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A Case Report Of Suspected Choledocholithiasis 20 Years After Cholecystectomy, Maleeha Memon, Dhara Rana, Chandni Patel, Christine LeRoy, Bijal Sheth 2022 St. Joseph's University Medical Center

A Case Report Of Suspected Choledocholithiasis 20 Years After Cholecystectomy, Maleeha Memon, Dhara Rana, Chandni Patel, Christine Leroy, Bijal Sheth

Stratford Campus Research Day

Gallstones are a common prevalence in western societies where approximately 15% of Americans have gallstones. The mainstay treatment for symptomatic cholelithiasis is laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It is estimated approximately 650,000 to 700,000 cholecystectomies are performed every year. Most patients feel relief after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but a small number of patients experience post cholecystectomy syndrome, which presents as biliary colic pain. Although the pathophysiology of the post cholecystectomy syndrome is unclear, one theory proposes that it is due to the alteration in bile flow after the removal of the gallbladder, which serves as a reservoir for bile. This bile ...


Effect Of Sin Lek Rice Intervention On Cognitive Function, Dietary Patterns, And Fecal Microbiota Of Elementary School Children In Chiang Rai, Thailand, Angie Setthavongsack, Siam Popluechai, Jackilen Shannon, Justin Denny, Eleni Gentekaki, Kongkiat Kespechara, Lucsame Gruneck, Thomas J. Sharpton, Kullawong Niwed, Lisa K. Marriott 2022 Portland State University

Effect Of Sin Lek Rice Intervention On Cognitive Function, Dietary Patterns, And Fecal Microbiota Of Elementary School Children In Chiang Rai, Thailand, Angie Setthavongsack, Siam Popluechai, Jackilen Shannon, Justin Denny, Eleni Gentekaki, Kongkiat Kespechara, Lucsame Gruneck, Thomas J. Sharpton, Kullawong Niwed, Lisa K. Marriott

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Annual Conference

Thailand has struggled with malnutrition rates in young children. Rice is a key component of Southeast Asian diets and a whole grain rice varietal (Sin Lek) may support improved nutrition. Diet can influence cognitive function and human gut microbiota, which were explored in the context of a rice intervention. We conducted a pilot study using a non-randomized, crossover clinical trial of Sin Lek rice versus traditional white rice consumption in elementary school children in Chiang Rai, Thailand. Outcomes related to diet, anthropological factors, cognitive function (e.g., short-term working memory, attention, impulsivity), and gut microbial populations were measured at baseline ...


Chloroquine-Susceptible And -Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Strains Survive High Chloroquine Concentrations By Becoming Dormant But Are Eliminated By Prolonged Exposure, Johan Ursing, Rasmus Johns, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, Carla Calçada, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Najia karim Ghanchi, Maria Isabel Veiga, Lars Rombo 2022 Projecto de Saúde de Bandim, Indepth Network, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

Chloroquine-Susceptible And -Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Strains Survive High Chloroquine Concentrations By Becoming Dormant But Are Eliminated By Prolonged Exposure, Johan Ursing, Rasmus Johns, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, Carla Calçada, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Najia Karim Ghanchi, Maria Isabel Veiga, Lars Rombo

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Plasmodium falciparum strains that are resistant to standard-dose chloroquine can be treated by higher chloroquine concentrations maintained for a longer time in vivo.
Objectives: To determine the relative importance of chloroquine concentrations versus exposure time for elimination of chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant P. falciparum in vitro.
Methods: Chloroquine-susceptible (3D7) and -resistant (FCR3) strains were exposed in vitro to 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 times their respective 90% inhibitory chloroquine concentrations for 3, 5, 7 or 14 days and then followed until recrudescence, or not, by 42 days after the end of exposure.
Results: Exposure to chloroquine appeared to ...


Gut Microbial Trimethylamine Is Elevated In Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis And Contributes To Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury In Mice, Robert N. Helsley, Bruce A. Barton, Jonathan Mark Brown 2022 University of Kentucky

Gut Microbial Trimethylamine Is Elevated In Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis And Contributes To Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury In Mice, Robert N. Helsley, Bruce A. Barton, Jonathan Mark Brown

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

There is mounting evidence that microbes residing in the human intestine contribute to diverse alcohol-associated liver diseases (ALD) including the most deadly form known as alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH). However, mechanisms by which gut microbes synergize with excessive alcohol intake to promote liver injury are poorly understood. Furthermore, whether drugs that selectively target gut microbial metabolism can improve ALD has never been tested. We used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantify the levels of microbe and host choline co-metabolites in healthy controls and AH patients, finding elevated levels of the microbial metabolite trimethylamine (TMA) in AH. In subsequent studies, we ...


