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Relationship Of Abdominal Circumference And Trunk Length With Spinal Anesthesia Block Height In Geriatric Patients Undergoing Transurethral Resection Of Prostate, Muhammad Yahya, Aliya Ahmed, Iayla Fatima, Muhammad Nasir 2023 South West Acute Hospital, United Kingdom

Relationship Of Abdominal Circumference And Trunk Length With Spinal Anesthesia Block Height In Geriatric Patients Undergoing Transurethral Resection Of Prostate, Muhammad Yahya, Aliya Ahmed, Iayla Fatima, Muhammad Nasir

Department of Anaesthesia

Introduction: Spinal anesthesia is commonly used for various surgical procedures. Prediction of spinal anesthesia block height is always a challenging task for anesthetists. Higher than desired levels of spinal anesthesia blocks are associated with serious side effects, while inadequate block height does not provide satisfactory surgical anesthesia. In this study, we observed the relationship between the ratio of trunk length (TL) and square of the abdominal circumference (AC2) and spinal anesthesia sensory block height in geriatric patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
Material & Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at the Aga Khan University …


Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill 2022 Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest

Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Mitochondria are cytoplasmic, double-membrane organelles that synthesise adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria contain their own genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is maternally inherited from the oocyte. Mitochondrial proteins are encoded by either nuclear DNA (nDNA) or mtDNA, and both code for proteins forming the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes of the respiratory chain. These complexes form a chain that allows the passage of electrons down the electron transport chain (ETC) through a proton motive force, creating ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This study aims to explore current and prospective therapies for mitochondrial disorders (MTDS). MTDS are clinical syndromes coupled with abnormalities …


Intercellular Communication Via Gap Junctions Influences Cell Survival During Hypoxia, Lauren E. Harmon, David L. Geenen 2022 Grand Valley State University

Intercellular Communication Via Gap Junctions Influences Cell Survival During Hypoxia, Lauren E. Harmon, David L. Geenen

Student Summer Scholars Manuscripts

Stem cell therapy can be beneficial following myocardial infarction. However, when murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBM-MSCs) are injected into the ischemic area, a large percentage of these cells undergo apoptosis resulting in decreased therapeutic benefits. We hypothesize that the loss of these mBM-MSCs is regulated by intercellular channels or gap junctions (GJs) that provide apoptotic signals passed between ischemic cardiomyocytes and mBM-MSCs. Our research aims to attenuate these GJs by suppressing Connexin-43 (Cx43) expression, the predominant channel-forming protein. We will accomplish this by transiently transfecting a Cx43 siRNA into mBM-MSCs. Our data demonstrate that intracellular fluorescent dyes and …


Anticancer Effect Of Illicium Verum (Star Anise Fruit) Against Human Breast Cancer Mcf-7 Cell Line, Asra Khan Pahore, Shagufta Khan, Nasim Karim 2022 Altamash Institute of Dental Medicine, Pakistan

Anticancer Effect Of Illicium Verum (Star Anise Fruit) Against Human Breast Cancer Mcf-7 Cell Line, Asra Khan Pahore, Shagufta Khan, Nasim Karim

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Objective: To investigate the anticancer effect of Illicium verum against human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.
Methods: An experimental study was conducted in Multidisciplinary and Tissue Culture Laboratory, Aga Khan University in collaboration with Pharmacology Department of Bahria University Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan from January 2021 to June 2021. MCF-7 cells of Luminal-A breast cancer were seeded in 96-well plate and treated with I.verum methanol extract. After incubation, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) dye was used for cell viability and cell proliferation assays to determine the number of dead and viable cells, and the absorbance was measured using an enzyme-linked …


Amplification Of The Plag-Family Genes-Plagl1 And Plagl2-Is A Key Feature Of The Novel Tumor Type Cns Embryonal Tumor With Plagl Amplification, Michaela-Kristina Keck, Martin Sill, Andrea Wittmann, Piyush Joshi, Damian Stichel, Pengbo Beck, Konstantin Okonechnikow, Philipp Sievers, Annika K. Wefers, Nasir uddin 2022 Hopp Children's Cancer Center Heidelberg, Germany

