Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Neuroscience and Neurobiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

6,113 Full-Text Articles 11,566 Authors 2,047,942 Downloads 256 Institutions

All Articles in Neuroscience and Neurobiology

Faceted Search

6,113 full-text articles. Page 6 of 274.

The Importance Of Contrast Sensitivity, Color Vision, And Electrophysiological Testing In Clinical And Occupational Settings, Frances Silva 2023 University of the Incarnate Word

The Importance Of Contrast Sensitivity, Color Vision, And Electrophysiological Testing In Clinical And Occupational Settings, Frances Silva

Theses & Dissertations

Visual acuity (VA) is universally accepted as the gold standard metric for ocular vision and function. Contrast sensitivity (CS), color vision, and electrophysiological testing for clinical and occupational settings are warranted despite being deemed ancillary and minimally utilized by clinicians. These assessments provide essential information to subjectively and objectively quantify and obtain optimal functional vision. They are useful for baseline data and monitoring hereditary and progressive ocular conditions and cognitive function. The studies in this dissertation highlight the value of contrast sensitivity, color vision, and cone specific electrophysiological testing, as well as the novel metrics obtained with potential practical clinical …


Connectivity Of Amygdala Somatostatin-Expressing Neurons And Their Role In Taste-Guided Behavior., Jane Jeruto Bartonjo 2023 University of Louisville

Connectivity Of Amygdala Somatostatin-Expressing Neurons And Their Role In Taste-Guided Behavior., Jane Jeruto Bartonjo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The nucleus of solitary tract (NST) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN) represent the first and second central synapses of ascending gustatory information. Neural processing in these nuclei is influenced by descending input from forebrain regions such as the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). In mice, we have shown that somatostatin (Sst) expressing neurons of CeA that project to NST and PBN are largely distinct cell populations and optogenetic inhibition of the CeA/Sst-to-NST subpopulation increases the intake of high concentrations of quinine with no apparent effect on sucrose intake. Synaptic connectivity of these cells is needed to understand the possible mechanisms …


Novel Insights Into Oligodendrocyte Biology From Developmental Myelination Studies In Autophagy Deficient Mice And Analysis Of Oligodendrocyte Translatome Response To Contusive Spinal Cord Injury., Michael David Forston 2023 University of Louisville

Novel Insights Into Oligodendrocyte Biology From Developmental Myelination Studies In Autophagy Deficient Mice And Analysis Of Oligodendrocyte Translatome Response To Contusive Spinal Cord Injury., Michael David Forston

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Loss of myelin causes severe neurological disorders and functional deficits in white matter injuries (WMI) such as traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). This dissertation is focused on autophagy in OL development and the OL translatome after SCI. Chapter I describes the history of myelin, OL development, and their involvement in neurodegenerative diseases and SCI. The proteostasis network, in particular autophagy, and its contributions to white matter pathology is discussed. It concludes examining advantages and disadvantages of unbiased omics tools, like RiboTag, to study transcriptional/translational landscapes after SCI. Chapter II focuses on autophagy in OPC/OL differentiation, survival, and proper myelination in …


The Biological Bases Of Political Attachment: Neurobiological Correlates Of Ideology And Partisanship, Carisa Bergner 2023 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

The Biological Bases Of Political Attachment: Neurobiological Correlates Of Ideology And Partisanship, Carisa Bergner

Theses and Dissertations

To fully understand the foundations of political attachments in an increasingly polarized environment, political scientists must reconcile traditional theories of political attitudes and behavior with insight gained from neurobiological approaches. The purpose of this research is to investigate the neurobiological correlates of strength of political ideology and partisanship, as well as the neurobiological correlates of ideological and partisan orientation. To do so, both structural and functional neuroimaging analyses were conducted on a diverse sample of patients at a Level 1 Trauma Center. Results indicate that strong ideological attachment is significantly associated with decreased volume in the left insula, though partisan …


Methods To Study Activity Dependent Protein Synthesis In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Megan Webb, Karin F K Ejendal, Tamara L. Kinzer-Ursem 2023 Purdue University

Methods To Study Activity Dependent Protein Synthesis In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Megan Webb, Karin F K Ejendal, Tamara L. Kinzer-Ursem

Discovery Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Research Internship

It is estimated by the World Health Organization that 1 in 100 children have autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a condition characterized by neurological differences that may impact a person’s learning or behavior. Clinically, ASD symptoms are alleviated with behavioral or pharmacological therapies, however, not all patients respond to these interventions. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment of Parkinson’s disease that could also be effective in treating ASD. SynGAP1 is a protein involved in neuronal action that is crucial for regulating synaptic plasticity. Mutations in the SYNGAP1 gene causing haploinsufficiency can result in the manifestation of ASD symptoms. This …