Inflammatory Bowel Disease Causing Retroperitoneal Varicosity Mimicking A Renal Artery Aneurysm: A Novel Case Report And Literature Review, Areez Shafqat, Shameel Shafqat, Belal Nedal Sabbah, Abdullah Shaik, Wael Khalil Alfehaid, Syed Shafqat Ul Islam 2022 Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Causing Retroperitoneal Varicosity Mimicking A Renal Artery Aneurysm: A Novel Case Report And Literature Review, Areez Shafqat, Shameel Shafqat, Belal Nedal Sabbah, Abdullah Shaik, Wael Khalil Alfehaid, Syed Shafqat Ul Islam

Medical College Documents

A 17-year-old female presented to our hospital complaining of bloody diarrhea 4-6 times per day for the past month. She was a known case of inflammatory bowel disease noncompliant to her medications. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an unusually dilated mass in the retroperitoneum at L2 vertebral level connecting the lumbar and left renal veins. The renal artery was visualized separately, and a diagnosis of communicating vein varicosity was made. This lesion can be misleading on imaging, hence our aim to disseminate our findings to practicing radiologists. The differential diagnosis of these lesions include retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, renal artery aneurysms, and testicular ...


Diagnostic Value Of Endoscopic Ultrasonography For Common Bile Duct Dilatation Without Identifiable Etiology Detected From Cross-Sectional Imaging, Nonthalee Pausawasdi, Penprapai Hongsrisuwan, Lubna Kamani, Kotchakon Maipang, Phunchai Charatcharoenwitthaya 2022 Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Diagnostic Value Of Endoscopic Ultrasonography For Common Bile Duct Dilatation Without Identifiable Etiology Detected From Cross-Sectional Imaging, Nonthalee Pausawasdi, Penprapai Hongsrisuwan, Lubna Kamani, Kotchakon Maipang, Phunchai Charatcharoenwitthaya

Section of Gastroenterology

Background/aims: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is warranted when cross-sectional imaging demonstrates common bile duct (CBD) dilatation without identifiable causes. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of EUS in CBD dilatation of unknown etiology.
Methods: Retrospective review of patients with dilated CBD without definite causes undergoing EUS between 2012 and 2017.
Results: A total of 131 patients were recruited. The mean age was 63.2±14.1 years. The most common manifestation was abnormal liver chemistry (85.5%). The mean CBD diameter was 12.2±4.1 mm. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of EUS-identified ...


Incidental Malrotation In Adolescent Diagnosed With Appendicitis, David Ho, Jinsy Jacob, Russell Mordecai, Adam Richards 2021 Rowan University

Incidental Malrotation In Adolescent Diagnosed With Appendicitis, David Ho, Jinsy Jacob, Russell Mordecai, Adam Richards

Stratford Campus Research Day

17-year-old male patient with a history of autism presenting with right lower quadrant pain that started in the morning. The appendix was not able to be visualized by ultrasonography. An abdominal and pelvic CT with contrast showed a dilated appendix with surrounding inflammation. Malrotation was not identified on CT Scan. Patient was transferred to a nearby Children’s Hospital for laparoscopic appendectomy. During the procedure, the pediatric surgeon noted that initially, neither the appendix nor cecum was present in the right lower quadrant. This case represents an uncommon finding for a patient in the adolescent age group.


Proanthocyanidin-Enriched Cranberry Extract Induces Resilient Bacterial Community Dynamics In A Gnotobiotic Mouse Model, Catherine C. Neto, Benedikt M. Mortzfeld, John R. Turbitt, Shakti K. Bhattarai, Vladimir Yeliseyev, Nicholas DiBenedetto, Lynn Bry, Vanni Bucci 2021 University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth

Proanthocyanidin-Enriched Cranberry Extract Induces Resilient Bacterial Community Dynamics In A Gnotobiotic Mouse Model, Catherine C. Neto, Benedikt M. Mortzfeld, John R. Turbitt, Shakti K. Bhattarai, Vladimir Yeliseyev, Nicholas Dibenedetto, Lynn Bry, Vanni Bucci

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Cranberry consumption has numerous health benefits, with experimental reports showing its anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. Importantly, microbiome research has demonstrated that the gastrointestinal bacterial community modulates host immunity, raising the question of whether the cranberry-derived effect may be related to its ability to modulate the microbiome. Only a few studies have investigated the effect of cranberry products on the microbiome to date. Especially because cranberries are rich in dietary fibers, the extent of microbiome modulation by polyphenols, particularly proanthocyanidins (PACs), remains to be shown. Since previous work has only focused on long-term effects of cranberry extracts, in this study we ...


