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Central Activation Of Orl-1 Receptors In Heart Failure Models, Jeffrey Angell 2023 University of the Incarnate Word

Central Activation Of Orl-1 Receptors In Heart Failure Models, Jeffrey Angell

Theses & Dissertations

Heart failure is a prevalent and debilitating disease associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide and is the leading cause of death in the United States. While various therapeutic strategies have been developed and approved to manage heart failure, exploration of novel targets and mechanisms are essential for improving patient outcomes. This thesis investigates the therapeutic potential of the central activation of opioid receptor-like 1 (ORL-1) by nociceptin in a rodent heart failure model.

Furthermore, this study aims to elucidate the central mechanisms underlying nociceptin induced cardiovascular and renal effects in heart failure. This involves investigating neuronal pathways and …


Characterizing The Spatial Distribution Of Inhibitory Interneurons Across Early Sensory And Association Areas In Callithrix Jacchus, Nika Khajehdehi 2023 Western University

Characterizing The Spatial Distribution Of Inhibitory Interneurons Across Early Sensory And Association Areas In Callithrix Jacchus, Nika Khajehdehi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is one of the cortical areas responsible for complex cognitive abilities, a function that is believed to arise from increased persistent activity within its microcircuits. Activity within microcircuits is regulated by parvalbumin-containing (PV), calbindin-containing (CB), and calretinin-containing (CR) inhibitory interneurons (INs). It remains unclear how the distribution of activity-regulating INs differs across cortical areas such that persistent activity increases specifically within association areas, allowing for their complex functions. This thesis aims to address this gap by characterizing the spatial distributions and differences in relative proportions of INs across early sensory areas and association areas of the …


The Psychology Of The Stage: Intersections Of Cognitive Science And Theatre, Ariya Selvakumar 2023 Chapman University

The Psychology Of The Stage: Intersections Of Cognitive Science And Theatre, Ariya Selvakumar

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

By engaging audiences in a stranger’s story, theatre often depends on emotional contagion and empathetic responses to strike interest and investment in characters and their circumstances. Mirror neuron systems are those highly tied to the activation of empathy. These neurons are brain cells that activate when we perform an action and witness an action being performed. For example, when someone is crying, a subset of neurons that fire when we cry will also fire in response to seeing this action, thus often leading to emotional contagion. With an understanding of cognitive science, we can closely examine the perspective-taking and emotion-prediction …


Investigating Task-Free Functional Connectivity Patterns In Newborns Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Homa Vahidi 2023 Western University

Investigating Task-Free Functional Connectivity Patterns In Newborns Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Homa Vahidi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Robust functional connectivity in sensorimotor resting-state network (RSN) has been linked to positive neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates. In the current study, we aimed to map the developmental trajectory of sensorimotor RSN in awake neonates using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We acquired fNIRS resting-state data from 41 healthy newborns (17 females, gestational age range=36+0 to 42+1 weeks) within the first 48 hours after birth. At the group level, we observed robust positive connectivity in numerous channel-pairs across the sensorimotor network, especially in the left hemisphere. Next, we examined the relationship between functional connectivity, gestational age and postnatal age, while controlling for …


An Investigation Of The Role Of Amygdalar Circuits In The Production Of Social Behavior, Joseph FD Dwyer 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

An Investigation Of The Role Of Amygdalar Circuits In The Production Of Social Behavior, Joseph Fd Dwyer

Doctoral Dissertations

Adaptive social behaviors allow animals to survive, thrive, and successfully reproduce. These behaviors, including mating, parenting, affiliation, and aggression, can be stereotyped in response to specific stimuli but often display sex-specific, and interoceptive-dependent variations in their execution. A conserved set of brain regions collectively known as the social behavior network (SBN) interprets sensory information about social cues and generates an appropriate behavioral response. In this dissertation I present 5 chapters. Chapter 1 introduces historical research focusing on the neural circuits that drive social behavior and the potential impact of environmental factors on the activity of these circuits. Chapter 2 describes …


Head Stabilization And Cortical Activation In Contact Sport Athletes During Walking Under Different Visual Task Constraints, Sam Zeff 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Head Stabilization And Cortical Activation In Contact Sport Athletes During Walking Under Different Visual Task Constraints, Sam Zeff

