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Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill 2022 Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest

Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Mitochondria are cytoplasmic, double-membrane organelles that synthesise adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria contain their own genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is maternally inherited from the oocyte. Mitochondrial proteins are encoded by either nuclear DNA (nDNA) or mtDNA, and both code for proteins forming the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes of the respiratory chain. These complexes form a chain that allows the passage of electrons down the electron transport chain (ETC) through a proton motive force, creating ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This study aims to explore current and prospective therapies for mitochondrial disorders (MTDS). MTDS are clinical syndromes coupled with abnormalities …


Fortuitous Diagnosis Of Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return In A Newborn With Hypoglycemia, Joseph Maes, Terence Zach 2022 Creighton University

Fortuitous Diagnosis Of Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return In A Newborn With Hypoglycemia, Joseph Maes, Terence Zach

Child Health Research Institute Pediatric Research Forum

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan 2021 University of Connecticut

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

Honors Scholar Theses

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the …


Use Of Umbilical Cord Mesencymal Stem Cells In The Treatment Of Severe Covid-19 Pneumonia, Michelle Joy De Vera, Marc Joseph Buensalido, Jan Jorge Francisco, Jia An Bello, Alan Olavere, Alma Calavera, Josephine Ramos, Norma Ona, Eyreka Escalambre, Marvin Delos Santos, Samuel Bernal, Vasiliki E. Kalodimou 2021 Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health, Ateneo de Manila University

Use Of Umbilical Cord Mesencymal Stem Cells In The Treatment Of Severe Covid-19 Pneumonia, Michelle Joy De Vera, Marc Joseph Buensalido, Jan Jorge Francisco, Jia An Bello, Alan Olavere, Alma Calavera, Josephine Ramos, Norma Ona, Eyreka Escalambre, Marvin Delos Santos, Samuel Bernal, Vasiliki E. Kalodimou

Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health Publications

A proposed mechanism of severe Corona virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a deregulated innate immune response to an infection with SARS-CoV-2 resulting in cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Mesencymal stem cells (MSC) have been shown to have immunomodulatory effects and may attenuate the CRS. We present 11 cases of severe COVID-19 pneumonia treated with umbilical cord-derived, non-HLA matched MSC administered as four separate intravenous doses, 5×105 cells/kg. Clinical symptoms, measurements of inflammatory mediators and cytokines (IL6, IL10, IFN-γ, TNF-α), and radiological results were recorded for each patient. Although there were large variations in baseline cytokine pattern elevation, all cytokine levels decreased in …


Contraceptive Methods In The United States: The Question Of Abortive Mechanisms, Tara Ferenczy 2020 Liberty University

Contraceptive Methods In The United States: The Question Of Abortive Mechanisms, Tara Ferenczy

Senior Honors Theses

This thesis reviews the many methods of contraception available in the United States. Although society’s understanding of women’s health has become a major topic, there is still a significant deficit of information regarding how the accessible methods affect women’s bodies, specifically reproductive tissue. The thesis analyzes numerous contraceptive options focusing specifically on the mechanisms of action to determine whether options have abortifacient properties so that readers may develop educated opinions regarding medical and ethical uses. Information involving strengths and limitations of each technique and the effects on both the female body and the reproductive material assist in understanding the process …


Defects In Fetal Mouth Movement And Pharyngeal Patterning Underlie Cleft Palate Caused By Retinoid Deficiency., Regina Friedl 2019 University of Louisville

Defects In Fetal Mouth Movement And Pharyngeal Patterning Underlie Cleft Palate Caused By Retinoid Deficiency., Regina Friedl

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cleft palate is a common birth defect. Etiologic mechanisms of palate cleft include defects in palate morphogenesis, mandibular growth, or spontaneous fetal mouth movement. Cleft palate linked to deficient fetal mouth movement has been demonstrated directly only in a single experimental model of loss of neurotransmission. Here, using retinoid deficient mouse embryos, we demonstrate directly for the first time that deficient fetal mouth movement and cleft palate occurs as a result of mis-patterned development of pharyngeal peripheral nerves and cartilages. Retinoid deficient embryos were generated by inactivation of retinol dehydrogenase 10 (Rdh10), which is critical for production of …


Arterial Distribution Of The Human Aorta: An Examination Of The Evolutionary, Developmental, And Physiological Bases Of Asymmetry., Brandon Oddo, Cooker Storm 2019 Pepperdine University

