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Cardiovascular System Commons

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Cardiac Arrest And Global Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Role Of Mitochondria And Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Signaling., Jennifer L. Bradley 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Cardiac Arrest And Global Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Role Of Mitochondria And Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Signaling., Jennifer L. Bradley

Theses and Dissertations

We explored the effects of cardiac arrest on mitochondria populations and heart whole tissue lysate proteomics utilizing the Weil Institute’s in vivo rat model of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We have discovered that brain mitochondria are more sensitive to global ischemia compared to heart mitochondria. Additionally, complex I is the most sensitive electron transport chain complex to ischemic injury and is a major control point of the rate of oxidative phosphorylation following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Preservation of brain mitochondrial activity and function during cardiac arrest may enhance outcomes and recovery.

A recent article focusing on acute ...


Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (Tavr), Emily Wentzel 2021 Misericordia University

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (Tavr), Emily Wentzel

Student Research Poster Presentations 2021

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

Emily Wentzel

Lynn Blazaskie

Abstract

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement, or TAVR, is a procedure that is performed when a patient is in need of a new aortic valve. This is a procedure done to relieve symptoms of aortic stenosis. TAVR first began in France in 2002 and came to the United States in 2005. Cardiac Catheterization is the modality that is utilized in order to perform this procedure along with a cardiac catheterization team. The team includes cardiac catheterization technologists, doctors, nurses, cardiovascular surgeons, and ultrasound technologists. Cardiac Catheterization is a minor surgical procedure that ...


Young Healthy Adults With A Family History Of Hypertension Have Increased Microvascular Reactivity But Decreased Macrovascular Function, Evan L. Matthews, Peter A. Hosick Dr., John J. Guers 2020 Montclair State University

Young Healthy Adults With A Family History Of Hypertension Have Increased Microvascular Reactivity But Decreased Macrovascular Function, Evan L. Matthews, Peter A. Hosick Dr., John J. Guers

Research Data

OBJECTIVE: To determine if, like hypertensives, normotensive adults with a family history of hypertension (+FHH) display lower microvascular reactivity and conduit artery function than normotensive adults without a family history of hypertension (-FHH). METHODS: A forearm vascular occlusion test was performed on healthy normotensive adults while resting in the supine position. A near infrared spectroscopy sensor placed on the forearm measured skeletal muscle oxygen saturation kinetics to determine microvascular reactivity. Simultaneously, an ultrasound probe placed on the brachial artery above the occlusion cuff was used to assess flow mediated dilation; a test of macrovascular function. RESULTS: Twenty-two participants were included ...


Patency Of Arterial Repairs From Wartime Extremity Vascular Injuries, Lauren J. Haney, Esther Bae, Mary Jo V. Pugh, Laurel A. Copeland, Chen-Pin Wang, Daniel J. MacCarthy, Megan E. Amuan, Paula K. Shireman 2020 University of Texas at San Antonio

Patency Of Arterial Repairs From Wartime Extremity Vascular Injuries, Lauren J. Haney, Esther Bae, Mary Jo V. Pugh, Laurel A. Copeland, Chen-Pin Wang, Daniel J. Maccarthy, Megan E. Amuan, Paula K. Shireman

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Background: Extremity vascular injury (EVI) causes significant disability in Veterans of the Afghanistan/Iraq conflicts. Advancements in acute trauma care improved survival and decreased amputations. The study of wartime EVI has relied on successful limb salvage as a surrogate for vascular repair. We used imaging studies as a specific measure of arterial repair durability.

Methods: Service members with EVI were identified using the Department of Defense Trauma Registry and validated by chart abstraction. Inclusion criteria for the arterial patency subgroup included an initial repair attempt with subsequent imaging reports (duplex ultrasound, CT angiography, and angiogram) documenting initial patency.

Results: The ...


