Yeseul Ahn, Dhavalkumar Patel, Abraham Al-Ahmad, Reza Mehvar, Ulrich Bickel

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Understanding the pathophysiology of the blood brain–barrier (BBB) plays a critical role in diagnosis and treatment of disease conditions. Applying a sensitive and specific LC–MS/MS technique for the measurement of BBB integrity with high precision, we have recently introduced non-radioactive [13C12]sucrose as a superior marker substance. Comparison of permeability markers with different molecular weight, but otherwise similar physicochemical properties, can provide insights into the uptake mechanism at the BBB. Mannitol is a small hydrophilic, uncharged molecule that is half the size of sucrose. Previously only radioactive [3H]mannitol or [14C]mannitol ...


Aci-35 And Aadvac1 Active Immunotherapy As Preventative Treatment Options For Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Emily C. Boehlein 2020 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Aci-35 And Aadvac1 Active Immunotherapy As Preventative Treatment Options For Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Emily C. Boehlein

Selected Honors Theses

One of the most common, as well as one of the most dangerous injuries amongst athletes today is mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly known as concussion. Aside from physical symptoms such as nausea, dizziness, and headaches; concussions have can have longterm effects on brain physiology. A common neurological disease that can result from multiple concussions is Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), characterized by symptoms such as severe depression, anxiety, confusion, and aggression; amongst others.1 On the cellular level, CTE is classified by a unique pathway that leads to the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and subsequent clumping of tau-containing neurofibrillary ...


Validating Tackle Mechanics In American Football: Improving Safety And Performance, Arthur C. Maerlender, Caitlin J. Masterson, Rex Norris, Adam Hinthorne 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Validating Tackle Mechanics In American Football: Improving Safety And Performance, Arthur C. Maerlender, Caitlin J. Masterson, Rex Norris, Adam Hinthorne

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Research has helped to understand the risks of injuries of tackling in American football and rugby; however, approaches to teaching and analysis are not well-documented. Shoulder-led tackling has been proposed as a safer approach to tackling even though data on the effectiveness for safety and defensive performance is limited. Additionally, some have argued that safety and effectiveness are incompatible. The purpose of the study was to validate a specific sequence of tackling actions as a tool for teaching safer and more effective tackling skills. Results suggested tackle scores help predict presence of head contact, and that higher tackle scores were ...


A Differential Geometry-Based Machine Learning Algorithm For The Brain Age Problem, Justin Asher, Khoa Tan Dang, Maxwell Masters 2020 Purdue University Fort Wayne

A Differential Geometry-Based Machine Learning Algorithm For The Brain Age Problem, Justin Asher, Khoa Tan Dang, Maxwell Masters

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Upregulating Beta-Hexosaminidase Activity In Rodents Prevents Alpha-Synuclein Lipid Associations And Protects Dopaminergic Neurons From Alpha-Synuclein-Mediated Neurotoxicity, Oeystein R. Brekk, Joanna A. Korecka, Cecile C. Crapart, Mylene Huebecker, Zachary K. MacBain, Sara Ann Rosenthal, Miguel Sena-Esteves, David A. Priestman, Frances M. Platt, Ole Isacson, Penelope J. Hallett 2020 Harvard Medical School

Upregulating Beta-Hexosaminidase Activity In Rodents Prevents Alpha-Synuclein Lipid Associations And Protects Dopaminergic Neurons From Alpha-Synuclein-Mediated Neurotoxicity, Oeystein R. Brekk, Joanna A. Korecka, Cecile C. Crapart, Mylene Huebecker, Zachary K. Macbain, Sara Ann Rosenthal, Miguel Sena-Esteves, David A. Priestman, Frances M. Platt, Ole Isacson, Penelope J. Hallett

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Sandhoff disease (SD) is a lysosomal storage disease, caused by loss of beta-hexosaminidase (HEX) activity resulting in the accumulation of ganglioside GM2. There are shared features between SD and Parkinson's disease (PD). alpha-synuclein (aSYN) inclusions, the diagnostic hallmark sign of PD, are frequently found in the brain in SD patients and HEX knockout mice, and HEX activity is reduced in the substantia nigra in PD. In this study, we biochemically demonstrate that HEX deficiency in mice causes formation of high-molecular weight (HMW) aSYN and ubiquitin in the brain. As expected from HEX enzymatic function requirements, overexpression in vivo of ...