Arterial Distribution Of The Human Aorta: An Examination Of The Evolutionary, Developmental, And Physiological Bases Of Asymmetry., Brandon Oddo, Cooker Storm

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The study of anatomy contends that “form follows function”; a disciplinary theme purporting that anatomical structures (i.e., cells, tissues, and organs) have a shape that serves its proper function. With this in mind, it is unclear why human arterial distribution off the aortic arch is asymmetrical, while the corresponding venous anatomy is symmetrical. We investigated the evolutionary, developmental, and physiological bases for the asymmetry of aortic arch branches in humans. First, we investigated the cardiovascular anatomy of ancestral species to determine if, and at what level, anatomical divergence (from aortic symmetry to asymmetry) occurs. Second, we examined the formation of …


Spag17 Deficiency Impairs Neuronal Cell Differentiation In Developing Brain, Olivia J. Choi 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Spag17 Deficiency Impairs Neuronal Cell Differentiation In Developing Brain, Olivia J. Choi

Theses and Dissertations

The development of the nervous system is a multi-level, time-sensitive process that relies heavily on cell differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms that control brain development remain poorly understood. We generated a knockout (KO) mouse for the cilia associated gene Spag17. These animals develop hydrocephalus and enlarged ventricles consistent with the role of Spag17 in the motility of ependymal cilia. However, other phenotypes that cannot be explained by this role were also present. Recently, a mutation in Spag17 has been associated with brain malformations and severe intellectual disability in humans. Therefore, we hypothesized that Spag17 plays a crucial role in …


Factors Affecting The Survival And Implantation Of Human Blastocysts Following Vitrification, Hamish Barblett 2019 Edith Cowan University

Factors Affecting The Survival And Implantation Of Human Blastocysts Following Vitrification, Hamish Barblett

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

The increased cell numbers, presence of the blastocoel and rapid cell re-organisation have required the development of specific survival criteria post warm to effectively select the most viable blastocyst for transfer. Pre-freeze blastocyst expansion and post warm re-expansion have been shown to contribute significantly to the chances of an implantation and subsequent live birth. The aim of this study was to explore factors that influence the outcome of blastocyst transfers after vitrification and warming, and hopefully improve outcomes by further applying improvements in future cycles. Variables from 8 years of vitrified/warmed blastocysts were retrospectively compiled and analysed to determine the …


Case Report: A Hard Cyst To Swallow, Anjalee Choudhury, Joshua Wood, Kristan Diaz-Rios, Jyothi Swarup 2018 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Case Report: A Hard Cyst To Swallow, Anjalee Choudhury, Joshua Wood, Kristan Diaz-Rios, Jyothi Swarup

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

One day old neonate was born at 37 weeks gestation to a 41-year-old Gravida 5 Para 5 born via uncomplicated caesarean section. A physical exam of the newborn had unremarkable findings except for minor skin tags on the neck and a cleft palate.


Identifying The 5’End Of The Camta1 Genes In Zebrafish, Morgan Fronk 2018 Brigham Young University

Identifying The 5’End Of The Camta1 Genes In Zebrafish, Morgan Fronk

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are a significant cause of infant death and are frequently caused by mutations in transcription factors. Camta1 (calmodulin binding transcription activator 1) is a transcription factor that has been proposed as a modulator in embryonic heart development and a possible cause of CHDs. The only other known member of its family in vertebrates is involved in activating a hypertrophy gene program in adult heart failure. Unlike camta2, camta1 is expressed in the embryonic heart during heart looping. However, few studies have been done on camta1. In zebrafish, there are two camta1 ohnologs (homologs created through …


Embryonic Transcription Factor Expression In Mice Predicts Medial Amygdala Neuronal Identity And Sex-Specific Responses To Innate Behavioral Cues., Julieta E Lischinsky, Katie Sokolowski, Li Peijun, Shigeyuki Esumi, Yasmin Kamal, Meredith Goodrich, Livio Oboti, Timothy R Hammond, Meera Krishnamoorthy, Daniel Feldman, Molly Huntsman, Judy Liu, Joshua G Corbin 2017 George Washington University