Doctoral Dissertations

Contact sport participation exposes athletes to repetitive sub-concussive head impacts, which have been shown to elicit cortical neurophysiologic, cognitive, and motor performance alterations that have the potential to disrupt visual perception. Despite the growing concern regarding sub-concussive impacts, our understanding of their implications on motor performance and risk for further injury is limited. A stable head provides a consistent perceptual platform for the visual and vestibular sensory systems, but the effects of contact sport participation on head stability and visual perception remain poorly understood. The goal of this dissertation was to understand whether contact sport participation modifies athletes’ ability to …


No “Jitters” But No Energy From A Commercially Available Energy Drink., Jose Antonio, Jason M. Curtis 2023 Keiser University

No “Jitters” But No Energy From A Commercially Available Energy Drink., Jose Antonio, Jason M. Curtis

Journal for Sports Neuroscience

Abstract

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an energy drink (JOCKO GO) on mood, sustained attention/reaction time, and hand steadiness.

Methods: A total of 29 active men (n = 9) and women (n=20) (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 5 yr.; height 168±8 cm; body mass 68.2 ± 12.8 kg; lean body mass 51.9 ± 15.0 kg; fat mass 15.4 ± 6.8 kg; percent body fat 22.6 ± 8.9%; total body water 38.6 ± 8.6 liters) completed this randomized, crossover, counterbalanced trial. Each subject consumed either one can (355 ml) of the energy …


Affective Liking Influences Reward Processing In Depression: A Computational Eeg Approach, Garima Singh 2023 University of New Mexico

Affective Liking Influences Reward Processing In Depression: A Computational Eeg Approach, Garima Singh

Psychology ETDs

Reinforcement learning (RL) enables agents to learn through interaction with their environment. This empowers individuals to optimize actions in complex and dynamic settings. The component of event related potential (ERP) termed as the Reward Positivity (RewP) evidently signifies a fundamental reward prediction error (RPE) associated with rewards. This characteristic implies that it represents a fundamental computational process in the assessment of RL. When a reward is particularly pleasurable or liked by an individual, it tends to elicit an amplified RewP signal, reflecting the heightened positive affect. RPE arises from disparities between anticipated and actual rewarding outcomes and is known to …


The Effects Of Brain Control: A 3-D Agent-Based Model For Studying Pain, Kayla Kraeuter, Carley Reith, Benedict Kolber, Rachael Miller Neilan 2023 Duquesne University

The Effects Of Brain Control: A 3-D Agent-Based Model For Studying Pain, Kayla Kraeuter, Carley Reith, Benedict Kolber, Rachael Miller Neilan

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda And Wt Α-Synuclein Induced Decreases In Neurite Growth In In Vitro Models Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda And Wt Α-Synuclein Induced Decreases In Neurite Growth In In Vitro Models Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron degeneration. This degeneration is partly driven by over expression of α-synuclein (α-syn) and development of α-syn aggregates known as Lewy bodies throughout the substantia nigra. As well as motor dysfunction, PD presents with several chronic gastrointestinal comorbidities, which cause a decline of gut microbial diversity and microbially derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Recent in vivo studies have shown SCFAs to be neuroprotective in various degenerative disease states, suggesting that SCFAs may protect against dopaminergic degeneration.

Methods

Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were used as a model of human …


Neural Responses To Magnetic Orientation Information In Songbirds, Madeleine IR Brodbeck 2023 The University of Western Ontario

Neural Responses To Magnetic Orientation Information In Songbirds, Madeleine Ir Brodbeck

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Effective navigation and orientation is essential for animals to survive. The study of migratory birds provides insights into these processes, particularly through mechanisms like the geomagnetic compass, which uses Earth's magnetic field for directional information. A brain region in songbirds relevant to this is cluster N, known for its potential role in processing geomagnetic information. Notably, cluster N appears exclusive to nocturnally migratory birds, being active solely at night, and lesion studies reveal that an intact cluster N is necessary for geomagnetic compass orientation. However, given the scarcity of empirical data concerning cluster N, substantial questions persist regarding its function. …


