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Anatomical Analysis Of Olfactory Sensory Neuron Regeneration Via Glomerular Synaptic Activity Markers In Adult Mice, William Wamack 2022 East Tennessee State University

Anatomical Analysis Of Olfactory Sensory Neuron Regeneration Via Glomerular Synaptic Activity Markers In Adult Mice, William Wamack

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The olfactory system is a great model for studying regeneration due to the olfactory epithelium’s regenerative capability which makes it a potential a source of neural stem cells. The olfactory epithelium presents three types of cells: sustentacular cells which provide support and act as glial supporting cells; olfactory sensory neurons that are in charge of detecting odorant molecules in the air; and the stem cells that generated the aforementioned cell types. Olfactory sensory neurons are constantly dying and being replaced by new neurons originating from the stem cells that lie at the base of the olfactory epithelium. We have used …


The Effects Of False Heartbeat Feedback On Moral Judgment, Scott Koenig 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Effects Of False Heartbeat Feedback On Moral Judgment, Scott Koenig

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Research on human morality is at a crossroads, with one side claiming that moral judgment is the result of rational inference and the other side claiming that it is the result of emotion-laden intuition. This study investigated whether emotion drives moral judgment by manipulating a core component of the experience of emotion: physiological arousal. The sample consisted of 77 undergraduate students at Brooklyn College (57% women, 43% men; mean age = 20.1). One group of participants was led to believe their heart was beating quickly, and another group slowly, while they read and evaluated a series of text vignettes depicting …


Aberrant Age-Related Alterations In Spontaneous Cortical Activity In Participants With Cerebral Palsy, Hannah Bergwell 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Aberrant Age-Related Alterations In Spontaneous Cortical Activity In Participants With Cerebral Palsy, Hannah Bergwell

Theses & Dissertations

Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common neurodevelopmental motor disability, resulting in life-long sensory, perception and motor impairments. These impairments appear to drastically worsen with advancing age within the CP population, although the underlying neuro-physiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Herein, we began to address this knowledge gap by utilizing magnetoencephalographic (MEG) to study how aging impacts the amplitude of spontaneous brain activity (i.e., resting state) in a cohort of 38 individuals with spastic diplegic CP (Age = 22.08 ± 10.46 years) and 67 neurotypical controls (NT) (Age = 19.56 ± 10.25 years). Participants completed an eyes-closed resting-state paradigm while undergoing …


Myeloarchitectonic Maps Of Cat Auditory Cortex, Austin Robertson 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Myeloarchitectonic Maps Of Cat Auditory Cortex, Austin Robertson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cerebral cortex contains myriad cortical areas that differ in structure, function, and connectivity. Current methods of delineating cortical structures and their subregions are insufficient for in vivo applications, either being highly invasive or requiring a detailed knowledge of a region’s tuning properties. To address this, we seek to establish a structural biomarker capable of delineating the cortex that possesses a non-invasive correlate. We explore myelin as a potential candidate by evaluating its efficacy in parcellating the feline auditory cortex through the generation of depthwise myelin density profiles for each of the 13 auditory cortical subregions. Our analyses revealed significant …


Validation Of The 40 Hz Auditory Steady State Response As A Pharmacodynamic Biomarker Of Evoked Neural Synchrony, Muhammad Ummear Raza 2022 East Tennessee State University

Validation Of The 40 Hz Auditory Steady State Response As A Pharmacodynamic Biomarker Of Evoked Neural Synchrony, Muhammad Ummear Raza

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Schizophrenia is a troubling and severe mental illness that is only incompletely treated by currently available drugs. New drug development is hindered by a scarcity of functionally relevant pharmacodynamic biomarkers that are translatable across preclinical and human subjects. Although psychosis is a major feature of schizophrenia, cognitive and negative symptoms determine the long-term functional outcomes for patients. Stimulus-evoked neural synchrony at gamma (~ 40 Hz) frequency plays an important role in the processing and integration of sensory information. Not surprisingly, schizophrenia patients show deficits in gamma oscillations. NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation on fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive interneurons is deemed important for the …