Embryonic Transcription Factor Expression In Mice Predicts Medial Amygdala Neuronal Identity And Sex-Specific Responses To Innate Behavioral Cues., Julieta E Lischinsky, Katie Sokolowski, Li Peijun, Shigeyuki Esumi, Yasmin Kamal, Meredith Goodrich, Livio Oboti, Timothy R Hammond, Meera Krishnamoorthy, Daniel Feldman, Molly Huntsman, Judy Liu, Joshua G Corbin

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

The medial subnucleus of the amygdala (MeA) plays a central role in processing sensory cues required for innate behaviors. However, whether there is a link between developmental programs and the emergence of inborn behaviors remains unknown. Our previous studies revealed that the telencephalic preoptic area (POA) embryonic niche is a novel source of MeA destined progenitors. Here, we show that the POA is comprised of distinct progenitor pools complementarily marked by the transcription factors Dbx1 and Foxp2. As determined by molecular and electrophysiological criteria this embryonic parcellation predicts postnatal MeA inhibitory neuronal subtype identity. We further find that Dbx1-derived and …


Mechanism For Generation Of Left Isomerism In Ccdc40 Mutant Embryos, Kelsey Sugrue, Irene E. Zohn 2017 George Washington University

Mechanism For Generation Of Left Isomerism In Ccdc40 Mutant Embryos, Kelsey Sugrue, Irene E. Zohn

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Leftward fluid flow in the mouse node is generated by cilia and is critical for initiating asymmetry of the left-right axis. Coiled-coil domain containing-40 (Ccdc40) plays an evolutionarily conserved role in the assembly of motile cilia and establishment of the left-right axis. Approximately one-third of Ccdc40lnks mutant embryos display situs defects and here we investigate the underlying mechanism. Ccdc40lnks mutants show delayed induction of markers of the left-lateral plate mesoderm (L-LPM) including Lefty1, Lefty2 and Nodal. Consistent with defective cilia motility compromising fluid flow across the node, initiation of asymmetric perinodal Cerberus like-2 ( …


Dreadlocks (Dock) Is Necessary To Regulate Growth Of The Germline Ring Canals In The Developing Drosophila Melanogaster Egg Chamber, Olivia Crowe 2017 Butler University

Dreadlocks (Dock) Is Necessary To Regulate Growth Of The Germline Ring Canals In The Developing Drosophila Melanogaster Egg Chamber, Olivia Crowe

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

Infertility is a prevalent issue in the United States, impacting 1.5 million women (1). A possible cause of infertility is defects in gametogenesis, or the formation of sperm and egg. Therefore, understanding the basic mechanisms that promote normal gamete formation could impact our understanding of infertility. The Drosophila melanogaster egg develops from an organ-like structure called an egg chamber. The egg chamber is composed of a central cluster of 16 germ cells that are connected to one another by intercellular bridges, called ring canals. These ring canals are composed of filamentous actin and allow the transfer of materials from supporting …


The Arp2/3 Complex Is Essential At Multiple Stages Of Neural Development., Fu-Sheng Chou, Pei-Shan Wang 2016 Children's Mercy Hospital

The Arp2/3 Complex Is Essential At Multiple Stages Of Neural Development., Fu-Sheng Chou, Pei-Shan Wang

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

During development of the nervous system, radial glial cells perform self-renewing asymmetric divisions and give rise to intermediate progenitor cells (IPC) and neurons. The neuronally committed IPC subsequently undergo multiple rounds of transient amplification and migrate outwards to form cortical layers as they continue to differentiate into mature neurons. Maturing neurons extend protrusions on their cell surface to form neurites, a process called neuritogenesis. Neurite formation results in the establishment of dendrites and axons for synapse formation, which is essential for sensory and motor functions and even higher-level functioning including memory formation and cognitive function, as well as shaping of …


Human Oocytes And Embryos Viewed By Time-Lapse Videography, And The Development Of An Embryo Deselection Model, Yanhe Liu 2016 Edith Cowan University

Human Oocytes And Embryos Viewed By Time-Lapse Videography, And The Development Of An Embryo Deselection Model, Yanhe Liu

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Despite its wide application today, in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment continues to have relatively low efficacy, largely due to inaccuracy in selecting the best quality embryo(s) from the cohort for transfer. Novel methodologies for improved selection are being developed, and time-lapse observation of human embryos is gaining increasing popularity due to the more detailed morphokinetic information obtained plus uninterrupted culture conditions. The morphokinetic information enables the use of quantitative timings in developmental milestones of embryos and qualitative measures of abnormal biological events, to assist embryo selection/deselection. This project aimed to identify current limitations in the use of such measures and …