Amplification Of The Plag-Family Genes-Plagl1 And Plagl2-Is A Key Feature Of The Novel Tumor Type Cns Embryonal Tumor With Plagl Amplification, Michaela-Kristina Keck, Martin Sill, Andrea Wittmann, Piyush Joshi, Damian Stichel, Pengbo Beck, Konstantin Okonechnikow, Philipp Sievers, Annika K. Wefers, Nasir Uddin

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors represent the most common cause of cancer-related death in children aged 0-14 years. They differ from their adult counterparts, showing extensive clinical and molecular heterogeneity as well as a challenging histopathological spectrum that often impairs accurate diagnosis. Here, we use DNA methylation-based CNS tumor classification in combination with copy number, RNA-seq, and ChIP-seq analysis to characterize a newly identified CNS tumor type. In addition, we report histology, patient characteristics, and survival data in this tumor type. We describe a biologically distinct pediatric CNS tumor type (n = 31 cases) that is characterized by focal …


What Do We Know So Far About Ofatumumab For Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis? A Meta-Analytical Study, Hafiza Munazza Taj, Maryam Talib, Sania Siddiqa, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Karla Robles-Velasco, Ivan Cherrez-Ojeda 2022 Fatima Jinnah Medical University, Pakistan

What Do We Know So Far About Ofatumumab For Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis? A Meta-Analytical Study, Hafiza Munazza Taj, Maryam Talib, Sania Siddiqa, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Karla Robles-Velasco, Ivan Cherrez-Ojeda

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Ofatumumab is a monoclonal antibody that reduces the level of B cells that alter the progression of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Originally approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in August 2020, this meta-analysis determines the outcomes of four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for endline outcomes of Gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesions on MRI scans reported as Cohen's d and relapse rate reported as risk ratio. All four RCTs reported favorable findings of gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesions (Cohen's d = -0.44, p < 0.00001). The relapse rate was reduced by 46% post ofatumumab administration (RR = 0.54, p < 0.00001). With 14 ongoing trials in this area, more data is required to consolidate our findings.


Chronic Diarrhea: A Rare Presentation Of Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Saira Furqan, Sajjad Ali Khan, Dania Ali, Kaleemullah Badini 2022 Aga Khan University

Chronic Diarrhea: A Rare Presentation Of Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Saira Furqan, Sajjad Ali Khan, Dania Ali, Kaleemullah Badini

Section of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism

Hodgkin's Lymphoma is a cancer affecting the lymphatic system. There are two subtypes of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Nodular lymphocyte predominant (NLPHL) and classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma which has further four types. It has a bimodal distribution and is more common among males. The most common presentation is painless swelling in the neck, armpit or groin region. Associated Symptoms include night sweats, unintentional weight loss, fever, persistent cough or dyspnea. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is a rare occurrence. Diagnosis is based on hematological, radiological and histochemical studies. Here we report a rare presentation of a 47-year-old male who presented with symptoms of …


Gutka Consumption And Dietary Partialities Explaining Anemia In Women Of A Coastal Slum Of Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed-Method Study, Ameer Muhammad, Sarah Saleem, Daniyaal Ahmad, Eleze Tariq, Yasir Shafiq 2022 VITAL Pakistan Trust, Pakistan

Gutka Consumption And Dietary Partialities Explaining Anemia In Women Of A Coastal Slum Of Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed-Method Study, Ameer Muhammad, Sarah Saleem, Daniyaal Ahmad, Eleze Tariq, Yasir Shafiq

Community Health Sciences

Background: Limited literature is available on the dietary pattern and its consequences on health of women living in coastal slums of Karachi, Pakistan.
Material and methods: The study employed a mixed-method approach where concurrent quantitative and qualitative assessments were carried out. An analytical cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect information on demographic, household, obstetrics characteristics, and dietary pattern of married women of reproductive age (MWRA). Blood samples were collected to identify the hemoglobin level to determine anemia. For the qualitative component, focus group discussions were carried out with women and in-depth interviews with shopkeepers to understand the availability of food …