Virtualized Clinical Studies To Assess The Natural History And Impact Of Gut Microbiome Modulation In Non-Hospitalized Patients With Mild To Moderate Covid-19 A Randomized, Open-Label, Prospective Study With A Parallel Group Study Evaluating The Physiologic Effects Of Kb109 On Gut Microbiota Structure And Function: A Structured Summary Of A Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Study, John P. Haran, Jose C. Pinero, Yan Zheng, Norma Alonzo Palma, Mark Wingertzahn 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Virtualized Clinical Studies To Assess The Natural History And Impact Of Gut Microbiome Modulation In Non-Hospitalized Patients With Mild To Moderate Covid-19 A Randomized, Open-Label, Prospective Study With A Parallel Group Study Evaluating The Physiologic Effects Of Kb109 On Gut Microbiota Structure And Function: A Structured Summary Of A Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Study, John P. Haran, Jose C. Pinero, Yan Zheng, Norma Alonzo Palma, Mark Wingertzahn

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVES: These 2 parallel studies (K031 and K032) aim to evaluate the safety of KB109 in addition to supportive self-care (SSC) compared with SSC alone in outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). KB109 is a novel synthetic glycan that was formulated to modulate the gut microbiome composition and metabolic output in order to increase beneficial short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the gut. The K031 study is designed to evaluate the safety of KB109 and characterize its impact on the natural progression of COVID-19 in patients with mild to moderate disease. The K032 study is evaluating the ...


Targeting The Microbiome With Kb109 In Outpatients With Mild To Moderate Covid-19 Reduced Medically Attended Acute Care Visits And Improved Symptom Duration In Patients With Comorbidities [Preprint], John P. Haran, Yan Zheng, Katharine Knobil, Norma Alonzo Palma, Jonathan F. Lawrence, Mark A. Wingertzahn 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Targeting The Microbiome With Kb109 In Outpatients With Mild To Moderate Covid-19 Reduced Medically Attended Acute Care Visits And Improved Symptom Duration In Patients With Comorbidities [Preprint], John P. Haran, Yan Zheng, Katharine Knobil, Norma Alonzo Palma, Jonathan F. Lawrence, Mark A. Wingertzahn

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Introduction In 2020, the world experienced the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Mounting evidence indicates that the gut microbiome plays a role in host immune response to infections and, in turn, may have an impact on the disease trajectory of SARS-CoV2 infection. However, it remains to be established whether modulation of the microbiome can impact COVID-19–related symptomatology and patient outcomes. Therefore, we conducted a study designed to modulate the microbiome evaluating the safety and physiologic effects of KB109 combined with self-supportive care (SSC) vs SSC ...


The High Prevalence Of Clostridioides Difficile Among Nursing Home Elders Associates With A Dysbiotic Microbiome, John P. Haran, Doyle V. Ward, Shakti K. Bhattarai, Ethan Loew, Protiva Dutta, Amanda Higgins, Beth A. McCormick, Vanni Bucci 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The High Prevalence Of Clostridioides Difficile Among Nursing Home Elders Associates With A Dysbiotic Microbiome, John P. Haran, Doyle V. Ward, Shakti K. Bhattarai, Ethan Loew, Protiva Dutta, Amanda Higgins, Beth A. Mccormick, Vanni Bucci

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Clostridioides difficile disproportionally affects the elderly living in nursing homes (NHs). Our objective was to explore the prevalence of C. difficile in NH elders, over time and to determine whether the microbiome or other clinical factors are associated with C. difficile colonization. We collected serial stool samples from NH residents. C. difficile prevalence was determined by quantitative polymerase-chain reaction detection of Toxin genes tcdA and tcdB; microbiome composition was determined by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We used mixed-effect random forest modeling machine to determine bacterial taxa whose abundance is associated with C. difficile prevalence while controlling for clinical covariates including demographics ...