Subcellular Metabolite And Lipid Analysis Of Xenopus Laevis Eggs By Laesi Mass Spectrometry, Bindesh Shrestha, Prabhakar Sripadi, Brent R. Reschke, Holly D. Henderson, Matthew J. Powell, Sally Ann Moody, Akos Vertes 2014 George Washington University

Subcellular Metabolite And Lipid Analysis Of Xenopus Laevis Eggs By Laesi Mass Spectrometry, Bindesh Shrestha, Prabhakar Sripadi, Brent R. Reschke, Holly D. Henderson, Matthew J. Powell, Sally Ann Moody, Akos Vertes

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Xenopus laevis eggs are used as a biological model system for studying fertilization and early embryonic development in vertebrates. Most methods used for their molecular analysis require elaborate sample preparation including separate protocols for the water soluble and lipid components. In this study, laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI), an ambient ionization technique, was used for direct mass spectrometric analysis of X. laevis eggs and early stage embryos up to five cleavage cycles. Single unfertilized and fertilized eggs, their animal and vegetal poles, and embryos through the 32-cell stage were analyzed. Fifty two small metabolite ions, including glutathione, GABA and amino …


Investigating A Role For The Ccaat/Enhancer-Binding Protein Δ In The Developing Zebrafish, Alisha Jennifer Beirl 2014 Portland State University

Investigating A Role For The Ccaat/Enhancer-Binding Protein Δ In The Developing Zebrafish, Alisha Jennifer Beirl

Dissertations and Theses

The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPδ) is a highly conserved transcription factor capable of regulating numerous cell fate processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. C/EBPδ is inducible during cellular stress responses, including inflammation and responses to growth factor deprivation or thermal stress. C/EBPδ is stress-inducible in a diversity of fishes, including the zebrafish Danio rerio; however, little is known about its role in fish development. Here I show that overexpression of C/EBPδ leads to severe developmental defects, including reduced body length, edema, liver malformation and retinal abnormalities. The proportion of individuals that display developmental abnormalities is significantly …


The Dn2 Myeloid-T (Dn2mt) Progenitor Is A Target Cell For Leukemic Transformation By The Tlx1 Oncogene, Lynnsey A. Zweier-Renn, Irene Riz, Teresa S. Hawley, Robert G. Hawley 2013 George Washington University

The Dn2 Myeloid-T (Dn2mt) Progenitor Is A Target Cell For Leukemic Transformation By The Tlx1 Oncogene, Lynnsey A. Zweier-Renn, Irene Riz, Teresa S. Hawley, Robert G. Hawley

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Introduction: Inappropriate activation of the TLX1 (T-cell leukemia homeobox 1) gene by chromosomal translocation is a recurrent event in human T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL). Ectopic expression of TLX1 in murine bone marrow progenitor cells using a conventional retroviral vector efficiently yields immortalized cell lines and induces T-ALL-like tumors in mice after long latency.

Methods: To eliminate a potential contribution of retroviral insertional mutagenesis to TLX1 immortalizing and transforming function, we incorporated the TLX1 gene into an insulated self-inactivating retroviral vector.

Results: Retrovirally transduced TLX1-expressing murine bone marrow progenitor cells had a growth/survival advantage and readily gave rise to immortalized …


Basic Concepts In Understanding Recovery Of Function In Vestibular Reflex Networks During Vestibular Compensation, Kenna D. Peusner, Mei Shao, Rebecca Reddaway, June C. Hirsch 2012 George Washington University

Basic Concepts In Understanding Recovery Of Function In Vestibular Reflex Networks During Vestibular Compensation, Kenna D. Peusner, Mei Shao, Rebecca Reddaway, June C. Hirsch

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions produce a syndrome of oculomotor and postural deficits with the symptoms at rest, the static symptoms, partially or completely normalizing shortly after the lesion due to a process known as vestibular compensation. The symptoms are thought to result from changes in the activity of vestibular sensorimotor reflexes. Since the vestibular nuclei must be intact for recovery to occur, many investigations have focused on studying these neurons after lesions. At present, the neuronal plasticity underlying early recovery from the static symptoms is not fully understood. Here we propose that knowledge of the reflex identity and input–output connections …


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