Modeling Action Potential Reversals In Tunicate Hearts, John W. Cain, Luran He, Lindsay D. Waldrop 2020 Harvard University

Modeling Action Potential Reversals In Tunicate Hearts, John W. Cain, Luran He, Lindsay D. Waldrop

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Tunicates are small invertebrates which possess a unique ability to reverse flow in their hearts. Scientists have debated various theories regarding how and why flow reversals occur. Here we explore the electrophysiological basis for reversals by simulating action potential propagation in an idealized model of the tubelike tunicate heart. Using asymptotic formulas for action potential duration and conduction velocity, we propose tunicate-specific parameters for a two-current ionic model of the action potential. Then, using a kinematic model, we derive analytical criteria for reversals to occur. These criteria inform subsequent numerical simulations of action potential propagation in a fiber paced at ...


Sars-Cov-2 Receptors Are Expressed On Human Platelets And The Effect Of Aspirin On Clinical Outcomes In Covid-19 Patients [Preprint], Aditya Sahai, Milka Koupenova-Zamor, Jane E. Freedman, Scott Cameron 2020 Case Western Reserve University

Sars-Cov-2 Receptors Are Expressed On Human Platelets And The Effect Of Aspirin On Clinical Outcomes In Covid-19 Patients [Preprint], Aditya Sahai, Milka Koupenova-Zamor, Jane E. Freedman, Scott Cameron

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is an ongoing viral pandemic marked by increased risk of thrombotic events. However, the role of platelets in the elevated observed thrombotic risk in COVID-19 and utility of anti-platelet agents in attenuating thrombosis is unknown. We aimed to determine if human platelets express the known SARS-CoV-2 receptor-protease axis on their cell surface and assess whether the anti-platelet effect of aspirin may mitigate risk of myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and venous thromboembolism (VTE) in COVID-19. Expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 on human platelets were detected by immunoblotting and confirmed by confocal microscopy. We ...


Efficacy Of Pulmonary Ultrasound Compared To N-Terminal Prohormone Brain Natriuretic Peptide As A Diagnostic Tool For Congestive Heart Failure In Patients Presenting With Acute Dyspnea In The Emergency Setting, Leah Krohn, Michael Burns 2020 James Madison University

Efficacy Of Pulmonary Ultrasound Compared To N-Terminal Prohormone Brain Natriuretic Peptide As A Diagnostic Tool For Congestive Heart Failure In Patients Presenting With Acute Dyspnea In The Emergency Setting, Leah Krohn, Michael Burns

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2020-current

Objective: To determine the efficacy of using pulmonary ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in acute dyspnea of undetermined cause compared to the use of serum N-Terminal prohormone Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) in the diagnosis of heart failure.

Design: Systematic literature review

Methods: Searches were conducted in PubMed and Scopus using the terms pulmonary ultrasound and congestive heart failure and studies within the last 10 years. Studies that used pulmonary ultrasound compared to BNP as a marker for the diagnosis of heart failure were included.

Results: All three studies found that the use of pulmonary ultrasound was a more specific diagnostic ...


Yap/Taz Deficiency Reprograms Macrophage Phenotype And Improves Infarct Healing And Cardiac Function After Myocardial Infarction, Masum M. Mia, Dasan Mary Cibi, Siti Aishah Abdul Ghani Binte, Weihua Song, Nicole Tee, Sujoy Ghosh, Junhao Mao, Eric N. Olson, Manvendra K. Singh 2020 Duke-NUS Medical School Singapore

Yap/Taz Deficiency Reprograms Macrophage Phenotype And Improves Infarct Healing And Cardiac Function After Myocardial Infarction, Masum M. Mia, Dasan Mary Cibi, Siti Aishah Abdul Ghani Binte, Weihua Song, Nicole Tee, Sujoy Ghosh, Junhao Mao, Eric N. Olson, Manvendra K. Singh

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Adverse cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) causes structural and functional changes in the heart leading to heart failure. The initial post-MI pro-inflammatory response followed by reparative or anti-inflammatory response is essential for minimizing the myocardial damage, healing, and scar formation. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) are recruited to the injured myocardium and are essential for cardiac repair as they can adopt both pro-inflammatory or reparative phenotypes to modulate inflammatory and reparative responses, respectively. Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are the key mediators of the Hippo signaling pathway and are essential for cardiac regeneration and repair ...