The Combined Effects Of Physical Exercise And Cognitive Training On Gait Speed And Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism In Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A 1h-Mrs Analysis, Jack Thomas Emsey Elkas 2023 Western University

The Combined Effects Of Physical Exercise And Cognitive Training On Gait Speed And Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism In Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A 1h-Mrs Analysis, Jack Thomas Emsey Elkas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage before dementia. Altered gait in MCI has been associated with progression to dementia. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a relationship between primary motor cortex (M1) neurochemistry and dual task gait speed has been reported in MCI. Interventional research suggests exercise, cognitive training, and vitamin D supplementation may benefit MCI, yet the combined effect of these treatments on gait speed and M1 metabolism is unknown. Participants with MCI (N=75) were assigned to one of five intervention arms and dual task cost on gait speed and M1 metabolism was assessed before and five months after …


Category Learning Dlpfc Single-Dissociation By Fnirs, Tim Qiu 2023 Western University

Category Learning Dlpfc Single-Dissociation By Fnirs, Tim Qiu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It remains an open question whether modern neuroimaging clearly dissociates the Explicit system that learns by encoding rules, and the Implicit system that learns by encoding information-integration boundaries. Further, there are nearly no applications of fNIRS as a modality in studying category learning. We conduct two behavioural experiments to validate a carefully controlled categorization task intended to dissociate Explicit and Implicit systems. Then we apply fNIRS neuroimaging within-subjects to localize a neuroanatomical dissociation. We localized two effects to R DLPFC (1) a simple single-dissociation of higher activity in RB categorization, and (2) a negative relationship between overall task performance and …


Pilot Testing Of A Non-Gaming Cognitive Battery In Expert Esports Athletes, Allison J. Brager, Patrick Belling, Jason Sada, Jeffrey Osgood, Bradley Fawver, Michael Dretsch 2023 U.S. Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School

Pilot Testing Of A Non-Gaming Cognitive Battery In Expert Esports Athletes, Allison J. Brager, Patrick Belling, Jason Sada, Jeffrey Osgood, Bradley Fawver, Michael Dretsch

Journal for Sports Neuroscience

Introduction: The esports industry is rapidly expanding, making it imperative to identify common data elements of expert gamers for the purposes of performance optimization and enhancement. We aimed to measure cognitive performance in a convenient sample of expert esports athletes, as well as to determine if cognitive performance of these individuals could be further enhanced through a novel non-gaming neurocognitive test battery.

Methods: Elite esports athletes (n = 5) participated in a four-day cognitive and strength & conditioning program at the Sports Academy (Thousand Oaks, CA). Cognitive performance was assessed through five tasks of increasing cognitive load. Baseline …


Multiple Ways To Implement And Infer Sentience, Nicolas Rouleau, Michael Levin 2023 Wilfrid Laurier University

Multiple Ways To Implement And Infer Sentience, Nicolas Rouleau, Michael Levin

Animal Sentience

Segundo-Ortin & Calvo’s (S&C’s) thorough review of “plant neurobiology” presents evidence supporting the possibility of plant sentience. They make a compelling case that plants anticipate, assess risk, cooperate, mimic, and pursue goals, as do their animal counterparts. S&C point out that there is a double standard: behavioural patterns associated with subjective experiences in humans are considered valid for inferring cognition in non-human animals but not in diverse other systems including plants. We argue that cognitive functions, including sentience, can potentially be achieved by very different systems and their disparate substrates. We offer some context from the basal cognition literature and …


Neural Mechanisms Of Resiliency And Susceptibility After Repeated Social Defeat, Christy R. Wayne 2023 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Neural Mechanisms Of Resiliency And Susceptibility After Repeated Social Defeat, Christy R. Wayne

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Social defeat is a powerful experience leading to drastic changes in physiology and behavior, many of which are negative. For example, repeated social defeat in vertebrates results in reduced reproductive success, sickness, and behavioral abnormalities that threaten individual survival and species persistence. However, little is known about what neural mechanisms are involved in determining whether an individual is resilient or susceptible to repeated social defeat stress. I used a resident-intruder experiment in the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, to create and investigate the behavior and neural correlates of these two opposing groups. Resilient fish used both searching and freezing behaviors …


Recovery From Social Isolation In Drosophila: The Role Of Dopamine And The Autism-Related Gene Nlg3., Ryley T. Yost 2023 The University of Western Ontario