Depaul Digest, 2023 DePaul University

Depaul Digest

DePaul Magazine

College of Education Professor Jason Goulah fosters hope, happiness and global citizenship through DePaul’s Institute for Daisaku Ikeda Studies in Education. Associate Journalism Professor Jill Hopke shares how to talk about climate change. News briefs from DePaul’s 10 colleges and schools: Occupational Therapy Standardized Patient Program, Financial Planning Certificate program, Business Education in Technology and Analytics Hub, Racial Justice Initiative, Teacher Quality Partnership grant, Intimate Partner Violence and Brain Injury collaboration, School of Music Career Closet, Sports Photojournalism course, DePaul Migration Collaborative’s Solutions Lab, Inclusive Screenwriting courses. New appointments: School of Music Dean John Milbauer, College of Education Dean Jennifer …


Synapse-Associated Protein 102 – A Highly Mobile Maguk Predominate In Early Synaptogenesis, Dominique Alexandra De Los Reyes, Mohammad Yaman Karkoutly, Yonghong Zhang 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Synapse-Associated Protein 102 – A Highly Mobile Maguk Predominate In Early Synaptogenesis, Dominique Alexandra De Los Reyes, Mohammad Yaman Karkoutly, Yonghong Zhang

School of Integrative Biological and Chemical Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders are primarily characterized by serious structural and functional changes in excitatory glutamatergic synapses in the brain, resulting in many synaptic deficits and aberrant synapse loss. It is a big challenge to reverse these synaptic impairments as a treatment for neurological diseases in the field. Extensive research on glutamate receptors as therapeutic targets has been done but with little success shown in human trials. PSD-95-like MAGUK proteins perform a pivotal role in regulating the trafficking and stability of glutamate receptors that are important to postsynaptic structure and function. MAGUK and MAGUK-modulated synaptic pathways are becoming promising candidates …


Invariant Object Recognition In Deep Neural Networks And Humans, Haider Al-Tahan 2023 Western University

Invariant Object Recognition In Deep Neural Networks And Humans, Haider Al-Tahan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Invariant object recognition, a cornerstone of human vision, enables recognizing objects despite variations in rotations, positions, and scales. To emulate human-like generalization across object transformations, computational models must perform well in this aspect. Deep neural networks (DNNs) are popular models for human ventral visual stream processing, though their alignment with human performance remains inconsistent. We examine object recognition across transformations in human adults and pretrained feedforward DNNs. DNNs are grouped in model families by architecture, visual diet, and learning goal. We focus on object rotation in depth, and observe that object recognition performance is better preserved in humans than in …


Sex Differences In Stress Reactivity, Brain Morphology, And Oxytocin In The Hypothalamus Of The Gray Short-Tailed Opossum (Monodelphis Domestica), Esperanza I. Zacarias, Daniela Rodriguez, Alexandra Chalons, Sasawan Heingraj, Nicole Altamirano, Joseph Rafac, John L. VandeBerg, Mario Gil 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Sex Differences In Stress Reactivity, Brain Morphology, And Oxytocin In The Hypothalamus Of The Gray Short-Tailed Opossum (Monodelphis Domestica), Esperanza I. Zacarias, Daniela Rodriguez, Alexandra Chalons, Sasawan Heingraj, Nicole Altamirano, Joseph Rafac, John L. Vandeberg, Mario Gil

Research Colloquium

Understanding the effects of stress on behavior and cognition is important due to its impact on mental health and wellbeing (Schneiderman et al. 2005). Translational animal research can contribute to the development of new treatments that can improve therapeutic outcomes and our understanding of the neurobiology of stress. In the present study, we complement behavioral stress reactivity with immunohistochemical localization of oxytocin in the hypothalamus, a neuropeptide that regulates stress (Neumann & Slattery, 2016). Oxytocin has potential therapeutic use for mental health disorders (Neumann & Slattery, 2016), and the effects of oxytocin seem to be sexually dimorphic (Love, 2018). Using …


A Multi-Modal Imaging Analysis Of Inter-Community Hub Nodes In Subjective Cognitive Decline Linking Longitudinal Hub Function Disruption To White Matter Integrity Kurtosis, Duncan Nowling 2023 Medical University of South Carolina