Effect Of Levodopa Initiation On The Gut Microbiota In Parkinson's Disease, Natalia Palacios, Anas Hannoun, Julie M. Flahive, Doyle V. Ward, Kelsey Goostrey, Anindita Deb, Kara M. Smith 2021 University of Massachusetts Lowell

Effect Of Levodopa Initiation On The Gut Microbiota In Parkinson's Disease, Natalia Palacios, Anas Hannoun, Julie M. Flahive, Doyle V. Ward, Kelsey Goostrey, Anindita Deb, Kara M. Smith

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Background: The impact of Levodopa on the gut microbiota of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients has not been sufficiently addressed.

Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study to examine the impact of Levodopa initiation on the gut microbiota composition of 19 PD patients who had not previously been exposed to Levodopa. Patients provided two stool samples prior to and two samples 90 days after starting Levodopa. Motor impairment (MDS-UPDRS Part III), diet, and other patient characteristics were assessed. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to characterize the microbiota. We examined, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, the associations between Levodopa use and alpha ...


Abdominal Ultrasound - Gallbladder And Biliary Tree, Brian Loe 2020 RAD-AID

Abdominal Ultrasound - Gallbladder And Biliary Tree, Brian Loe

PEER Liberia Project

This presentation is part of the PEER Liberia Radiology Lecture Series. The presentation provides an overview of how to perform an abdominal ultrasound of the gallbladder and biliary tree.


Iga As A Potential Candidate For Enteric Monoclonal Antibody Therapeutics With Improved Gastrointestinal Stability, Aaron L. Wallace, Matthew I. Schneider, Jacqueline R. Toomey, Ryan M. Schneider, Mark S. Klempner, Yang Wang, Lisa A. Cavacini 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Iga As A Potential Candidate For Enteric Monoclonal Antibody Therapeutics With Improved Gastrointestinal Stability, Aaron L. Wallace, Matthew I. Schneider, Jacqueline R. Toomey, Ryan M. Schneider, Mark S. Klempner, Yang Wang, Lisa A. Cavacini

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract play an important role in immune homeostasis and defense and may be compromised by enteric disorders or infection. Therapeutic intervention using monoclonal antibody (mAb) offers the potential for treatment with minimal off-target effects as well as the possibility of limited systemic exposure when administered orally. Critically, to achieve efficacy at luminal surfaces, mAb must remain stable and functionally active in the gastrointestinal environment. To better understand the impact of isotype, class, and molecular structure on the intestinal stability of recombinant antibodies, we used an in vitro simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) assay to evaluate a ...


Hepatic Lipocalin 2 Promotes Liver Fibrosis And Portal Hypertension, Jiegen Chen, Josepmaria Argemi, Gemma Odena, Ming-Jiang Xu, Yan Cai, Veronica Massey, Austin Parrish, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Jose Altamirano, Joaquin Cabezas, Pere Gines, Juan Caballeria, Natasha Snider, Pau Sancho-Bru, Shizuo Akira, Ivan Rusyn, Bin Gao, Ramon Bataller 2020 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Hepatic Lipocalin 2 Promotes Liver Fibrosis And Portal Hypertension, Jiegen Chen, Josepmaria Argemi, Gemma Odena, Ming-Jiang Xu, Yan Cai, Veronica Massey, Austin Parrish, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Jose Altamirano, Joaquin Cabezas, Pere Gines, Juan Caballeria, Natasha Snider, Pau Sancho-Bru, Shizuo Akira, Ivan Rusyn, Bin Gao, Ramon Bataller

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Advanced fibrosis and portal hypertension influence short-term mortality. Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) regulates infection response and increases in liver injury. We explored the role of intrahepatic LCN2 in human alcoholic hepatitis (AH) with advanced fibrosis and portal hypertension and in experimental mouse fibrosis. We found hepatic LCN2 expression and serum LCN2 level markedly increased and correlated with disease severity and portal hypertension in patients with AH. In control human livers, LCN2 expressed exclusively in mononuclear cells, while its expression was markedly induced in AH livers, not only in mononuclear cells but also notably in hepatocytes. Lcn2−/− mice were protected from liver ...


