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Creating A Protein Chimera To Study Regulation Of Muscle Diversity, Shannon Scarboro 2021 Kennesaw State University

Creating A Protein Chimera To Study Regulation Of Muscle Diversity, Shannon Scarboro

Symposium of Student Scholars

Creating a protein chimera to study regulation of muscle diversity.

Body muscles are made of many individual super-cells, called muscle fibers, that have distinct properties and determine every individual’s strength and endurance. Initially all muscle fibers have identical characteristics, but become differentiated into specific types in adults. The mechanism of such transition is not well understood, despite its obvious importance for shaping human physicality.

Remarkable conservation of the muscle tissue enables us to use fruit flies to study the mechanisms of muscle fiber diversity. We hypothesized that the transcription factor Mef2 acts as a molecular switch that activates structural ...


Use Of Antisense Oligonucleotides To Target Notch2 In Mouse Chondrocytes, Gabrielle Viviana Lanza 2021 University of Connecticut

Use Of Antisense Oligonucleotides To Target Notch2 In Mouse Chondrocytes, Gabrielle Viviana Lanza

Honors Scholar Theses

NOTCH2 is a transmembrane receptor that is part of the Notch receptor family, known for controlling cell differentiation and function. Notch receptors play a crucial role in skeletal development and bone homeostasis. Hajdu Cheney Syndrome (HCS) is a rare monogenic disorder affecting the skeleton caused by a gain-of-function mutation in NOTCH2. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) are sequence-specific single-stranded nucleic acids that bind to target mRNA and initiate mRNA degradation. While previous work has explored the role of Notch2 ASOs in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, this paper explores the role of Notch2 and Notch2 ASOs in cells of cartilage tissue. The effect of ...


Under The Microscope: Painting From Histology, Meg Smith 2021 Trinity College

Under The Microscope: Painting From Histology, Meg Smith

Senior Theses and Projects

My goal as an artist is to create paintings which explore the intersections of biology, philosophy, aesthetics, and personal experience. I want to challenge the viewer to engage with their own anatomy and physiology on a microscopic scale. I also aspire to communicate my sense of awe and wonder at the structures and mechanisms of life on every scale, from the cellular to the cosmic.

I am deeply interested in how physiological processes generate the human experience

—I became a neuroscience major because I was interested in the mechanisms of sensation and perception. My love of histology—the study of ...


Evidence-Based Practice: Delaying Infant Bathing, Gabrielle Wadle, Grace Frankland 2021 Murray State University

Evidence-Based Practice: Delaying Infant Bathing, Gabrielle Wadle, Grace Frankland

Scholars Week

A hospital's policy regarding infant bathing is currently not congruent with best nursing practice. The hospital’s current policy is to bathe an infant once they are stable and their rectal temperature is at or above 98.6 °F. Although the infant may become stable within the first 24-hours of birth, the World Health Organization recommends that, “Bathing should be delayed until 24 hours after birth.” (2013, p. 4). Research has been completed to support delaying infant bathing until 24 hours post-delivery, suggesting potential modifications to current policy.


Mineralization Of Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering, Xinchen Wu, Kierra Walsh, Brianna L. Hoff, Gulden Camci-Unal 2020 University of Massachusetts Lowell

Mineralization Of Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering, Xinchen Wu, Kierra Walsh, Brianna L. Hoff, Gulden Camci-Unal

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Mineralized biomaterials have been demonstrated to enhance bone regeneration compared to their non-mineralized analogs. As non-mineralized scaffolds do not perform as well as mineralized scaffolds in terms of their mechanical and surface properties, osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity, mineralization strategies are promising methods in the development of functional biomimetic bone scaffolds. In particular, the mineralization of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds has become a promising approach for guided bone regeneration. In this paper, we review the major approaches used for mineralizing tissue engineering constructs. The resulting scaffolds provide minerals chemically similar to the inorganic component of natural bone, carbonated apatite, Ca5(PO4,CO3)3 ...


Use Of A Novel Whole-Body Imaging Approach To Predict Resting Metabolic Rates In Athletes, Nicole Vencil 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Use Of A Novel Whole-Body Imaging Approach To Predict Resting Metabolic Rates In Athletes, Nicole Vencil

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Prediction of energy expenditure allows for calculation of appropriate energy requirements, which is especially important for athletes. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the greatest contributor to total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and is typically measured via indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry is not always available, which results in the need for predictive equations. Most predictive equations have been developed with participants resembling the general population and have not been found to be appropriate for athletes, as they may incorrectly predict RMR due to the unique differences of body composition between athletes and the general population. The purpose of the present study ...