Recovery From Social Isolation In Drosophila: The Role Of Dopamine And The Autism-Related Gene Nlg3., Ryley T. Yost

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Within a group, individuals establish their preferred distance from each other, or social space, a form of social behaviour. The resulting distance depends on the exchange of social cues from others that needs to be perceived and integrated within the organism’s neural circuitry. In humans, social spacing can be impaired in neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. When organisms are subject to social isolation, profound changes in social behaviour are observed in a variety of species from insects to mammals, including social space. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms modulating a behavioural response to isolation and possible recovery remain …


Exploring Brain-Derived Progenitor Cells As A Therapeutic Delivery System To Glioblastoma, Andrew T. Olin 2023 Western University

Exploring Brain-Derived Progenitor Cells As A Therapeutic Delivery System To Glioblastoma, Andrew T. Olin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a devastating incurable malignant brain cancer in need of new treatments. We have begun to investigate the feasibility of a primary adult cell type (Brain-Derived Progenitor Cells, BDPCs) as a novel therapeutic delivery system to GBM. Our objective was to track the viability of BDPCs after intratumoral infusion into syngeneic orthotopic rat GBM tumours using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI). We hypothesize rat BDPCs will survive greater than 1 week following infusion into orthotopic F98 GBM tumors. BDPCs harvested from the cortex of adult Fischer rats were expanded in culture then engineered to co-express firefly Luciferase for BLI …


Specialized Late Cingulo-Opercular Network Activation Elucidates The Mechanisms Underlying Decisions About Ambiguity, Jordan E. Pierce, Nathan M. Petro, Elizabeth Clancy, Caterina Gratton, Steven E. Petersen, Maital Neta 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Specialized Late Cingulo-Opercular Network Activation Elucidates The Mechanisms Underlying Decisions About Ambiguity, Jordan E. Pierce, Nathan M. Petro, Elizabeth Clancy, Caterina Gratton, Steven E. Petersen, Maital Neta

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Faculty and Staff Publications

Cortical task control networks, including the cingulo-opercular (CO) network play a key role in decision-making across a variety of functional domains. In particular, the CO network functions in a performance reporting capacity that supports successful task performance, especially in response to errors and ambiguity. In two studies testing the contribution of the CO network to ambiguity processing, we presented a valence bias task in which masked clearly and ambiguously valenced emotional expressions were slowly revealed over several seconds. This slow reveal task design provides a window into the decision-making mechanisms as they unfold over the course of a trial. In …


Shedding Light On Hearing In Coma: Investigating The Applicability Of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy For Assessing Auditory Function And Aiding Prognosis In Patients With Acute Disorders Of Consciousness, Reza Moulavi Ardakani 2023 Western University

Shedding Light On Hearing In Coma: Investigating The Applicability Of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy For Assessing Auditory Function And Aiding Prognosis In Patients With Acute Disorders Of Consciousness, Reza Moulavi Ardakani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is a critical need for a bedside neuroimaging tool to aid in the prediction of functional recovery outcomes for patients with acute disorders of consciousness (DoC) in the early days following severe brain injury. Current neurobehavioral examinations and prognosis tools have limitations in predicting good outcomes, leading to potential mistreatment or premature withdrawal of life support. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a viable candidate for such purposes due to its portability and cost-effectiveness. Auditory processing, viewed as a multi-level and multifaceted brain function, could provide a sensitive and specific marker of residual cognitive function in unresponsive patients. This study …


Effects Of Sex And Estrous Cycle On Intravenous Oxycodone Self-Administration And The Reinstatement Of Oxycodone-Seeking Behavior In Rats, Nicole M. Hinds, Ireneusz D. Wojtas, Corinne A. Gallagher, Claire M. Corbett, Daniel F. Manvich 2023 Rowan University

Effects Of Sex And Estrous Cycle On Intravenous Oxycodone Self-Administration And The Reinstatement Of Oxycodone-Seeking Behavior In Rats, Nicole M. Hinds, Ireneusz D. Wojtas, Corinne A. Gallagher, Claire M. Corbett, Daniel F. Manvich

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The increasing misuse of both prescription and illicit opioids has culminated in a national healthcare crisis in the United States. Oxycodone is among the most widely prescribed and misused opioid pain relievers and has been associated with a high risk for transition to compulsive opioid use. Here, we sought to examine potential sex differences and estrous cycle-dependent effects on the reinforcing efficacy of oxycodone, as well as on stress-induced or cue-induced oxycodone-seeking behavior, using intravenous (IV) oxycodone self-administration and reinstatement procedures. In experiment 1, adult male and female Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer 0.03 mg/kg/inf oxycodone according to a …


