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Explicit And Implicit Emotion Processing In The Cerebellum: A Meta‑Analysis And Systematic Review, Jordan E. Pierce, Marine Thomasson, Philippe Voruz, Garance Selosse, Julie Péron 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Explicit And Implicit Emotion Processing In The Cerebellum: A Meta‑Analysis And Systematic Review, Jordan E. Pierce, Marine Thomasson, Philippe Voruz, Garance Selosse, Julie Péron

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The cerebellum’s role in affective processing is increasingly recognized in the literature, but remains poorly understood, despite abundant clinical evidence for affective disruptions following cerebellar damage. To improve the characterization of emotion processing and investigate how attention allocation impacts this processing, we conducted a meta-analysis on task activation foci using GingerALE software. Eighty human neuroimaging studies of emotion including 2761 participants identified through Web of Science and ProQuest databases were analyzed collectively and then divided into two categories based on the focus of attention during the task: explicit or implicit emotion processing. The results examining the explicit emotion tasks identified …


Roundup And Glyphosate’S Impact On Gaba To Elicit Extended Proconvulsant Behavior In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Akshay Naraine, Rebecca Aker, Isis Sweeney, Meghan Kalvey, Alexis Surtel, Venkatesh Shanbhag, Ken Dawson-Scully 2022 Florida Atlantic University; Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience

Roundup And Glyphosate’S Impact On Gaba To Elicit Extended Proconvulsant Behavior In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Akshay Naraine, Rebecca Aker, Isis Sweeney, Meghan Kalvey, Alexis Surtel, Venkatesh Shanbhag, Ken Dawson-Scully

Chemistry and Physics Faculty Articles

As 3 billion pounds of herbicides are sprayed over farmlands every year, it is essential to advance our understanding how pesticides may influence neurological health and physiology of both humans and other animals. Studies are often one-dimensional as the majority examine glyphosate by itself. Farmers and the public use commercial products, like Roundup, containing a myriad of chemicals in addition to glyphosate. Currently, there are no neurological targets proposed for glyphosate and little comparison to Roundup. To investigate this, we compared how glyphosate and Roundup affect convulsant behavior in C. elegans and found that glyphosate and Roundup increased seizure-like behavior. …


Genetic Determinants Of Primary Nociceptor Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster, Christine Hale 2022 University of Maine

Genetic Determinants Of Primary Nociceptor Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster, Christine Hale

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Abnormal pain affects ~50 million adults nationwide. With many of the current treatment options for chronic pain, such as opioid analgesics, carrying side effects such as the threat for addiction, research into safer and more effective options for chronic pain relief is crucial. Abnormal alterations in nociceptive sensitivity, which is the sensitivity of peripheral sensory neurons that detect noxious stimuli, can underlie, and perpetuate chronic pain. However, much is still unknown about the mechanism of how these abnormal alterations in sensitivity occur. To help elucidate genetic components controlling nociceptive sensitivity, the Drosophila melanogaster larval nociception model has been used …


Examining The Relationships Between Socio-Cognitive Factors And Neural Synchrony During Movie Watching Across Development, Kathleen M. Lyons 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Examining The Relationships Between Socio-Cognitive Factors And Neural Synchrony During Movie Watching Across Development, Kathleen M. Lyons

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

While different cognitive abilities mature, the conscious experiences of children likely become richer and more elaborate. A challenge in investigating relationships between cognitive development and real-world experiences is having measures that assess naturalistic processing. Movie watching offers a solution, since following the plot of a film requires cognitive processes that are similar to real-world experiences. When different adults watch the same film, their brain activity begins to align (known as neural synchrony). The strength of this alignment has been shown to reflect the degree to which different individuals are having a similar experience of the movie. While this phenomenon has …


Exploring The Inter-Relationship Between Cognitive And Motor Function In People With Lower Limb Amputations, Humberto Adolfo Omaña Moreno 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Exploring The Inter-Relationship Between Cognitive And Motor Function In People With Lower Limb Amputations, Humberto Adolfo Omaña Moreno