Detailing The Effects Of Cbd On Parp And Survivin Expression In Ewing Sarcoma, Tyler Carter 2022 Jacksonville State University

Detailing The Effects Of Cbd On Parp And Survivin Expression In Ewing Sarcoma, Tyler Carter

Theses

Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive pediatric bone cancer with low five-year survival rates, particularly with recurrent disease because ES often becomes resistant to chemotherapy in these recurrences. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been identified as a potentially promising therapeutic for patients with ES. In other cancer types, CBD has demonstrated effects on two major proteins that contribute to chemotherapy resistance. The first, Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase I (PARP1), is a DNA damage repair enzyme that is overexpressed in recurrent ES. Though chemotherapy induces DNA damage in these cancer cells, the high levels of PARP1 facilitate repair of the DNA, allowing the mutated …


Immunohistochemical Detection And Prognostic Significance Of P53, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Murine Double Minute 2, And Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 In Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients Of Pakistan, Syed Muhammad Adnan Ali, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim, Syed Ather Enam, Zubair Ahmad, Yumna Adnan, Hasnain Ahmed Farooqui 2022 Aga Khan University

Immunohistochemical Detection And Prognostic Significance Of P53, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Murine Double Minute 2, And Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 In Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients Of Pakistan, Syed Muhammad Adnan Ali, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim, Syed Ather Enam, Zubair Ahmad, Yumna Adnan, Hasnain Ahmed Farooqui

Department of Surgery

Introduction: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest cranial tumors occurring in adults. Various biomarkers have been tested for their significance in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of GBM. Some well-studied markers in GBM are Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), Murine double minute 2 (MDM2), Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), and p53. The aim of this study was to investigate the protein expression of these markers in GBM patients of Pakistan.
Methods: A total of 102 surgically resected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from patients diagnosed and treated at Aga Khan University Hospital were included in this study. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for IDH1, MDM2, …


Burden, Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, And Seasonality Of Adenovirus 40/41 Diarrhea In Children In Eight Low-Resource Settings, Godfrey Guga, Sarah Elwood, Caroline Kimathi, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret N. Kosek, Aldo A M Lima, Pascal O. Bessong, Amidou Samie, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta 2022 Haydom Global Health Research Centre, Haydom

Burden, Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, And Seasonality Of Adenovirus 40/41 Diarrhea In Children In Eight Low-Resource Settings, Godfrey Guga, Sarah Elwood, Caroline Kimathi, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret N. Kosek, Aldo A M Lima, Pascal O. Bessong, Amidou Samie, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: The application of molecular diagnostics has identified enteric group adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41 as important causes of diarrhea in children. However, many aspects of the epidemiology of adenovirus 40/41 diarrhea have not been described.
Methods: We used data from the 8-site Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project birth cohort study to describe site- and age-specific incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and seasonality.
Results: The incidence of adenovirus 40/41 diarrhea was substantially higher by quantitative polymerase chain reaction than enzyme immunoassay and peaked at ∼30 episodes …


The Role Of Nuclear Focal Adhesion Kinase In Tumor And The Tumor Microenvironment, Yelitza Angelica Rodriguez-Rodriguez 2022 University of South Alabama

The Role Of Nuclear Focal Adhesion Kinase In Tumor And The Tumor Microenvironment, Yelitza Angelica Rodriguez-Rodriguez

Theses and Dissertations

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a ubiquitous expressed protein tyrosine kinase. In growing cells, FAK localizes to the plasma membrane where it interacts with several components of the focal adhesion complex and coordinates integrin signaling. Early studies using genetic mouse models revealed that deletion or catalytic inactivation of FAK resulted in early embryonic lethality with vascular, cell proliferation, and cell survival defects. As a result, FAK was coined as a vital mediator of cell migration, proliferation, and cell survival and multiple small molecule FAK inhibitors (FAK-I) had been designed to inactivate FAK catalytic functions in multiple pathologies, particularly in cancer. …


