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A Causal Inference Approach For Spike Train Interactions, Zach Saccomano 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Causal Inference Approach For Spike Train Interactions, Zach Saccomano

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Since the 1960s, neuroscientists have worked on the problem of estimating synaptic properties, such as connectivity and strength, from simultaneously recorded spike trains. Recent years have seen renewed interest in the problem coinciding with rapid advances in experimental technologies, including an approximate exponential increase in the number of neurons that can be recorded in parallel and perturbation techniques such as optogenetics that can be used to calibrate and validate causal hypotheses about functional connectivity. This thesis presents a mathematical examination of synaptic inference from two perspectives: (1) using in vivo data and biophysical models, we ask in what cases the …


Evaluating The Potential Of Using Eeg To Monitor Cognitive Workload In Simulated Suborbital Flight, Erik Seedhouse PhD 2024 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Evaluating The Potential Of Using Eeg To Monitor Cognitive Workload In Simulated Suborbital Flight, Erik Seedhouse Phd

Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research

Mental workload can be assessed using electrophysiological measures of brain activity, such as electroencephalography (EEG). EEG signals reveal cortical electrical activity. This cortical activity was recorded using specialized headsets. The focus of this research was to study cognitive performance (CP) in four pilots during simulated suborbital flights under nominal day and night profiles and under contingency day and night profiles. A 14-channel EMOTIV EEG headset measured the participants' brain activity while they flew simulated flights in a Suborbital Spaceflight Simulator (SSFS). Several sessions of EEG data were recorded from each subject, and feature extraction was applied. Data revealed that real-time …


Identification And Delineation Of Neuronal Pathways Underlying Hypophagia, Jing Cai 2023 The Texas Medical Center Library

Identification And Delineation Of Neuronal Pathways Underlying Hypophagia, Jing Cai

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

In terms of metabolism, eating disorders manifest in two extreme directions: overnutrition, which can lead to obesity, and malnutrition, which can result in underweight or even starvation. Both extremes compromise the quality of life. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) standard, eating disorders affect up to 17.9% of young women and 2.4% of young men. Although eating disorders are primarily defined as mental disorders rather than metabolic disorders, they are intertwined with complex emotions and sensory perceptions. However, in contemporary animal research related to eating disorders and feeding behaviors, the majority of neuroscientists still examine …


An Investigation Of The Role Of Amygdalar Circuits In The Production Of Social Behavior, Joseph FD Dwyer 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

An Investigation Of The Role Of Amygdalar Circuits In The Production Of Social Behavior, Joseph Fd Dwyer

Doctoral Dissertations

Adaptive social behaviors allow animals to survive, thrive, and successfully reproduce. These behaviors, including mating, parenting, affiliation, and aggression, can be stereotyped in response to specific stimuli but often display sex-specific, and interoceptive-dependent variations in their execution. A conserved set of brain regions collectively known as the social behavior network (SBN) interprets sensory information about social cues and generates an appropriate behavioral response. In this dissertation I present 5 chapters. Chapter 1 introduces historical research focusing on the neural circuits that drive social behavior and the potential impact of environmental factors on the activity of these circuits. Chapter 2 describes …


A Multi-Modal Imaging Analysis Of Inter-Community Hub Nodes In Subjective Cognitive Decline Linking Longitudinal Hub Function Disruption To White Matter Integrity Kurtosis, Duncan Nowling 2023 Medical University of South Carolina

A Multi-Modal Imaging Analysis Of Inter-Community Hub Nodes In Subjective Cognitive Decline Linking Longitudinal Hub Function Disruption To White Matter Integrity Kurtosis, Duncan Nowling

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) has garnered much interest as a potential identifiable preclinical stage and indicator of risk for cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s Disease and related dementias (ADRD). Identification of individuals in this stage though is difficult, as they present with objectively normal cognitive evaluation scores, relying instead upon self-report of concern about decline in cognitive abilities. The use of non-invasive in-vivo imaging methods like BOLD functional imaging and diffusion tensor have allowed for complex mapping of both the functional and structural network features unique to this condition. This study furthers this network biomarker map of SCD by investigating the …


Differential Cortical Monoamines Release During Exercise In Rats Chronically Implanted With Microdialysis Probes, Christine G. Gerin 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Differential Cortical Monoamines Release During Exercise In Rats Chronically Implanted With Microdialysis Probes, Christine G. Gerin

Research Symposium

Physical exercise is known to positively influence mood, to reduce anxiety and to improve reaction to stress. Cerebral monoaminergic systems are thought to underly the neurochemical influence of exercise on mood and behavior. We hypothesized that beneficial effects of exercise can be shown by variations of neurotransmitters release in the cerebral cortex. We aimed at demonstrating that there is a temporal relationship between release of plasma and cerebral monoamines (A, NA, 5-HT, DA) and spontaneous running exercise in rats. Ten Spague Dawley rats (250 g) were chronically implanted (for up to 39 days) with a left common carotid cannula and …