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The main objective of the present dissertation was to expand our understanding of the inter-relationship between cognition and mobility in people with lower limb amputations (PLLA). Study 1 systematically reviewed the literature to assess the effects of dual-task testing on the balance and gait of PLLA. A total of twenty-two studies were included. Overall, PLLA demonstrated a disproportionately greater dual-task effect than controls, characterized by increased sway velocity and reduced pace and rhythm, and increased asymmetry when balance or walking was paired with a secondary task. Additionally, the dual-task effect was not influenced by differences in etiology, level of amputation, …


The Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation On Beat Perception And Motor Performance, Marina Emerick 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation On Beat Perception And Motor Performance, Marina Emerick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Humans have an intrinsic tendency to move to music. However, our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the music-movement connection remains limited, and most studies have used correlational methods. Here, we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to causally investigate the role of four motor brain regions involved in movement timing and beat perception: the supplementary motor area (SMA), left and right premotor cortices (PMC), and cerebellum. Subjects were randomly assigned to a brain region to be stimulated and received anodal, cathodal, or sham stimulation on three different days while they reproduced rhythmic sequences. The sequences had either a strong …


Resistance Training Improves White Matter Structural Connectivity In Older Adults At-Risk For Cognitive Decline, Ryu Lien 2022 Western University

Resistance Training Improves White Matter Structural Connectivity In Older Adults At-Risk For Cognitive Decline, Ryu Lien

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Diabetes is a global health concern that impacts 415 million people worldwide. Individuals who are at-risk for diabetes (characterized by high blood glucose and/or being overweight) have white matter atrophy, decreased cognitive function, and an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recently, resistance training (RT) has been shown to lower white matter atrophy and white matter lesion volume. However, investigating changes in white matter tracts is complex, hence previous findings remain inconclusive. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) serves as a highly sensitive tool that enables visualization and characterization of white matter tracts and has the potential to combat this complexity. The …


Human Claustrum Activation During Pain, Zoravar S. Sidhu, David A. Seminowicz, Brent W. Stewart 2022 Western University

Human Claustrum Activation During Pain, Zoravar S. Sidhu, David A. Seminowicz, Brent W. Stewart

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Chronic pain is one of the principal causes of disability in the world. Many if not all of us deal with or know of someone who deals with chronic pain. Interestingly, it appears that a mysterious part of the brain known as the claustrum has a hand in chronic pain. Although little is known about the actual function of the claustrum, it is hypothesized to synchronize cortical networks during tasks which have a cognitive load.

Recent literature has indicated that during chronic pain conditions, neural network recruitment is modified. In addition, an analysis of an existing fMRI data set determined …


Assessing The Impact Of Lipopolysaccharide On Learning And Memory In Rats, Anahat Luthra 2022 Western University

Assessing The Impact Of Lipopolysaccharide On Learning And Memory In Rats, Anahat Luthra

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) have a bi-direction relationship, modulating one another.4 Proinflammatory cytokines released from CNS immune cells have an impact on cognitive processes such as learning and memory.1 Liposaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, which is used to activate proinflammatory cytokine release has been found to impact learning and memory processes, such as in the anticipatory nausea paradigm (ANP).2 Anticipatory nausea and vomiting is that which may occur before a chemotherapy treatment session begins in a patient who has had chemotherapy before. It is caused by triggers like …


Functional Neuroimaging Techniques To Examine Falls And Cognition In Older Adults: A Systematic Review, Tia M. Seleem, Raphael Gabiazon 2022 Western University

Functional Neuroimaging Techniques To Examine Falls And Cognition In Older Adults: A Systematic Review, Tia M. Seleem, Raphael Gabiazon