A Multi-Modal Imaging Analysis Of Inter-Community Hub Nodes In Subjective Cognitive Decline Linking Longitudinal Hub Function Disruption To White Matter Integrity Kurtosis, Duncan Nowling

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) has garnered much interest as a potential identifiable preclinical stage and indicator of risk for cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s Disease and related dementias (ADRD). Identification of individuals in this stage though is difficult, as they present with objectively normal cognitive evaluation scores, relying instead upon self-report of concern about decline in cognitive abilities. The use of non-invasive in-vivo imaging methods like BOLD functional imaging and diffusion tensor have allowed for complex mapping of both the functional and structural network features unique to this condition. This study furthers this network biomarker map of SCD by investigating the …


Investigating Monodelphis Domestica As An Alternative To The Mus Musculus As An Animal Model, Cristian M. Botello, John L. VandeBerg, Mario Gil 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Investigating Monodelphis Domestica As An Alternative To The Mus Musculus As An Animal Model, Cristian M. Botello, John L. Vandeberg, Mario Gil

Research Symposium

Background: Mus Musculus is one of the first and one of the most widely used animal models in current neuroscience literature (Phifer-Riley & Nachmann, 2015). However, the research community needs alternatives to rodent models to study the mammalian brain. Research is needed to see if antibodies that target tyrosine hydroxylase, which are well researched in mice, can also be used to study the Monodelphis domestica brain.

Methods: Following transcardial perfusions and brain extractions, mouse and opossum brains were processed and stained for tyrosine hydroxylase (and with Nissl). Opossum brains will then be sliced and processed using IHC methods to compare …


Cyclophosphamide And Epirubicin Induce Apoptotic Cell Death In Microglia Cells, Rafael de la Hoz-Camacho 2023 Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon

Cyclophosphamide And Epirubicin Induce Apoptotic Cell Death In Microglia Cells, Rafael De La Hoz-Camacho

Research Symposium

Background. Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment’s (CRCI), diminish patient’s quality life, being breast cancer (BC) patients the most affected. Microglia is described to play a major role in CRCI; hence, the aim of this research was to describe the cytotoxicity of cyclophosphamide (CTX) and Epirubicin (EPI), on microglia (SIM-A9), compared to BC cells (4T1).

Methods. We assessed cell viability (Resazurin) and cell death (AnnV), as well as nuclear damage with γ-H2AX, p53, p16 and cell cycle analysis (PI staining) by flow cytometry (FC). Furthermore, we evaluated ΔΨm (DIOC6), ROS (DCFDA) and NO (DAF-FM) production. Finally, caspase activation (TF2-VAD-FMK) and autophagy (CYTO-ID). …


The Eyes Beyond The Screen: Digital Media Policy And Child Health, Yahia Al-Qudah 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

The Eyes Beyond The Screen: Digital Media Policy And Child Health, Yahia Al-Qudah

Research Symposium

Background: Modern communication technology and digital media have provided society with a foundation for instant messaging. Pictures, videos, and texts connect individuals with families, friends, and the world. Consequently, digital media has accelerated exposure to risk in which children and adolescents are most vulnerable. This project’s objective is to 1) congregate and highlight current knowledge about the impact of digital media on child health, and 2) underline deficiencies in related laws and regulations as well as offer solutions in digital media policy.

Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted through the JAMA Pediatrics database with keywords such as “digital media,” …


Cortical Activation During Mobility In An Indoor Real-World Environment: A Mobile Eeg Study, Sam Marshall 2023 Western University

Cortical Activation During Mobility In An Indoor Real-World Environment: A Mobile Eeg Study, Sam Marshall

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human mobility requires neurocognitive inputs to safely navigate the environment. Previous research has examined neural processes that underly walking using mobile neuroimaging technologies, yet few studies have incorporated true real-world methods without a specific task imposed on participants (e.g., dual-task, motor demands). The present study utilized mobile electroencephalography to examine and compare theta, alpha, and beta frequency band power (μV2) in young adults during sitting and walking in laboratory and real-world environments. Our findings support that mobility and environment may modulate neural activity, as we observed increased brain activation for walking compared to sitting, and for real-world walking compared to …


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