A Neurovascular High-Frequency Optical Coherence Tomography System Enables In Situ Cerebrovascular Volumetric Microscopy, Giovanni J. Ughi, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Jildaz Caroff, Lindsy M. Peterson, Benjamin H. Duncan, Erin T. Langan, Amanda J. Collins, Anita M. Leporati, Serge Rousselle, Demetrius K. Lopes, Matthew J. Gounis, Ajit S. Puri 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Neurovascular High-Frequency Optical Coherence Tomography System Enables In Situ Cerebrovascular Volumetric Microscopy, Giovanni J. Ughi, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Jildaz Caroff, Lindsy M. Peterson, Benjamin H. Duncan, Erin T. Langan, Amanda J. Collins, Anita M. Leporati, Serge Rousselle, Demetrius K. Lopes, Matthew J. Gounis, Ajit S. Puri

Radiology Publications

Intravascular imaging has emerged as a valuable tool for the treatment of coronary and peripheral artery disease; however, no solution is available for safe and reliable use in the tortuous vascular anatomy of the brain. Endovascular treatment of stroke is delivered under image guidance with insufficient resolution to adequately assess underlying arterial pathology and therapeutic devices. High-resolution imaging, enabling surgeons to visualize cerebral arteries' microstructure and micron-level features of neurovascular devices, would have a profound impact in the research, diagnosis, and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. Here, we present a neurovascular high-frequency optical coherence tomography (HF-OCT) system, including an imaging console ...


Anatomical Organization And Distinction Of The Sympathetic Inputs To Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue And Inguinal White Adipose Tissue In The Mouse, Clara Jane Huesing 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Anatomical Organization And Distinction Of The Sympathetic Inputs To Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue And Inguinal White Adipose Tissue In The Mouse, Clara Jane Huesing

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that contains both the problem and the solution to discovering new therapies for individuals with obesity. Excessive adipose tissue disrupts energy balance and causes a host of comorbidities like insulin resistance and hypertension. On the other hand, adipose tissue is essential for life. During periods of energy demand, sympathetic nerve activity in brown and white adipose tissue stimulates thermogenesis and lipolysis; both of which decrease body weight and improve metabolic health. Therefore, comprehensive insight into the organization of sympathetic innervation and how it communicates with adipocytes is critical in order to utilize its ...


Yap1/Taz Drives Ependymoma-Like Tumour Formation In Mice, Noreen Eder, Federico Roncaroli, Marie-Charlotte Dolmart, Stuart Horswell, Felipe Andreiuolo, Helen R. Flynn, Andre T. Lopes, Suzanne Claxton, John-Paul Kilday, Lucy Collinson, Junhao Mao, Torsten Pietsch, Barry Thompson, Ambrosius P. Snijders, Sila K. Ultanir 2020 The Francis Crick Institute

Yap1/Taz Drives Ependymoma-Like Tumour Formation In Mice, Noreen Eder, Federico Roncaroli, Marie-Charlotte Dolmart, Stuart Horswell, Felipe Andreiuolo, Helen R. Flynn, Andre T. Lopes, Suzanne Claxton, John-Paul Kilday, Lucy Collinson, Junhao Mao, Torsten Pietsch, Barry Thompson, Ambrosius P. Snijders, Sila K. Ultanir

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

YAP1 gene fusions have been observed in a subset of paediatric ependymomas. Here we show that, ectopic expression of active nuclear YAP1 (nlsYAP5SA) in ventricular zone neural progenitor cells using conditionally-induced NEX/NeuroD6-Cre is sufficient to drive brain tumour formation in mice. Neuronal differentiation is inhibited in the hippocampus. Deletion of YAP1's negative regulators LATS1 and LATS2 kinases in NEX-Cre lineage in double conditional knockout mice also generates similar tumours, which are rescued by deletion of YAP1 and its paralog TAZ. YAP1/TAZ-induced mouse tumours display molecular and ultrastructural characteristics of human ependymoma. RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics of ...


The Effects Of Acute Exercise And Psychological Stress On Episodic Memory, Lauren Koehler 2020 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Acute Exercise And Psychological Stress On Episodic Memory, Lauren Koehler

Honors Theses

Research has suggested that exercise has an effect on memory function. Studies have also shown that exercise mitigates the effects of stress. The relationship between exercise and stress in regard to memory function is noteworthy. There has been little research on this relationship in young adults. This thesis discusses the effects of acute exercise on the episodic memory of young adults when they are exposed to a psychosocial stressor. The results of the research study show that acute aerobic exercise before memory encoding or consolidation was not associated with memory function after exposure to a stressor. Future research in this ...


Microglia And Fractalkine Involvement In Shaping Multimodal Midbrain Circuitry, Cooper A. Brett 2020 James Madison University

Microglia And Fractalkine Involvement In Shaping Multimodal Midbrain Circuitry, Cooper A. Brett

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Microglial cells (MGCs) are highly dynamic and have been implicated in shaping discrete neural maps in several systems. MGCs respond to numerous cues in their microenvironment, including a neuronally-expressed chemokine, CX3CL1 (fractalkine). The present study examines microglial and CX3CL1 patterns with regard to the emerging modular-extramodular framework within the lateral cortex of the inferior colliculus (LCIC). The LCIC is a shell region of the auditory midbrain where discrete compartments receive modality-specific connections, whereby somatosensory inputs terminate within modules and auditory inputs target surrounding extramodular zones. A reliable modular marker, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), enables visualization of emerging modular domains in ...


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