Sex Differences In Mood And Anxiety-Related Outcomes In Response To Adolescent Nicotine Exposure, Tsun Hay Jason Ng 2023 The University of Western Ontario

Sex Differences In Mood And Anxiety-Related Outcomes In Response To Adolescent Nicotine Exposure, Tsun Hay Jason Ng

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nicotine dependence is causally linked to increased risk of mood/anxiety disorders in later life. Females are reported to experience a higher prevalence of anxiety/depressive disorders and challenges in smoking cessation therapies, suggesting a potential sex-specific response to nicotine exposure and mood/anxiety disorder risk. However, pre-clinical evidence of sex-specific responses to adolescent nicotine exposure is unclear. Thus, to determine any sex differences in anxiety/depressive-related outcomes, adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg; 3x daily) or saline injections for 10 consecutive days, followed by behavioural testing, in-vivo electrophysiology and Western Blot analyses. Our results revealed that adolescent nicotine …


Connectivity Of Amygdala Somatostatin-Expressing Neurons And Their Role In Taste-Guided Behavior., Jane Jeruto Bartonjo 2023 University of Louisville

Connectivity Of Amygdala Somatostatin-Expressing Neurons And Their Role In Taste-Guided Behavior., Jane Jeruto Bartonjo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The nucleus of solitary tract (NST) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN) represent the first and second central synapses of ascending gustatory information. Neural processing in these nuclei is influenced by descending input from forebrain regions such as the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). In mice, we have shown that somatostatin (Sst) expressing neurons of CeA that project to NST and PBN are largely distinct cell populations and optogenetic inhibition of the CeA/Sst-to-NST subpopulation increases the intake of high concentrations of quinine with no apparent effect on sucrose intake. Synaptic connectivity of these cells is needed to understand the possible mechanisms …


Gap Junctions And Synchronization Clusters In The Thalamic Reticular Nuclei, Anca R. Radulescu, Michael Anderson 2023 State University of New York at New Paltz

Gap Junctions And Synchronization Clusters In The Thalamic Reticular Nuclei, Anca R. Radulescu, Michael Anderson

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Physiological Rationale For Fixation Eye-Movements, Qasim Zaidi 2023 Graduate Center for Vision Research, State University of New York

Physiological Rationale For Fixation Eye-Movements, Qasim Zaidi

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Task-Driven Influences On Fixational Eye Movements, Jonathan Victor, Yen-Chu Lin, Michele Rucci 2023 Weill Cornell Medical College

Task-Driven Influences On Fixational Eye Movements, Jonathan Victor, Yen-Chu Lin, Michele Rucci

MODVIS Workshop

There is now compelling evidence that the spatiotemporal remapping carried out by fixational eye movements (FEMs) is an essential step in visual processing. Moreover, the overall Brownian-like statistics of FEMs are calibrated to map fine spatial detail into the temporal frequency range to which retinal circuitry is tuned. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the detailed spatial characteristics of FEMs can be adjusted to task demands via cognitive influences that operate even in the absence of a visual stimulus. We examined FEMs in a task that required subjects (N=6) to report which of two letters was displayed. Trials were blocked; …


Active Encoding Of Space Through Time, Michele Rucci, Jonathan D. Victor 2023 University of Rochester

Active Encoding Of Space Through Time, Michele Rucci, Jonathan D. Victor

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Synaptic Properties Of Parabigeminal Circuits., Kyle Whyland 2023 University of Louisville

Synaptic Properties Of Parabigeminal Circuits., Kyle Whyland

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Subcortical structures of the visual system have been the subject of intense study in recent years, but there remain some important unanswered questions regarding the synaptic relationships linking the nuclei that comprise this important sensory network within the brain. In these studies, we use several modern and traditional approaches, including viral tract tracing, in vitro slice physiology, immunohistochemistry, optogenetics, and electron microscopy to characterize the circuits linking the superior colliculus (SC), parabigeminal nucleus (PBG), and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), with particular focus on GABAergic and cholinergic cell types. We found that the SC, an important visuomotor structure with connections to …


Chemosensory Processing By The Mediodorsal Thalamus., Kelly Fredericksen 2023 University of Louisville

Chemosensory Processing By The Mediodorsal Thalamus., Kelly Fredericksen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The mediodorsal thalamus (MD) is thought to be key component of the network that processes chemosensory information to guide our consummatory choices. Previous studies show that the mediodorsal thalamus receives projections from both the piriform cortex (PC) and gustatory cortex (GC), suggesting that it may process chemosensory information from both areas. Although the mediodorsal thalamus has been shown to respond to odors detected by sniffing, it remains unknown how its neurons represent experienced odors, tastes, and odor-taste mixtures originating from the mouth. Importantly, humans and animals with mediodorsal thalamic lesions do not suffer from anosmia, but experience deficits in odor …