The Issue Of Skeletal Muscle Growth And Regeneration, Ayman Ghallab, Ayman Mohammed Ghallab 2020 The British University in Egypt

The Issue Of Skeletal Muscle Growth And Regeneration, Ayman Ghallab, Ayman Mohammed Ghallab

Dentistry

The aim of our criticism of the paper authored by Makovický and Makovický (2020) was to prevent the readers from being misinformed by a paper based on a major flaw such as confusing splitting muscle fibers with a stretch receptor.


Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal 2020 The University of Akron

Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Here I characterized the central neuroanatomy of the Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus striatus, native to French Polynesia. The neuroanatomy of E. striatus has not been studied prior to this paper. I used several histology and antibody staining techniques to accomplish this, including Crystal Violet, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Bielschowsky’s Silver Nitrate staining. This paper describes the most successful techniques used, identifies major structures in the species’ neuroanatomy, and also explains why studying E. striatus is important in the future of vertebrate research.


Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer 2020 Arcadia University

Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer

Capstone Showcase

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are an upsetting setback for many athletes that require a long and costly recovery process. The injury rates are four times greater in women than men. Preventative measures that help to prevent ACL injuries are limited to stretching and strengthening. Therefore, this review aims to investigate if oral contraceptive [I] usage provides a possible new avenue for prevention of ACL injury [O] in young female athletes (ages 18-30) [P] compared to those that do not take oral contraceptives [C].

Methods: A literature review was performed though PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS Database, and ClinicalKey ...


Glucocorticoids Rapidly Activate Camp Production Via GΑs To Initiate Non-Genomic Signaling That Contributes To One-Third Of Their Canonical Genomic Effects, Francisco J. Nuñez, Timothy B. Johnstone, Maia L. Corpuz, Austin G. Kazarian, Nicole N. Mohajer, Omar Tliba, Reynold A. Pannettieri Jr., Cynthia J. Koziol-White, Moom Roosan, Rennolds S. Ostrom 2019 Chapman University

Glucocorticoids Rapidly Activate Camp Production Via GΑs To Initiate Non-Genomic Signaling That Contributes To One-Third Of Their Canonical Genomic Effects, Francisco J. Nuñez, Timothy B. Johnstone, Maia L. Corpuz, Austin G. Kazarian, Nicole N. Mohajer, Omar Tliba, Reynold A. Pannettieri Jr., Cynthia J. Koziol-White, Moom Roosan, Rennolds S. Ostrom

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Glucocorticoids are widely used for the suppression of inflammation, but evidence is growing that they can have rapid, non-genomic actions that have been unappreciated. Diverse cell signaling effects have been reported for glucocorticoids, leading us to hypothesize that glucocorticoids alone can swiftly increase the 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production. We found that prednisone, fluticasone, budesonide, and progesterone each increased cAMP levels within 3 minutes without phosphodiesterase inhibitors by measuring real-time cAMP dynamics using the cAMP difference detector in situ assay in a variety of immortalized cell lines and primary human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. A membrane- impermeable ...


Laryngeal Mucous Membrane Plasmacytosis With 15 Year Follow-Up: Case Report And Literature Review, Vladislav V. Makarenko, Alec E. Vaezi, Doreen B. Brettler, Lloyd Hutchinson, Bruce A. Woda, Benjamin J. Chen 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Laryngeal Mucous Membrane Plasmacytosis With 15 Year Follow-Up: Case Report And Literature Review, Vladislav V. Makarenko, Alec E. Vaezi, Doreen B. Brettler, Lloyd Hutchinson, Bruce A. Woda, Benjamin J. Chen

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Mucous membrane plasmacytosis (MMP) is an uncommon variant of mucositis represented by a polyclonal plasma cell infiltration of mucosal tissue. Various clinical presentations in the upper airway have been reported ranging from erythematous mucosa to fungating masses. Histologic features include mucosal epithelial hyperplasia or psoriasiform changes with a dense submucosal infiltrate of polytypic plasma cells. Molecular studies for immunoglobulin gene rearrangement should be performed in all cases of MMP to rule out clonal neoplastic expansion of plasma cells. We present a case of MMP with over 15 years of clinical follow-up, emphasizing the relatively benign clinical course of this disorder.