Indispensable Role Of Immunophenotyping In Diagnosing Leukemic Phase Of Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm Without Cutaneous Manifestation, Hareem Alam, Nabiha Saeed, Anila Rashid 2022 Aga Khan University

Indispensable Role Of Immunophenotyping In Diagnosing Leukemic Phase Of Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm Without Cutaneous Manifestation, Hareem Alam, Nabiha Saeed, Anila Rashid

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm usually presents as skin lesions. Diagnostic error occurs when it primarily presents in leukemic phase without skin involvement. Triad of CD4, CD56 and CD123 immunophenotype expression is essential to avoid misdiagnosis of this rare hematological malignancy. Here we describe a patient who presented in overt leukemic phase of BPDCN highlighting diagnostic challenges encountered that resulted in delayed diagnosis and poor outcome


Lenalidomide Induced Secondary Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia In A Multiple Myeloma Patient: A Case-Report, Saqib Raza Khan, Muhammad Tariq, Sidra Malik Fayyaz, Salman Muhammad Soomar, Munira Moosajee 2022 Aga Khan University

Lenalidomide Induced Secondary Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia In A Multiple Myeloma Patient: A Case-Report, Saqib Raza Khan, Muhammad Tariq, Sidra Malik Fayyaz, Salman Muhammad Soomar, Munira Moosajee

Section of Haematology/Oncology

Lenalidomide mechanism of action has been shown to modulate the different components of the immune system. A 68-year-old lady presented to us with severe backache and was then diagnosed with MM. Lenalidomide started as per protocol along with dexamethasone. Later, she presented with complaints of generalized weakness and her workup showed significant blast cells with Pan-B-cell markers consistent with secondary B-ALL. The reported incidence of secondary Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia is 2.3%. The development of more aggressive neoplasm in a patient with prior malignancy dictates a poor outcome and hence such patients should be enrolled in a clinical trial whenever available


Variations In Antibody Response To Aspergillus Fumigatus Inhalation In Mice, Andrea Wells 2022 Minnesota State University Moorhead

Variations In Antibody Response To Aspergillus Fumigatus Inhalation In Mice, Andrea Wells

Student Academic Conference

Studies have configured immunological responses to Aspergillus fumigatus in mice, leading to advanced understandings. However, the comparisons of the immune responses between juvenile (younger than 6 weeks) male and female C57BL/6J mice after A. fumigatus exposure, remains uninvestigated. In this study, we intranasally inoculated 3 week old male and female mice with Aspergillus fumigatus spores dilution of 2 106spores per 40 l. They were exposed to the allergen once a week for 8 consecutive weeks and euthanized on day 28 post the last inoculation. As compared to our last report, we increased the sample size for each group in this …


Paratesticular Solitary Fibrous Tumour Mimicking Cellular Angiofibroma: An Unusual Morphology And Rare Site, Madiha Bilal Qureshi, Muhammad Usman, Qurratulain Chundriger, Nasir uddin 2022 Aga Khan University

Paratesticular Solitary Fibrous Tumour Mimicking Cellular Angiofibroma: An Unusual Morphology And Rare Site, Madiha Bilal Qureshi, Muhammad Usman, Qurratulain Chundriger, Nasir Uddin

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a ubiquitous benign mesenchymal tumour of fibroblastic origin, which occurs most often in middle-aged adults. It usually presents as lung mass originating from pleura, but extrapleural occurrence is also common. Tumour is characterised by hypo- and hyper-cellular areas of spindle-shaped cells, arranged in haphazard manner with dispersed staghorn-shaped vessels. Surgical excision is the curative treatment. SFTs of the primary testicular or paratesticular region are extremely rare, but they exhibit histologic findings similar to SFTs originating at other body sites. Here, we report the case of a paratesticular SFT in a 37-year male, who presented with …


A Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Usually Associated With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Pcv) Serotypes Is The Most Common Cause Of Serotype 35b Invasive Disease In South Africa, Following Routine Use Of Pcv, Kedibone M. Ndlangisa, Mignon du Plessis, Stephani Lo, Linda de Gouveia, Chrispin Chaguza, Martin Antonio, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Jennifer Cornick, Dean B. Everett, Sadia Shakoor 2022 National Institute for Communicable Diseases

A Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Usually Associated With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Pcv) Serotypes Is The Most Common Cause Of Serotype 35b Invasive Disease In South Africa, Following Routine Use Of Pcv, Kedibone M. Ndlangisa, Mignon Du Plessis, Stephani Lo, Linda De Gouveia, Chrispin Chaguza, Martin Antonio, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Jennifer Cornick, Dean B. Everett, Sadia Shakoor

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Pneumococcal serotype 35B is an important non-conjugate vaccine (non-PCV) serotype. Its continued emergence, post-PCV7 in the USA, was associated with expansion of a pre-existing 35B clone (clonal complex [CC] 558) along with post-PCV13 emergence of a non-35B clone previously associated with PCV serotypes (CC156). This study describes lineages circulating among 35B isolates in South Africa before and after PCV introduction. We also compared 35B isolates belonging to a predominant 35B lineage in South Africa (GPSC5), with isolates belonging to the same lineage in other parts of the world. Serotype 35B isolates that caused invasive pneumococcal disease in South Africa in …


High Cd44 Immunoexpression Correlates With Poor Overall Survival: Assessing The Role Of Cancer Stem Cell Markers In Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients From The High-Risk Population Of Pakistan, Yumna Mirza, Syed Adnan Ali, Hasnain Ahmed Farooqui, Hammad A. Kayani, Romana Idress, Mohammad Sohail Awan 2022 Aga Khan University

High Cd44 Immunoexpression Correlates With Poor Overall Survival: Assessing The Role Of Cancer Stem Cell Markers In Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients From The High-Risk Population Of Pakistan, Yumna Mirza, Syed Adnan Ali, Hasnain Ahmed Farooqui, Hammad A. Kayani, Romana Idress, Mohammad Sohail Awan

Department of Surgery

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a top-ranked cancer in the Pakistani population, and patient survival has remained unchanged at ∼50% for several decades. Recent advances have claimed that a subset of tumour cells, called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for tumour progression, treatment resistance, and metastasis, which leads to a poor prognosis. This study investigated the impact of CSC markers expression on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of OSCC patients. Materials and Methods. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate CD44, CD133, L1CAM, and SOX2 expression in a well-characterized cohort of 100 Pakistani patients with primary treatment …


Design And Development Of Software With A Graphical User Interface To Display And Convert Multiple Microscopic Histology Images, Sayed Ahmadreza Razian, Majid Jadidi, ALEXEY KAMENSKIY 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Design And Development Of Software With A Graphical User Interface To Display And Convert Multiple Microscopic Histology Images, Sayed Ahmadreza Razian, Majid Jadidi, Alexey Kamenskiy

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Histological images are widely used to assess the microscopic anatomy of biological tissues. Recent advancements in image analysis allow the identification of structural features on histological sections that can help advance medical device development, brain and cancer research, drug discovery, vascular mechanobiology, and many other fields. Histological slide scanners create images in SVS and TIFF formats that were designed to archive image blocks and high-resolution textual information. Because these formats were primarily intended for storage, they are often not compatible with conventional image analysis software and require conversion before they can be used in research. We have developed a user-friendly …


Covid-19 In Cns And Pns: Basic And Clinical Focus On The Mechanisms Of Infection And New Tools For The Therapeutic Approach, Jorge Matias-Guiu, Jordi A. Matias-Guiu, Carmen Garrido, Genaro Pimienta, Patricio F. Reyes, Abdul Mannan Baig, Ulises Gomez-Pinedo 2022 Institute of Neurosciences

Covid-19 In Cns And Pns: Basic And Clinical Focus On The Mechanisms Of Infection And New Tools For The Therapeutic Approach, Jorge Matias-Guiu, Jordi A. Matias-Guiu, Carmen Garrido, Genaro Pimienta, Patricio F. Reyes, Abdul Mannan Baig, Ulises Gomez-Pinedo

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

No abstract provided.


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