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Falls in older adults have been attributed to impaired cognition. There is potential for neuroimaging techniques to understand the biological components that are involved in the cognitive processes pertaining to falls. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to analyze how functional neuroimaging can be used to examine the relationship between falls and cognition among older adults. The following five electronic databases were selected to identify peer-reviewed articles in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: 1) Medline (via OVID), 2) PsycINFO (via OVID), 3) CINAHL (via EBSCO), 4) EMBASE (via OVID), and 5) Pubmed. …


Using A Musical Beat To Influence Linguistic Statistical Learning, Aspen Leung 2022 Western University

Using A Musical Beat To Influence Linguistic Statistical Learning, Aspen Leung

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The similarities between music and language continue to provide research questions in the area of psychology. Despite the large amount of research on this area of knowledge, there are still many existing questions in regards to the processing of musical and linguistic stimuli. Statistical learning involves the ability to extract statistical regularities from a stimulus and continues to be studied in both domains due to the similar hierarchical structure of music and language. Recently, neural entrainment (the synchronization of neural oscillations with the rhythm of an external stimulus) has been studied as a mechanism of statistical learning. Music has been …


Stimulus Duration Alters Temporal Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Audiovisual Perception, Juwairiya F. Ahmad 2022 Western University

Stimulus Duration Alters Temporal Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Audiovisual Perception, Juwairiya F. Ahmad

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of stimulus duration on the perceived temporal order judgement in Long Evans rats.


Entropic Voxels Indicate Large Brain-State Repertoires, Adam Hull 2022 Western University

Entropic Voxels Indicate Large Brain-State Repertoires, Adam Hull

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Brain entropy is a measure that has been increasingly studied in neuroscience over the past decade. It is based on Shannon Entropy, a measure from Information Theory that quantifies the information capacity of a system from the probability distribution of its states. Brain entropy is thus posited to reflect the information capacity of the brain and has been linked to various cognitive abilities and states. However, most studies on brain entropy measure the time-series entropy of each voxel independently, ignoring any patterns that emerge from the relations between voxels. Here, we measured brain entropy of resting-state fMRI data based on …


The Ommaba Project, Katsiaryna Buchko 2022 Western University

The Ommaba Project, Katsiaryna Buchko

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The Open Multimodal Music and Auditory Brain Archive (OMMABA) is the first multimodal (behavioural, EEG, and neuroimaging) database characterizing normal human auditory processing. My project aims to shed light on the importance of this collaborative project that is transforming the field of auditory cognitive neuroscience.


Axonal Architecture Of The Mouse Inner Retina Revealed By Second Harmonic Generation, Arafat Meah, Vinessia Boodram, Festa Bucinca-Cupallari, Hyungsik Lim 2022 CUNY Hunter College

Axonal Architecture Of The Mouse Inner Retina Revealed By Second Harmonic Generation, Arafat Meah, Vinessia Boodram, Festa Bucinca-Cupallari, Hyungsik Lim

Publications and Research

We describe a novel method for visualizing the network of axons in the unlabeled fresh wholemount retina. The intrinsic radiation of second harmonic generation (SHG) was utilized to visualize single axons of all major retinal neurons, i.e., photoreceptors, horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and the retinal ganglion cells. The cell types of SHG + axons were determined using transgenic GFP/YFP mice. New findings were obtained with retinal SHG imaging: Müller cells do not maintain uniformly polarized microtubules in the processes; SHG + axons of bipolar cells terminate in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) in a subtype-specific manner; a subset …


The Effects Of A Multi-Ingredient Supplement On Various Cognitive Measures, Jason M. Curtis, Cassandra Evans, Veronica Mekhail, Paulina Czartoryski, Juan Carlos Santana, Jose Antonio 2022 Keiser University

The Effects Of A Multi-Ingredient Supplement On Various Cognitive Measures, Jason M. Curtis, Cassandra Evans, Veronica Mekhail, Paulina Czartoryski, Juan Carlos Santana, Jose Antonio