Transcutaneous Energy Transmission: Can We Do It Now?, Yuriy Pya 2020 National Research Cardiac Surgery Center

Transcutaneous Energy Transmission: Can We Do It Now?, Yuriy Pya

The VAD Journal

The percutaneous driveline used in contemporary LVADs presents a continuous risk of infection for the duration of support. Minimizing infection in durable mechanical circulatory support systems requires total implantation of all components and energy transfer by means other than percutaneous drivelines. A novel coplanar energy transfer (CET) system, similar to the original transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) design, is unique by incorporating two large rings with coil-within-the-coil topology to ensure strong resonance power. The CET system consists of an internal integrated controller, a battery coupled with an internal thoracic coil ring, and the LVAD pump. External equipment includes a power transmission ...


Premature Atrial And Ventricular Contraction Detection Using Photoplethysmographic Data From A Smartwatch, Dong Han, Syed Khairul Bashar, Fahimeh Mohagheghian, Eric Y. Ding, Cody Whitcomb, David D. McManus, Ki H. Chon 2020 University of Connecticut

Premature Atrial And Ventricular Contraction Detection Using Photoplethysmographic Data From A Smartwatch, Dong Han, Syed Khairul Bashar, Fahimeh Mohagheghian, Eric Y. Ding, Cody Whitcomb, David D. Mcmanus, Ki H. Chon

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

We developed an algorithm to detect premature atrial contraction (PAC) and premature ventricular contraction (PVC) using photoplethysmographic (PPG) data acquired from a smartwatch. Our PAC/PVC detection algorithm is composed of a sequence of algorithms that are combined to discriminate various arrhythmias. A novel vector resemblance method is used to enhance the PAC/PVC detection results of the Poincare plot method. The new PAC/PVC detection algorithm with our automated motion and noise artifact detection approach yielded a sensitivity of 86% for atrial fibrillation (AF) subjects while the overall sensitivity was 67% when normal sinus rhythm (NSR) subjects were also ...


Angiotensin Inhibition And Gastrointestinal Bleeding Prevention In Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Devices, Phillip A. Weeks 2020 Department of Pharmacy, Memorial Hermann Hospital - Texas Medical Center

Angiotensin Inhibition And Gastrointestinal Bleeding Prevention In Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Devices, Phillip A. Weeks

The VAD Journal

Gastrointestinal bleeding remains a common complication in advanced heart failure patients following implantation of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices. While the cause is likely multifactorial, development of arterial venous malformations in the gastrointestinal mucosa are a key factor. Inhibition of angiotensin II activity has been postulated to disrupt the signaling that promotes angiogenesis in these patients. We aim to review the theoretical basis for angiotensin receptor blockade, which has been proposed and explore the published evidence regarding this therapy and gastrointestinal bleeding in LVAD patients.


Unusual Case Of Pump Thrombosis In Lvad Patient With Covid-19 — Diagnostic Challenges, William H. Frick MD, Ryan D. Mallory, Maya Guglin, Eve Anderson, Erin N. Lushin, Rey P. Vivo, Kashif Saleem, Roopa A. Rao 2020 Indiana University

Unusual Case Of Pump Thrombosis In Lvad Patient With Covid-19 — Diagnostic Challenges, William H. Frick Md, Ryan D. Mallory, Maya Guglin, Eve Anderson, Erin N. Lushin, Rey P. Vivo, Kashif Saleem, Roopa A. Rao

The VAD Journal

We present the first reported case of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) pump thrombosis in the setting of the coronavirus pandemic. We describe the clinical features of the case which helped to differentiate coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) from LVAD pump thrombosis. The patient is 56-year-old female supported by destination LVAD therapy. She was originally implanted with a HeartMate II device in 2015 and underwent two pump exchanges in 2017 and 2019 for pump thrombosis, despite medication adherence. Shortly after routine lab work revealed near doubling of her lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, she tested positive for COVID-19. She then developed power ...