Tissue-Restricted Genome Editing In Vivo Specified By Microrna-Repressible Anti-Crispr Proteins, Jooyoung Lee, Haiwei Mou, Raed Ibraheim, Shun-Qing Liang, Pengpeng Liu, Wen Xue, Erik J. Sontheimer 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Tissue-Restricted Genome Editing In Vivo Specified By Microrna-Repressible Anti-Crispr Proteins, Jooyoung Lee, Haiwei Mou, Raed Ibraheim, Shun-Qing Liang, Pengpeng Liu, Wen Xue, Erik J. Sontheimer

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications

CRISPR-Cas systems are bacterial adaptive immune pathways that have revolutionized biotechnology and biomedical applications. Despite the potential for human therapeutic development, there are many hurdles that must be overcome before its use in clinical settings. Some clinical safety concerns arise from editing activity in unintended cell types or tissues upon in vivo delivery (e.g., by adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors). Although tissue-specific promoters and serotypes with tissue tropisms can be used, suitably compact promoters are not always available for desired cell types, and AAV tissue tropism specificities are not absolute. To reinforce tissue-specific editing, we exploited anti-CRISPR proteins (Acrs) that ...


Myofascial Release, Colin S. Hetherington 2019 Gettysburg College

Myofascial Release, Colin S. Hetherington

Student Publications

Fascia represents an intricate system of connective tissue that permeates throughout the human body. Its matrix of continuous fibers support, protect, divide and suspend both superficial and deep anatomical structures. While once thought to be a passive mesh network, new evidence suggests fascia is much more complicated. Now recognized as an active physiological component of the human body, myofascial health and function has been given much attention clinically. Of the techniques aimed to treat and restore fascial structure and function, myofascial release has been found to promote stability, increase range of motion and most importantly alleviate musculoskeletal pain. This form ...


Distributions Of Hypothalamic Neuron Populations Co-Expressing Tyrosine Hydroxylase And The Vesicular Gaba Transporter In The Mouse., Kenichiro Negishi, Mikayla A. Payant, Kayla S. Schumacker, Gabor Wittman, Rebecca M. Butler, Ronald M. Lechan, Harry W. M. Steinbusch m, Arshad M. Khan, Melissa J. Chee 2019 Carleton University

Distributions Of Hypothalamic Neuron Populations Co-Expressing Tyrosine Hydroxylase And The Vesicular Gaba Transporter In The Mouse., Kenichiro Negishi, Mikayla A. Payant, Kayla S. Schumacker, Gabor Wittman, Rebecca M. Butler, Ronald M. Lechan, Harry W. M. Steinbusch M, Arshad M. Khan, Melissa J. Chee

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Micro-Rnas Are Related To Epicardial Adipose Tissue In Participants With Atrial Fibrillation: Data From The Mirhythm Study, Khanh-Van T. Tran, Jordan Majka, Saket Sanghai, Mayank Sardana, Darleen M. Lessard, Zachary J. Milstone, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Jane E. Freedman, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, David D. McManus 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Micro-Rnas Are Related To Epicardial Adipose Tissue In Participants With Atrial Fibrillation: Data From The Mirhythm Study, Khanh-Van T. Tran, Jordan Majka, Saket Sanghai, Mayank Sardana, Darleen M. Lessard, Zachary J. Milstone, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Jane E. Freedman, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, David D. Mcmanus

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Introduction: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been linked to incidence and recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the underlying mechanisms that mediate this association remain unclear. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the regulation of gene expression in cardiovascular diseases, including AF. Thus, we sought to test the hypothesis that circulating miRNAs relate to burden of EAT.

Methods: We examined the plasma miRNA profiles of 91 participants from the miRhythm study, an ongoing study examining associations between miRNA and AF. We quantified plasma expression of 86 unique miRNAs commonly expressed in cardiomyocytes using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). From ...


Increase Staff Utilization Of Occlusive Interface In Micro-Preemie Babies On Bcpap, Deborah Igo, Kimberly Kingsley, Faythe Henry, Misty Melendi, Amy McBee, Valerie Cook, Christopher Woods, Angela Rojecki, Lauren Walley, Amy Sparks, Stephen Tyzik, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman 2019 Maine Medical Center

Increase Staff Utilization Of Occlusive Interface In Micro-Preemie Babies On Bcpap, Deborah Igo, Kimberly Kingsley, Faythe Henry, Misty Melendi, Amy Mcbee, Valerie Cook, Christopher Woods, Angela Rojecki, Lauren Walley, Amy Sparks, Stephen Tyzik, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman

Operational Excellence

Premature neonates born before 26 weeks gestation present many care challenges as they need special precautions to be taken to overcome their fragility. Intubation is often needed for this patient population as their lungs are not fully developed. However, due to their high susceptibility for skin breakdown invasive ventilation often can create subsequent problems. A respiratory therapist team in an academic tertiary medical center wanted to explore the use of an occlusive interface for intubation while providing various forms of non-invasive ventilation in their NICU with the hopes for fewer complications.