NeuroSports

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement (MIPS) on mental and physical performance. Seventeen exercise-trained men (n = 7) and women (n=10) completed this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover trial. Participants consumed either a multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement (MIPS) or a placebo in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Forty-five minutes post-consumption, the following assessments were conducted: psychomotor vigilance test (PVT), Profile of Mood States (POMS), Stroop test, vertical jump test, and a Cold pressor test. There was a one-week washout period between assessments. There were significant differences in the incongruent task for the Stroop …


Aberrant Age-Related Alterations In Spontaneous Cortical Activity In Participants With Cerebral Palsy, Hannah Bergwell 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Aberrant Age-Related Alterations In Spontaneous Cortical Activity In Participants With Cerebral Palsy, Hannah Bergwell

Theses & Dissertations

Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common neurodevelopmental motor disability, resulting in life-long sensory, perception and motor impairments. These impairments appear to drastically worsen with advancing age within the CP population, although the underlying neuro-physiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Herein, we began to address this knowledge gap by utilizing magnetoencephalographic (MEG) to study how aging impacts the amplitude of spontaneous brain activity (i.e., resting state) in a cohort of 38 individuals with spastic diplegic CP (Age = 22.08 ± 10.46 years) and 67 neurotypical controls (NT) (Age = 19.56 ± 10.25 years). Participants completed an eyes-closed resting-state paradigm while undergoing …


Myeloarchitectonic Maps Of Cat Auditory Cortex, Austin Robertson 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Myeloarchitectonic Maps Of Cat Auditory Cortex, Austin Robertson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cerebral cortex contains myriad cortical areas that differ in structure, function, and connectivity. Current methods of delineating cortical structures and their subregions are insufficient for in vivo applications, either being highly invasive or requiring a detailed knowledge of a region’s tuning properties. To address this, we seek to establish a structural biomarker capable of delineating the cortex that possesses a non-invasive correlate. We explore myelin as a potential candidate by evaluating its efficacy in parcellating the feline auditory cortex through the generation of depthwise myelin density profiles for each of the 13 auditory cortical subregions. Our analyses revealed significant …


Impacts On Fast-Start Performance: How Do Group Size And Habitat Degradation Alter The Escape Behavior Of A Schooling Coral Reef Fish?, Monica D. Bacchus 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Impacts On Fast-Start Performance: How Do Group Size And Habitat Degradation Alter The Escape Behavior Of A Schooling Coral Reef Fish?, Monica D. Bacchus

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Escaping predation is essential for species survival, but prey must effectively match their response to the perceived threat imposed by a predator. Fish evaluate their surroundings using several sensory stimuli, including olfactory, visual, auditory, and mechanical cues. A range of taxa use the fast-start response to evade predators, including fishes, sharks, and larval amphibians. While the fast-start response (rapid bursts of swimming) is extensively studied in solitary fishes, the factors that mediate the collective escape response in schools of fish have historically been investigated far less. To address this knowledge gap, the collective escape behavior and individual escape performance of …


The Distinction Of Logical Decision According To The Model Of The Analysis Of Brain Signals (Eeg), Akeel Abdulkareem Al-Sakaa, Zaid H. Nasralla, Mohsin Hasan Hussein, Saif A. Abd, Hazim Alsaqaa, Kesra Nermend, Anna Borawska 2022 College of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Kerbala - Iraq

The Distinction Of Logical Decision According To The Model Of The Analysis Of Brain Signals (Eeg), Akeel Abdulkareem Al-Sakaa, Zaid H. Nasralla, Mohsin Hasan Hussein, Saif A. Abd, Hazim Alsaqaa, Kesra Nermend, Anna Borawska

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

Recently, brain signal patterns have been recruited by researchers in different life activities. Researchers have studied each life activity and how brain signal patterns appear. These patterns could then be generalised and used in different disciplines. In this paper, we study the brain state during decision making in a lottery experiment. An EEG device is used to capture brain signals during an experiment to extract the optimal state for logical decision making. After collecting data, extracting useful information and then processing it, the proposed method is able to identify rational decisions from irrational ones with a success rate of 67%.


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