Cangrelor: Safe And Effective For Left Ventricular Assist Device Thrombosis, Roopa Rao, Eve Anderson, Mark Jones, Muhamed Safiia, Maya Guglin 2020 Krannert Institute of Cardiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN

Cangrelor: Safe And Effective For Left Ventricular Assist Device Thrombosis, Roopa Rao, Eve Anderson, Mark Jones, Muhamed Safiia, Maya Guglin

The VAD Journal

Pump thrombosis is a devastating complication of left ventricular assist device implantation as it increases the risk of mortality and morbidity. Early and effective treatment is important to prevent the progression of the clot and to avoid the surgical need for pump exchange or heart transplant. The current strategies of intensifying anticoagulation therapy are not consistently effective and carry significant bleeding risks. Cangrelor is a new pharmacological agent that has been utilized as an antiplatelet agent in several cardiac procedures. In this case series, we describe the use of cangrelor for left ventricular assist device thrombosis in five patients. Cangrelor ...


Long Qt Syndrome Type 2: Emerging Strategies For Correcting Class 2 Kcnh2 (Herg) Mutations And Identifying New Patients, Makoto Ono, Don E. Burgess, Elizabeth A. Schroder, Claude S. Elayi, Corey L. Anderson, Craig T. January, Bin Sun, Kalyan Immadisetty, Peter M. Kekenes-Huskey, Brian P. Delisle 2020 University of Kentucky

Long Qt Syndrome Type 2: Emerging Strategies For Correcting Class 2 Kcnh2 (Herg) Mutations And Identifying New Patients, Makoto Ono, Don E. Burgess, Elizabeth A. Schroder, Claude S. Elayi, Corey L. Anderson, Craig T. January, Bin Sun, Kalyan Immadisetty, Peter M. Kekenes-Huskey, Brian P. Delisle

Physiology Faculty Publications

Significant advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cause congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) have been made. A wide variety of experimental approaches, including heterologous expression of mutant ion channel proteins and the use of inducible pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) from LQTS patients offer insights into etiology and new therapeutic strategies. This review briefly discusses the major molecular mechanisms underlying LQTS type 2 (LQT2), which is caused by loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in the KCNH2 gene (also known as the human ether-à-go-go-related gene or hERG). Almost half of suspected LQT2-causing mutations are missense mutations, and functional studies suggest ...


Characterizing Recurrence Following Hybrid Ablation In Patients With Persistent Atrial Fibrillation, David C. Kress, Lynn Erickson, Tadele W. Mengesha, David Krum, Jasbir Sra 2020 Aurora Cardiovascular and Thoracic Services, Aurora Sinai/Aurora St. Luke’s Medical Centers

Characterizing Recurrence Following Hybrid Ablation In Patients With Persistent Atrial Fibrillation, David C. Kress, Lynn Erickson, Tadele W. Mengesha, David Krum, Jasbir Sra

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: It is It is widely accepted that atrial fibrillation (AF) accounts for half of arrhythmia recurrences following endocardial catheter ablation of AF. An epicardial-endocardial approach (hybrid) has emerged as an alternative to endocardial ablation alone for the treatment of AF, yet recurrence after a hybrid procedure has not been well characterized. This retrospective study is aimed at characterizing recurrence following hybrid ablation for patients with persistent AF.

Methods: Patients with persistent AF (N = 108) received both endocardial and epicardial ablation of the posterior left atrial wall using catheter ablation and a small midline surgical approach (hybrid). Presence of atrial ...


A Fatal Rectus Sheath Hematoma After A Myasthenia Crisis Case Report, Robert G. Michaud, Lesley B. Gordon 2020 Tufts University School of Medicine - Maine Track Program

A Fatal Rectus Sheath Hematoma After A Myasthenia Crisis Case Report, Robert G. Michaud, Lesley B. Gordon

Journal of Maine Medical Center

Introduction: Rectus sheath hematomas (RSH) generally occur due to damage to the inferior epigastric artery. They are rare causes of abdominal pain or acute blood loss anemia, but are an important diagnostic consideration because they can be cryptic and are potentially fatal.