Spatial Representation In Postrhinal Cortex, Patrick Lachance 2022 Dartmouth College

Spatial Representation In Postrhinal Cortex, Patrick Lachance

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Animals rely on a variety of internal and external cues to orient themselves when navigating their environments and determining their current spatial context. Information regarding these cues enters the brain from the navigator’s first-person perspective. Information of this type is considered to be egocentric, or self-centered. However, decades of behavioral, electrophysiological, and imaging research suggest that the brain contains a rich collection of spatial representations that are unrestricted by the animal’s first-person perspective, and instead are defined relative to the surrounding environment. These representations are considered allocentric, or world-centered. Despite an abundance of promising modeling work, the specific mechanisms by …


Probability Distributions Of Active Sensing, Kathleen Hoffman 2022 UMBC

Probability Distributions Of Active Sensing, Kathleen Hoffman

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of Local And Global Statistics In Three Kinds Of Medical Images, And An Example Of Their Role In A Clinical Judgment, Jonathan Victor, Amanda Simon, Craig K. Abbey 2022 Weill Cornell Medical College

Characterization Of Local And Global Statistics In Three Kinds Of Medical Images, And An Example Of Their Role In A Clinical Judgment, Jonathan Victor, Amanda Simon, Craig K. Abbey

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


A Two-Layer Model Explains Higher-Order Feature Selectivity Of V2 Neurons, Timothy D. Oleskiw, Justin D. Lieber, J. Anthony Movshon, Eero P. Simoncelli 2022 New York University

A Two-Layer Model Explains Higher-Order Feature Selectivity Of V2 Neurons, Timothy D. Oleskiw, Justin D. Lieber, J. Anthony Movshon, Eero P. Simoncelli

MODVIS Workshop

Neurons in cortical area V2 respond selectively to higher-order visual features, such as the quasi-periodic structure of natural texture. However, a functional account of how V2 neurons build selectivity for complex natural image features from their inputs – V1 neurons locally tuned for orientation and spatial frequency – remains elusive.

We made single-unit recordings in area V2 in two fixating rhesus macaques. We presented stimuli composed of multiple superimposed grating patches that localize contrast energy in space, orientation, and scale. V2 activity is modeled via a two-layer linear-nonlinear network, optimized to use a sparse combination of V1-like outputs to account …


Are Neuronal Mechanisms Of Attentional Modulation Universal Across Human Sensory And Motor Brain Maps?, Edgar A. DeYoe, Wendy E. Huddleston, Adam S. Greenberg 2022 Medical College of Wisconsin

Are Neuronal Mechanisms Of Attentional Modulation Universal Across Human Sensory And Motor Brain Maps?, Edgar A. Deyoe, Wendy E. Huddleston, Adam S. Greenberg

Kinesiology Faculty Articles

One's experience of shifting attention from the color to the smell to the act of picking a flower seems like a unitary process applied, at will, to one modality after another. Yet, the unique experience of sight vs smell vs movement might suggest that the neural mechanisms of attention have been selectively optimized to employ each modality to greatest advantage. Relevant experimental data can be difficult to compare across modalities due to design and methodological heterogeneity. Here we outline some of the issues related to this problem and suggest how experimental data can be obtained across modalities using more uniform …


Theta Burst Brain Stimulation In Painful Diabetic Neuropathy Patients: Investigating Neural Mechanisms, BHUSHAN THAKKAR 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Theta Burst Brain Stimulation In Painful Diabetic Neuropathy Patients: Investigating Neural Mechanisms, Bhushan Thakkar