The objective of this project was to reduce the ...


A Receptor Of The Immunoglobulin Superfamily Regulates Adaptive Thermogenesis, Carmen Hurtado Del Pozo, Randall H. Friedline, Hye Lim Noh, Jason K. Kim, Ann Marie. Schmidt 2019 New York University

A Receptor Of The Immunoglobulin Superfamily Regulates Adaptive Thermogenesis, Carmen Hurtado Del Pozo, Randall H. Friedline, Hye Lim Noh, Jason K. Kim, Ann Marie. Schmidt

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Exquisite regulation of energy homeostasis protects from nutrient deprivation but causes metabolic dysfunction upon nutrient excess. In human and murine adipose tissue, the accumulation of ligands of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) accompanies obesity, implicating this receptor in energy metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that mice bearing global- or adipocyte-specific deletion of Ager, the gene encoding RAGE, display superior metabolic recovery after fasting, a cold challenge, or high-fat feeding. The RAGE-dependent mechanisms were traced to suppression of protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of its key targets, hormone-sensitive lipase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, upon beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation-processes ...


Mtorc2/Akt Activation In Adipocytes Is Required For Adipose Tissue Inflammation In Tuberculosis, Nuria Martinez, Catherine Y. Cheng, Natkunam Ketheesan, Aidan Cullen, Yuefeng Tang, Josephine Lum, Kim West, Michael Poidinger, David A. Guertin, Amit Singhal, Hardy Kornfeld 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mtorc2/Akt Activation In Adipocytes Is Required For Adipose Tissue Inflammation In Tuberculosis, Nuria Martinez, Catherine Y. Cheng, Natkunam Ketheesan, Aidan Cullen, Yuefeng Tang, Josephine Lum, Kim West, Michael Poidinger, David A. Guertin, Amit Singhal, Hardy Kornfeld

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis has co-evolved with the human host, adapting to exploit the immune system for persistence and transmission. While immunity to tuberculosis (TB) has been intensively studied in the lung and lymphoid system, little is known about the participation of adipose tissues and non-immune cells in the host-pathogen interaction during this systemic disease.

METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were aerosol infected with M. tuberculosis Erdman and presence of the bacteria and the fitness of the white and brown adipose tissues, liver and skeletal muscle were studied compared to uninfected mice.

FINDINGS: M. tuberculosis infection in mice stimulated immune cell infiltration ...


Generation Of Functional Human Adipose Tissue In Mice From Primed Progenitor Cells, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, So Yun Min, Tiffany DeSouza, Patrick Teebagy, Anand Desai, Heather Tessier, Robert Slamin, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Cara Berg, Angel Baez, Janice F. Lalikos, Silvia Corvera 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Generation Of Functional Human Adipose Tissue In Mice From Primed Progenitor Cells, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, So Yun Min, Tiffany Desouza, Patrick Teebagy, Anand Desai, Heather Tessier, Robert Slamin, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Cara Berg, Angel Baez, Janice F. Lalikos, Silvia Corvera

Senior Scholars Program

Adipose tissue (AT) is used extensively in reconstructive and regenerative therapies, but transplanted fat often undergoes cell death, leading to inflammation, calcification, and requirement for further revision surgery. Previously, we have found that mesenchymal progenitor cells within human AT can proliferate in three-dimensional culture under proangiogenic conditions. These cells (primed ADipose progenitor cells, PADS) robustly differentiate into adipocytes in vitro (ad-PADS). The goal of this study is to determine whether ad-PADS can form structured AT in vivo, with potential for use in surgical applications. Grafts formed from ad-PADS were compared to grafts formed from AT obtained by liposuction after implantation ...


Decomposition Of Pig Carcasses At Varying Room Temperature, Jacqueline Abad Santos 2019 San Jose State University

Decomposition Of Pig Carcasses At Varying Room Temperature, Jacqueline Abad Santos

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The goal of this study is to assess the qualitative scoring of decomposition scales with statistical analysis while also determining which indoor environment will decompose the fastest. When comparing the three indoor environments, water decomposition appears to be the fastest, but the method of analysis for this study determines that using decomposition scales to analyze such environments may produce statistically insignificant results. For this study, piglets were put in a dry steel tub, a water filled steel tub, and a suitcase. These were recorded using photographs for 25 days and then scored using decomposition scales. The total score was divided ...


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