Consciousness, Evolution, And The Self-Organizing Brain, Karen Seymour 2023 California Institute of Integral Studies

Consciousness, Evolution, And The Self-Organizing Brain, Karen Seymour

Journal of Conscious Evolution

While evolution is guided by natural selection, it is internally driven by self-organizing processes. The brain encompasses these complementary forces and dynamics of evolution in both its structure and dynamics by embodying a historical record of the factors that have shaped it throughout its evolutionary past, as well as by being shaped by selective parameters in real time. Self-organization is evident in not only the brain’s structure and form, but also in the processes that support consciousness. From the convergence of complex structure and the novelty-generating dynamics of chaos that both characterize the brain arises the experience of explicit consciousness, …


The Genomics Of Autism-Related Genes Il1rapl1 And Il1rapl2: Insights Into Their Cortical Distribution, Cell-Type Specificity, And Developmental Trajectories, Jacob Weaver 2023 Medical University of South Carolina

The Genomics Of Autism-Related Genes Il1rapl1 And Il1rapl2: Insights Into Their Cortical Distribution, Cell-Type Specificity, And Developmental Trajectories, Jacob Weaver

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

Neuropsychiatric disorders have a significant impact on modern society. These disorders affect a large percentage of the population: schizophrenia has a world-wide prevalence of 1% and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affects 1 in 59 school-aged children in the US. There is substantial evidence that most neuropsychiatric disorders have a genetic component. Thus, with the advent of high throughput sequencing much effort has gone into identifying genetic variants associated with these disorders. The emerging picture from these studies is a complex one where hundreds of genes with small effects interact with a varied landscape of common variants to result in disease. …


Reversible Emerging Neuropsychological Pattern In Chronic Intractable Migraine, Tanner Williford, Pooja Chemiti, Mason Allen, Brandon Burrell, Stephanie Chavez, Jude Emego, Bridger Gunter, Matthew Huertas, Matthew Jennings, Roshni Jogin, Paulo Kelly, Laura Minor, Steven Salazar, Jameson Williams, David W. Sant, John A. Kriak, Kyle B. Bills 2023 Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine

Reversible Emerging Neuropsychological Pattern In Chronic Intractable Migraine, Tanner Williford, Pooja Chemiti, Mason Allen, Brandon Burrell, Stephanie Chavez, Jude Emego, Bridger Gunter, Matthew Huertas, Matthew Jennings, Roshni Jogin, Paulo Kelly, Laura Minor, Steven Salazar, Jameson Williams, David W. Sant, John A. Kriak, Kyle B. Bills

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Quantifying Psychostimulant-Induced Sensitization Effects On Dopamine And Acetylcholine Release Across Different Timescales, Georg Lange 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Quantifying Psychostimulant-Induced Sensitization Effects On Dopamine And Acetylcholine Release Across Different Timescales, Georg Lange

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Drug-induced behavioral sensitization describes the phenomenon that behavioral response to a drug of abuse is getting stronger if the same psychostimulant is delivered multiple times which is much more pronounced if done in the same environmental context. A proposed neural basis is the formation of an association between contextual cues and the rewarding drug which is mediated by dopamine. Dopamine operates at different timescales and to fully understand dopamine sensitization, it is necessary to investigate dopamine release at slow (tens of minutes) but also faster (sub-second) timescales. But creating a holistic view has been difficult due to a lack of …


The Sensory Properties Of The Fast Visuomotor System, Rebecca Kozak 2023 The University of Western Ontario

The Sensory Properties Of The Fast Visuomotor System, Rebecca Kozak

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The brain has a remarkable capacity to rapidly transform vision into action, which allows us to initiate reaches towards targets within fractions of a second. Despite being fundamental to our interaction with a dynamic environment, these fast visuomotor transformations and their underlying neural substrates are poorly understood. This gap in the literature is further exacerbated by the unreliable presence of rapid visuomotor responses on the upper limb, likely due to the use of less optimal stimuli and paradigms. My thesis explores the stimulus properties which best evoke short latency reaction times and electromyographic responses during visually guided reaching, their application …


Il-1r1 Within The Meningeal Lymphatic System, Nolan Abdelsayed 2023 University of Kentucky

Il-1r1 Within The Meningeal Lymphatic System, Nolan Abdelsayed

Lewis Honors College Thesis Collection

The meninges are made up of three membranes; the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater, that surround the brain and spinal cord. These specialized layers work in concert with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), to protect the central nervous system by adding a layer of cushion and removing waste products from the CNS. Additionally, the meninges act as a physical barrier between the central nervous system and the periphery. The meningeal lymphatic system is a specialized group of vessels that lie within the meninges that assist in the flow of fluid and waste products from the brain. If the meningeal lymphatic …


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