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic pain (CP) is a significant contributor to disability and disease burden globally. In 2019, approximately 50.2 million adults (20.4% of the US population) experienced chronic pain, contributing to $560-635 billion in direct medical costs. In addition, the worldwide prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions and is set to increase to 629 million by 2045. Almost 50% of patients with diabetes present with diabetic neuropathy (DN), and one in five patients with diabetes presents with painful DN (pDN) which is the most common cause of neuropathic pain (NP) in the US. Symptomatic treatment is the mainstay of management …


Application Of Confocal Microscopy To Study The Neural Mechanisms Underlying Insect And Rodent Behavior, Christian Michelle Harris 2022 Marshall University

Application Of Confocal Microscopy To Study The Neural Mechanisms Underlying Insect And Rodent Behavior, Christian Michelle Harris

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Posture and walking require support of the body weight, which is thought to be detected by sensory receptors in the legs. Specificity in sensory encoding occurs through the morphological properties of the sense organs (numerical distribution, receptor size) and their physiological response characteristics. These studies focus upon campaniform sensilla, receptors that detect forces as strains in the insect exoskeleton. To study the morphology of campaniform sensilla, the sites of mechanotransduction (cuticular caps) were imaged by light and confocal microscopy in four species (stick insects, cockroaches, blow flies and Drosophila). These data indicate that the gradient (range) of cap sizes may …


Does Bisphenol-A, An Estrogen-Like Environmental Toxin, Disrupt Expression Of The Neuronal Chloride Exporter Protein During Early Brain Development?, Mayra S. Mendez 2022 Cal Poly Humboldt

Does Bisphenol-A, An Estrogen-Like Environmental Toxin, Disrupt Expression Of The Neuronal Chloride Exporter Protein During Early Brain Development?, Mayra S. Mendez

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

Bisphenol A (BPA), a manufactured compound found in consumer products, is known to adversely affect early brain development by disrupting normal estrogen signaling. Recently, BPA was reported to suppress expression of a gene encoding the neuron-specific chloride ion transporter, KCC2. Human and animal studies show suppressing KCC2 can cause neuronal and behavioral hyperactivity. Therefore, some adverse effects of BPA may be due to KCC2 suppression and consequent neuronal hyperactivity. This study aimed to determine whether BPA exposure during brain development alters KCC2 expression. A secondary purpose was to evaluate whether a new transgenic zebrafish line, KCC2:mCitrine,could be used to track …


Neural Processing Of Semantic Content In Movies, Maximilian Nentwich 2022 CUNY City College

Neural Processing Of Semantic Content In Movies, Maximilian Nentwich

Dissertations and Theses

Naturalistic stimuli, such as movies, contain interacting, multimodal and semantic features and allow for free exploration through eye movements. The full extent of neural responses to features such as motion, film cuts and eye movement behavior has not been established. The main hypothesis of this thesis is that complex multimodal and semantic stimuli in naturalistic movies engage a widespread ensemble of locations across the entire brain. To address this question I analyzed simultaneous intracranial and eyetracking data from over 6,000 electrodes across 23 patients with intractable epilepsy. Responses to fast eye movements – saccades – and film cuts are widespread …


Direct Electrical Stimulation Of Prefrontal Cortex Modulates The Transient Heart Rate Response To Exercise In Conscious Humans, Bartek Kulas 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Direct Electrical Stimulation Of Prefrontal Cortex Modulates The Transient Heart Rate Response To Exercise In Conscious Humans, Bartek Kulas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prefrontal cortical regions play an essential role in generating appropriate cardiovascular adjustments, particularly in cardio-vagally mediated heart rate (HR) responses to active tasks. Functional imaging studies provide correlational evidence that this region coordinates HR responses to exercise, however, direct experimental evidence of prefrontal cortical HR regulation in humans is not available. Seven persons with epilepsy implanted with intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) completed 2-second isometric handgrip (IHG) contractions at no-stimulation (NO-STIM) or sham-stimulation (SHAM) conditions, and during direct electrical stimulation (STIM) of the orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex. HR responses to IHG during NO-STIM and SHAM increased HR by Δ4.9±2.7 bpm, compared …