Analysis Of The Paraventricular Nucleus Of The Hypothalamus After Exposure To Decabromodiphenyl Ether In Mice, Tia Blossomgame, Hermei Herman, Sharlenn La, Jocelyn Saquisili, Annabella Vargas, Grace Martinichio, Vincent P. Markowski 2023 State University of New York College at Geneseo

Analysis Of The Paraventricular Nucleus Of The Hypothalamus After Exposure To Decabromodiphenyl Ether In Mice, Tia Blossomgame, Hermei Herman, Sharlenn La, Jocelyn Saquisili, Annabella Vargas, Grace Martinichio, Vincent P. Markowski

McNair Scholars Program

No abstract provided.


Differentiating Between Us & Them: Reduced In-Group Bias As A Novel Mechanism Linking Childhood Violence Exposure With Internalizing Psychopathology, Steven W. Kasparek, Maya L. Rosen, Lucy A. Lurie, Mina Cikara, Kelly Sambrook, Dario Cvencek, Andrew N. Meltzoff, Katie A. McLaughlin 2023 Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Differentiating Between Us & Them: Reduced In-Group Bias As A Novel Mechanism Linking Childhood Violence Exposure With Internalizing Psychopathology, Steven W. Kasparek, Maya L. Rosen, Lucy A. Lurie, Mina Cikara, Kelly Sambrook, Dario Cvencek, Andrew N. Meltzoff, Katie A. Mclaughlin

Neuroscience: Faculty Publications

Strong in-group bonds, facilitated by implicit favoritism for in-group members (i.e., in-group bias), promote mental health across development. Yet, we know little about how the development of in-group bias is shaped by early-life experiences. Childhood violence exposure is known to alter social information processing biases. Violence exposure may also influence social categorization processes, including in-group biases, in ways that influence risk for psychopathology. We examined associations of childhood violence exposure with psychopathology and behavioral and neural indices of implicit and explicit bias for novel groups in children followed longitudinally across three time points from age 5 to 10 years old …


Solving The Cable Equation, A Second-Order Time Dependent Pde For Non-Ideal Cables With Action Potentials In The Mammalian Brain Using Kss Methods, Nirmohi Charbe 2023 The University of Southern Mississippi

Solving The Cable Equation, A Second-Order Time Dependent Pde For Non-Ideal Cables With Action Potentials In The Mammalian Brain Using Kss Methods, Nirmohi Charbe

Master's Theses

In this thesis we shall perform the comparisons of a Krylov Subspace Spectral method with Forward Euler, Backward Euler and Crank-Nicolson to solve the Cable Equation. The Cable Equation measures action potentials in axons in a mammalian brain treated as an ideal cable in the first part of the study. We shall subject this problem to the further assumption of a non-ideal cable. Assume a non-uniform cross section area along the longitudinal axis. At the present time, the effects of torsion, curvature and material capacitance are ignored. There is particular interest to generalize the application of the PDEs including and …


Measuring The Emotional Impact Of Climate Change Images On Tourists: A Neuromarketing Study., Carmen Kraaijkamp, Patricia Picazo Peral, Sergio Moreno Gil 2023 Maastricht University

Measuring The Emotional Impact Of Climate Change Images On Tourists: A Neuromarketing Study., Carmen Kraaijkamp, Patricia Picazo Peral, Sergio Moreno Gil

ITSA 2022 Gran Canaria - 9th Biennial Conference: Corporate Entrepreneurship and Global Tourism Strategies After Covid 19

No abstract provided.


Postexercise Executive Function And Cortical Hemodynamics During The Different Phases Of The Menstrual Cycle, Priyanka Persaud 2023 Western University

Postexercise Executive Function And Cortical Hemodynamics During The Different Phases Of The Menstrual Cycle, Priyanka Persaud

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) is increased during the luteal (LUT) phase of the menstrual cycle; however, it is unclear whether this change impacts a postexercise executive function (EF) benefit. Female participants (N=16) performed three experimental sessions: a V̇O2peak task and 20-min single bouts of moderate intensity aerobic exercise (i.e., 80% of lactate threshold) during their follicular (FOL) and luteal (LUT) menstrual cycle phases. A separate group of male participants (N=21) additionally completed a V̇O2peak test and a 20-min exercise intervention. Middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) was measured during exercise via transcranial Doppler ultrasound to estimate CBF and …


Digital Commons powered by bepress