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The Role Of Notch1 Signaling In Regulating Neurogenesis In The Olfactory Bulb Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Sarah A. Baig 2024 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Role Of Notch1 Signaling In Regulating Neurogenesis In The Olfactory Bulb Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Sarah A. Baig

Theses and Dissertations

In the United States, more than 20.5 million adults over the age of 40 suffer from olfactory dysfunction, with TBI attributing to 5-17% of all olfactory dysfunction cases. Although often initially undetected and less conspicuous than other cognitive and behavioral impairments, olfactory dysfunction may have a significant negative impact on patients' quality of life and ability to accomplish activities of daily living, therefore the pathophysiology of these disorders should be understood. The production of neural stem cells enhances the repair and regeneration of the injured brain following a TBI. One of the primary endogenous neural stem cell generation sites in …


The Apex Bone Wearing Out In The Light Of Sharia And Science, Omar Gabis 2023 Jerusalem, Palestine

The Apex Bone Wearing Out In The Light Of Sharia And Science, Omar Gabis

An-Najah University Journal for Research - B (Humanities)

This research studies an issue in which Sharia scholars differed in the past, while was not of interest to scholars recently, namely: Does the last part of the human coccyx bone (apex) dissolve? Some hadith mentioned that the apex wears out, which was the reason for the divergence of the opinions of scholars in answer to this question over time. As far as informed, the researcher did not find a schooler who singled out this issue in any scientific research. The difficulty of answering this question may lie in the inability to conduct empirical research on this part, in addition …


Sexual Dimorphism Of Glomerular Capillary Morphology In Rats, Zackarias Coker 2023 East Tennessee State University

Sexual Dimorphism Of Glomerular Capillary Morphology In Rats, Zackarias Coker

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) progresses faster in males than females; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Sex differences in glomerular capillary morphology has been hypothesized to contribute, in part, to the increased susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal injury and CKD progression in males, but this has not been investigated. The goal of the present study was to assess glomerular capillary morphology in male vs. female rats with intact kidneys and after uninephrectomy (UNX). We hypothesized that glomerular capillary radii (RCAP) and length (LCAP) would be greater in male rats.

Male (n=4) and female (n=4) with intact …


Effect Of Amputation On Muscle Structure Properties In A Rabbit Model, Roy Caleb Stubbs 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effect Of Amputation On Muscle Structure Properties In A Rabbit Model, Roy Caleb Stubbs

Masters Theses

After amputation, muscles in the residual limb are detached from their insertion points and no longer span the missing joints. Our objective was to quantify the effect of amputation-induced disuse on residual muscle structure, an indirect indicator of muscle force-generating capacity. One hind paw was surgically removed at the ankle joint of ten rabbits. At two weeks (n=5) and 4 weeks (n=5) post-amputation and for select muscles (gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis cranialis, extensor digitorum, and flexor digitorum superficialis), we measured and computed several muscle structure properties. Additionally, we qualitatively assessed the muscle fiber appearance of histological samples at each timepoint. At …


Editorial: New Frontiers In The Application Of Stable Isotopes To Ecological And Ecophysiological Research, Keith A. Hobson, John P. Whiteman, Seth D. Newsome 2023 Western University London

Editorial: New Frontiers In The Application Of Stable Isotopes To Ecological And Ecophysiological Research, Keith A. Hobson, John P. Whiteman, Seth D. Newsome

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Amphisbaenian Head Movement And Burrowing Forces In Damp Granular Media, Jacob Newell 2023 The University of Akron

Amphisbaenian Head Movement And Burrowing Forces In Damp Granular Media, Jacob Newell

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Damp granular media is a difficult environment to study because it is both practically complex and it lacks equations which fully describe its behavior. In this study, an oscillatory lateral head movement and its effects while penetrating damp granular media were tested using a robophysical model. This experimental research was inspired by the burrowing behavior of the clade Amphisbaenia, a group of usually limbless squamates that employ a variety of different burrowing behaviors, but it can apply to a wide range of burrowers. This research could help with both human burrowing technologies and the further investigation of animal behaviors.


Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill 2022 Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest

Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill

SURE Journal: Science Undergraduate Research Experience Journal

Mitochondria are cytoplasmic, double-membrane organelles that synthesise adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria contain their own genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is maternally inherited from the oocyte. Mitochondrial proteins are encoded by either nuclear DNA (nDNA) or mtDNA, and both code for proteins forming the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes of the respiratory chain. These complexes form a chain that allows the passage of electrons down the electron transport chain (ETC) through a proton motive force, creating ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This study aims to explore current and prospective therapies for mitochondrial disorders (MTDS). MTDS are clinical syndromes coupled with abnormalities …


Pilot Testing A Survey To Evaluate Horse Owner And Trainer Perceptions Of The Importance And Ideality Of Equine Hoof Balance, Katherine Gilmore 2022 University of Arkansas

Pilot Testing A Survey To Evaluate Horse Owner And Trainer Perceptions Of The Importance And Ideality Of Equine Hoof Balance, Katherine Gilmore

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Balance plays an integral role in the healthy equine hoof, yet there is a significant deficiency of research investigating horse owner and trainer knowledge of hoof balance. This study aimed to pilot test an online survey instrument evaluating horse owner and trainer perceptions of proper hoof care and balance. The survey instrument sought to collect demographic information of horse owners and trainers, determine horse owners’ and trainers’ abilities to identify ideally balanced equine forehooves, and assess horse owner and trainer knowledge of best hoof trimming and shoeing practices. Ninety-one horse owners and trainers with facilities that were within a 150-mile …


Comparative Anatomical Study Of The Brachial Plexus Of Primates, Alison Leann Camero 2022 Grand Valley State University

Comparative Anatomical Study Of The Brachial Plexus Of Primates, Alison Leann Camero

Masters Theses

Old world monkeys, new world monkeys, and humans all originate from a common ancestor. Although humans and old world monkeys are phylogenetically more closely related, old world monkeys and new world monkeys have similar locomotion. A difference in muscle patterns exists between old world monkeys, new world monkeys, and humans. Different musculature may be due to differences in locomotive patterns and species-specific use of their forearms. Muscles in the forelimbs are innervated by the nerves of the brachial plexus. There are differences among the brachial plexuses of human and non-human primates as well as variability within the species.

In this …


Primary Cilia Of The Cardiac Neural Crest & Hedgehog-Mediated Mechanisms Of Congenital Heart Disease, Lindsey A. Fitzsimons 2022 University of Maine

Primary Cilia Of The Cardiac Neural Crest & Hedgehog-Mediated Mechanisms Of Congenital Heart Disease, Lindsey A. Fitzsimons

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Elimination of primary cilia in cardiac neural crest cell (CNCC) progenitors is hypothesized to cause a variety of congenital heart defects (CHDs), including atrioventricular septal defects, and malformations of the developing cardiac outflow tract. We present an in vivo model of CHD resulting from the conditional elimination of primary cilia from CNCC using multiple, Wnt1:Cre-loxP, neural crest-specific systems, targeting two distinctive, but critical, primary cilia structural genes: Intraflagellar transport protein 88 (Ift88) or kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a). CNCC loss of primary cilia leads to widespread CHD, where homozygous mutant embryos (MUT) display a variety of outflow tract malformations, septation …


Regaining Effort-Based Food Motivation: The Drug Methylphenidate Reverses The Depressive Effects Of Tetrabenazine In Female Rats, Deanna Pietrorazio 2022 University of Connecticut

Regaining Effort-Based Food Motivation: The Drug Methylphenidate Reverses The Depressive Effects Of Tetrabenazine In Female Rats, Deanna Pietrorazio

Honors Scholar Theses

Tetrabenazine (TBZ), a vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT-2) inhibitor, depletes dopamine and induces motivational deficits and other depressive symptoms in humans. Methylphenidate (MPH) is a dopamine transport blocker that is used to enhance motivational function. Previous studies have shown that in male rats, TBZ induces a shift in effort-related choice such that a low-effort bias is induced. In male rats this occurs at a dose range of 0.75-1.0 mg/kg TBZ, and this effect is reversible with co-administration of MPH. Recent studies have shown that females need a higher dose of TBZ (2.0 mg/kg) to show the low-effort bias. The …


Validation Of Rotoscoping Method For Two-Marker Bones In The Alligator Forearm, Nina Pitre 2022 Providence College

Validation Of Rotoscoping Method For Two-Marker Bones In The Alligator Forearm, Nina Pitre

Biology Student Scholarship

Nina Pitre ’22
Majors: Biology and Psychology
Faculty Mentor: Dr. David Baier, Biology