Role Of The Prefrontal Cortex In Reward Seeking Behaviors, Jessica Caballero-Feliciano 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Role Of The Prefrontal Cortex In Reward Seeking Behaviors, Jessica Caballero-Feliciano

Doctoral Dissertations

Disorders associated with compulsive seeking of rewards, like binge-eating, are associated with abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex in humans, which is analogous to the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents. Although studies have examined the role of the mPFC in drug seeking behaviors, studies examining natural reward seeking behaviors (i.e. food and sucrose) are often unclear and contradictory. This dissertation aims to characterize the role of the PL and IL mPFC in operant sucrose seeking behaviors. We used pharmacological and chemogenetic tools to selectively inactivate the PL, IL and PL-nucleus accumbens (NAc) …


Motor Unit Firing Rate Control Of Agonist Skeletal Muscle During Voluntary Isometric And Shortening Contractions With Limb Movement, Eric A. Kirk 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Motor Unit Firing Rate Control Of Agonist Skeletal Muscle During Voluntary Isometric And Shortening Contractions With Limb Movement, Eric A. Kirk

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Voluntary movements throughout mammalian lifespan require skeletal muscle contractions that are controlled by time- and recruitment-dependent firing rate patterns. Single motor unit (MU) activity reflects the final efferent neural drive to the muscle, yet the underlying neural control of movement at the MU level is not well understood. Using intramuscular electromyography single MU recordings, relationships between voluntary contraction kinematics and MU firing rates were evaluated in vivo, in groups of young and older adult participants.

The purpose of study one was to characterize how MU firing rates are differently scaled among muscles relative to voluntary contraction intensity. Across 12 …


The Classification Of Basket Neural Cells In The Mammalian Neocortex, Sreya Pudi 2021 University of South Carolina

The Classification Of Basket Neural Cells In The Mammalian Neocortex, Sreya Pudi

Senior Theses

Basket neuronal cells of the mammalian neocortex have been classically categorized into two or more groups. Originally, it was thought that the large and small types are the naturally occurring groups that emerge from reasons that relate to neurobiological function and anatomical position. Later, a study based on anatomical and physiological features of these neurons introduced a third type, the net basket cell which is intermediate in size as compared to the large and small types. In this study, multivariate analysis was used to test the hypothesis that the large and small types are morphologically distinct groups. The results of …


Microstructural Alterations In Grey And White Matter Following Early-Onset Deafness In The Cat, Alessandra Sacco 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Microstructural Alterations In Grey And White Matter Following Early-Onset Deafness In The Cat, Alessandra Sacco

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Following sensory deprivation such as deafness, compensatory plasticity underlies the reorganization of sensory-specific brain areas to process remaining intact modalities. Previous studies have explored microstructural consequences throughout the brain following auditory deprivation, including the effect of deafness on cerebral water diffusion. However, nearly all investigations have studied these neuronal changes in humans rather than animal models. The present study investigates microstructural differences between 19 hearing and 27 early-deaf cats via diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Diffusivity scalars were compared within 155 grey and 21 white matter regions. Results indicate structural plasticity in various regions throughout the deaf brain in both tissues, …


Tracking The Mechanisms Of Short-Term Motor Adaptation Within The Framework Of A Two-State Model, Susan K. Coltman 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Tracking The Mechanisms Of Short-Term Motor Adaptation Within The Framework Of A Two-State Model, Susan K. Coltman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The motor system is continuously monitoring our performance, ensuring that our actions are occurring as planned. Sensory prediction errors, which arise from a discrepancy between the expected and actual sensory consequence of a motor command (i.e., a planned action), are assumed to drive sensorimotor adaptation. Sensorimotor adaptation is thought to involve changes in motor output that allow the motor system to regain its former level of performance in perturbed circumstances. We employed experimental paradigms that involved both mechanical and visual perturbations to evoke sensory prediction errors while participants performed planar reaching movements. Movement error activates learning processes in the brain, …


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