Clinical Findings: An 85-year-old female who had been admitted to the hospital for 10 days with a myasthenia crisis was found to be abruptly hypotensive with a tender abdominal mass in the left lower quadrant subtly crossing midline. She was on prophylactic anticoagulation during her hospitalization.

Main diagnosis, therapeutics, interventions, and outcomes: The patient was initially stabilized with ...


Coffee And Tea Consumption In The Early Adult Lifespan And Left Ventricular Function In Middle Age: The Cardia Study, Chike C. Nwabuo, Aisha S. Betoko, Jared P. Reis, Henrique T. Moreira, Henrique D. Vasconcellos, Eliseo Guallar, Christopher Cox, Stephen Sidney, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Cora E. Lewis, Pamela J. Schreiner, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Catarina I. Kiefe, Samuel S. Gidding, Joao A. C. Lima 2020 Johns Hopkins University

Coffee And Tea Consumption In The Early Adult Lifespan And Left Ventricular Function In Middle Age: The Cardia Study, Chike C. Nwabuo, Aisha S. Betoko, Jared P. Reis, Henrique T. Moreira, Henrique D. Vasconcellos, Eliseo Guallar, Christopher Cox, Stephen Sidney, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Cora E. Lewis, Pamela J. Schreiner, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Catarina I. Kiefe, Samuel S. Gidding, Joao A. C. Lima

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

AIMS: The long-term impact of coffee or tea consumption on subclinical left ventricular (LV) systolic or diastolic function has not been previously studied. We examined the association between coffee or tea consumption beginning in early adulthood and cardiac function in midlife.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 2735 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants with long-term total caffeine intake, coffee, and tea consumption data from three visits over a 20 year interval and available echocardiography indices at the CARDIA Year-25 exam (2010-2011). Linear regression models were used to assess the association between caffeine intake, tea, and coffee ...


Incidental Diagnosis Of Dual Arterial Supply Of The Right Lower Lobe, Christopher Mathis 2020 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Incidental Diagnosis Of Dual Arterial Supply Of The Right Lower Lobe, Christopher Mathis

Research Days

No abstract provided.


Myocardial Work Index: A Novel Method For Assessment Of Myocardial Function In South Asian Recreational Athletes, Shantanu Sengupta, Renuka Jain, Nitin Burkule, Susan Olet, Bijoy K. Khandheria 2020 Sengupta Hospital and Research Institute

Myocardial Work Index: A Novel Method For Assessment Of Myocardial Function In South Asian Recreational Athletes, Shantanu Sengupta, Renuka Jain, Nitin Burkule, Susan Olet, Bijoy K. Khandheria

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: We used a novel noninvasive method based on speckle-tracking echocardiography to evaluate myocardial performance in South Asian recreational athletes who completed a half marathon.

Methods: Transthoracic echocardiography was performed on 24 recreational athletes 48 hours before they took part in a half marathon (premarathon), within 2 hours of half marathon completion (postmarathon), and 72 hours after completion. Clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic variables were collected. Speckle-tracking echocardiography was performed in all subjects to characterize myocardial mechanics.

Results: Mean age of participants was 41.8 ± 7.4 years, and 23 (95.8%) were male. No subject had a prior history of ...


Relation Of Flt-1 And Endothelial Function In Women Soon After Delivery: Effect Of Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior, Chloe W. Caudell 2020 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Relation Of Flt-1 And Endothelial Function In Women Soon After Delivery: Effect Of Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior, Chloe W. Caudell

Senior Theses

Adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) are believed to be caused by poor placental formation. APOs can be characterized by elevated levels of a circulating Fms-like tyrosine kinase biomarker called Flt-1, produced by the placenta when its blood vessels are shallow or inadequately formed. Flt-1 acts directly on the maternal endothelium to impair vascular function during pregnancy and contributes to maternal features of APOs. This study aimed to evaluate the relation of Flt-1 and endothelial function in women soon after delivery. This study also aimed to evaluate the relation of Flt-1 and physical activity and sedentary behavior in women during and soon ...


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