Dietary Suppression Of Mhc-Ii Expression In Intestinal Stem Cells Enhances Intestinal Tumorigenesis [Preprint], Semir Beyaz, Deniz M. Ozata, Alper Kucukural, Stuart H. Orkin, Omer H. Yilmaz 2020 Harvard Medical School

Dietary Suppression Of Mhc-Ii Expression In Intestinal Stem Cells Enhances Intestinal Tumorigenesis [Preprint], Semir Beyaz, Deniz M. Ozata, Alper Kucukural, Stuart H. Orkin, Omer H. Yilmaz

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Little is known about how interactions between diet, immune recognition, and intestinal stem cells (ISCs) impact the early steps of intestinal tumorigenesis. Here, we show that a high fat diet (HFD) reduces the expression of the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) genes in ISCs. This decline in ISC MHC-II expression in a HFD correlates with an altered intestinal microbiome composition and is recapitulated in antibiotic treated and germ-free mice on a control diet. Mechanistically, pattern recognition receptor and IFNg signaling regulate MHC-II expression in ISCs. Although MHC-II expression on ISCs is dispensable for stem cell function in organoid cultures in ...


Anatomy And Function Of Autonomic Innervation Of The Liver, Kennan Negrete 2020 University of Central Florida

Anatomy And Function Of Autonomic Innervation Of The Liver, Kennan Negrete

The Pegasus Review: UCF Undergraduate Research Journal

The liver is one of the most important regulatory organs, and its extensive influence upon homeostatic balance is well-documented. However, the role of autonomic innervation in the control and regulation of hepatic function is poorly understood relative to the other organs of the digestive system. Furthermore, the neuroanatomical layout of the liver remains an incomplete puzzle with various missing pieces. The scarcity of information concerning such a critical organ presents an interesting conundrum for the scientific and biomedical communities alike, especially given the prevalence of liver degeneracy and disease in the modern clinical setting. A more complete understanding of the ...


The Snakeskin-Mesh Complex Of Smooth Septate Junction Restricts Yorkie To Regulate Intestinal Homeostasis In Drosophila, Hsi-Ju Chen, Qi Li, Niraj K. Nirala, Y. Tony Ip 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Snakeskin-Mesh Complex Of Smooth Septate Junction Restricts Yorkie To Regulate Intestinal Homeostasis In Drosophila, Hsi-Ju Chen, Qi Li, Niraj K. Nirala, Y. Tony Ip

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Tight junctions in mammals and septate junctions in insects are essential for epithelial integrity. We show here that, in the Drosophila intestine, smooth septate junction proteins provide barrier and signaling functions. During an RNAi screen for genes that regulate adult midgut tissue growth, we found that loss of two smooth septate junction components, Snakeskin and Mesh, caused a hyperproliferation phenotype. By examining epitope-tagged endogenous Snakeskin and Mesh, we demonstrate that the two proteins are present in the cytoplasm of differentiating enteroblasts and in cytoplasm and septate junctions of mature enterocytes. In both enteroblasts and enterocytes, loss of Snakeskin and Mesh ...


Ctrp3 And Alcoholic Liver Disease In Female Mice, Callie Root 2020 East Tennessee State University

Ctrp3 And Alcoholic Liver Disease In Female Mice, Callie Root

Undergraduate Honors Theses

C1q TNF Related Protein 3 (CTRP3), is a cytokine that is primarily secreted from adipose tissue, which classifies it as an adipokine. Our previous research has shown that CTRP3 prevents alcoholic fatty liver disease (ALD) in male mice. However, even when accounting for confounding factors such as absolute and relative alcohol intake, females are more sensitive to the effects of consumption compared to male mice. Therefore, the goal of this project was to determine whether CTRP3 prevented ALD in female mice. Methods: Female wild type (WT) and female CTRP3 transgenic over expressing (Tg) mice were fed an ethanol containing liquid ...


Gut Pathophysiology In Mouse Models Of Social Behavior Deficits, Kyla Scott 2020 East Tennessee State University

Gut Pathophysiology In Mouse Models Of Social Behavior Deficits, Kyla Scott

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) encompass neurodevelopment disorders characterized by atypical patterns of development that impact multiple areas of functioning beginning in early childhood. The etiology of ASD is unknown and there are currently no preventative treatment options. Gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly associated comorbidities. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a multidirectional communication chain that connects the central and enteric nervous system that relates brain function to peripheral intestinal functions. Changes within this axis have been postulated in ASD. For example, the “leaky gut theory” proposes that chronic inflammation is linked to alterations in the bacterial profiles of the gut microbiome and subsequent ...


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