XROMM methods "re-animate" 3D skeletal motion of living animals by aligning digital bone models to X-ray videos. Surgically implanted markers permit automatic alignment of bone models if three or more markers are used. However, one of our specimens only had two markers implanted. These bones could be automatically positioned and partially oriented using the two markers, but then required manual alignment to the X-ray images to orient about the axis passing between the two markers. Here, we validated the method by digitally removing a marker from a …


Variations In Antibody Response To Aspergillus Fumigatus Inhalation In Mice, Andrea Wells 2022 Minnesota State University Moorhead

Variations In Antibody Response To Aspergillus Fumigatus Inhalation In Mice, Andrea Wells

Student Academic Conference

Studies have configured immunological responses to Aspergillus fumigatus in mice, leading to advanced understandings. However, the comparisons of the immune responses between juvenile (younger than 6 weeks) male and female C57BL/6J mice after A. fumigatus exposure, remains uninvestigated. In this study, we intranasally inoculated 3 week old male and female mice with Aspergillus fumigatus spores dilution of 2 106spores per 40 l. They were exposed to the allergen once a week for 8 consecutive weeks and euthanized on day 28 post the last inoculation. As compared to our last report, we increased the sample size for each group in this …


Connexin 43 Contributes To Phenotypic Variability Of The Mouse Skull, Elizabeth Jewlal 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Connexin 43 Contributes To Phenotypic Variability Of The Mouse Skull, Elizabeth Jewlal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to determine whether connexin 43 (Cx43) contributes to craniofacial phenotypic variability. Skull shape and variation were compared within and among two heterozygous mutant mouse models (G60S/+ and I130T/+) that exhibit different levels of Cx43 channel function when compared to their wildtype counterparts (~80% and ~50% reduction in function, respectively). Results indicated mutants have significant differences in skull shape compared to wildtype littermates. Similar patterns of shape difference were found in both mutants. Increased skull shape variation and a disruption in the covariation of skull structures were observed in G60S/+ mutants only. These results show …


Streamlining Sporozoite Isolation From Mosquitoes By Leveraging The Dynamics Of Migration To The Salivary Glands, Ashutosh K. Pathak, Justine C. Shiau, Blandine Franke-Fayard, Lisa M. Shollenberger, Donald A. Harn, Dennis E. Kyle, Courtney C. Murdock 2022 Old Dominion University

Streamlining Sporozoite Isolation From Mosquitoes By Leveraging The Dynamics Of Migration To The Salivary Glands, Ashutosh K. Pathak, Justine C. Shiau, Blandine Franke-Fayard, Lisa M. Shollenberger, Donald A. Harn, Dennis E. Kyle, Courtney C. Murdock

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Sporozoites isolated from the salivary glands of Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes are a prerequisite for several basic and pre-clinical applications. Although salivary glands are pooled to maximize sporozoite recovery, insufficient yields pose logistical and analytical hurdles; thus, predicting yields prior to isolation would be valuable. Preceding oocyst densities in the midgut is an obvious candidate. However, it is unclear whether current understanding of its relationship with sporozoite densities can be used to maximize yields, or whether it can capture the potential density-dependence in rates of sporozoite invasion of the salivary glands.

Methods: This study presents a retrospective analysis of Anopheles …


A Literature Review On The Development Of Upper Limbs In Humans, Anh T. Phan 2021 University of Louisville

A Literature Review On The Development Of Upper Limbs In Humans, Anh T. Phan

The Cardinal Edge

The development of tetrapod upper limbs shares an evolutionary origin and has been adapted and specialized for different functions for different species, such as flight in birds, swimming and balance in sea mammals, and coordination and grabbing objects in humans. The basis of tetrapod limb development has common developmental patterns, starting with the formation of the limb bud via Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, where later developmental steps are modified for specialized functions. This review covers the basic developmental patterns of mammalian tetrapod development seen in humans, beginning with the formation of the limb bud, to the axis development of the …


Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky 2021 Bronx Community College

Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.

Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This …


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan 2021 University of Connecticut

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

University Scholar Projects

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the …


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan 2021 University of Connecticut

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

Honors Scholar Theses

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the …


Diagnostic Accuracy Of Mcmurry’S Test In The Diagnosis Of Meniscal Tears, Jessica Smyth, Hartwell Rainey 2020 James Madison University

Diagnostic Accuracy Of Mcmurry’S Test In The Diagnosis Of Meniscal Tears, Jessica Smyth, Hartwell Rainey

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2020-current

No abstract provided.


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