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Differential Cortical Monoamines Release During Exercise In Rats Chronically Implanted With Microdialysis Probes, Christine G. Gerin 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Differential Cortical Monoamines Release During Exercise In Rats Chronically Implanted With Microdialysis Probes, Christine G. Gerin

Research Symposium

Physical exercise is known to positively influence mood, to reduce anxiety and to improve reaction to stress. Cerebral monoaminergic systems are thought to underly the neurochemical influence of exercise on mood and behavior. We hypothesized that beneficial effects of exercise can be shown by variations of neurotransmitters release in the cerebral cortex. We aimed at demonstrating that there is a temporal relationship between release of plasma and cerebral monoamines (A, NA, 5-HT, DA) and spontaneous running exercise in rats. Ten Spague Dawley rats (250 g) were chronically implanted (for up to 39 days) with a left common carotid cannula and …


Editorial: Sex Differences In The Neurobiology Of Drug Relapse Vulnerability, Daniel F Manvich, Jessica A Loweth, Wendy J Lynch, Jayme R McReynolds 2023 Rowan University

Editorial: Sex Differences In The Neurobiology Of Drug Relapse Vulnerability, Daniel F Manvich, Jessica A Loweth, Wendy J Lynch, Jayme R Mcreynolds

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Neural Sequalae Of Subjectively Experiencing Autobiographical Memories From The Remote Past And Recent Present Using Fmri, Ava G. Peruski, Nim Singh, Brendan E. Depue 2023 University of Louisville

The Neural Sequalae Of Subjectively Experiencing Autobiographical Memories From The Remote Past And Recent Present Using Fmri, Ava G. Peruski, Nim Singh, Brendan E. Depue

The Cardinal Edge

Autobiographical memory is central to one's sense of self and continuity from past to present. Despite this, there is little research on the neural correlates underlying individual subjective experience of autobiographical memory and how that is related to brain phenomena (i.e., activity, communication). The purpose of this study was to help minimize this gap. We recruited twenty healthy adult participants, who were asked to generate memory cues (1-3 word descriptions) for locations and objects from their early and recent life. After 24 hours, participants were shown these cues then asked to recall the appropriate memory while in an fMRI scanner. …


All-Cause And Opioid-Related Mortality Compared Between Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury And The Us General Population, Jaden Whitehead, Beatrice Ugiliweneza 2023 University of Louisville

All-Cause And Opioid-Related Mortality Compared Between Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury And The Us General Population, Jaden Whitehead, Beatrice Ugiliweneza

The Cardinal Edge

Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are susceptible to the misuse of opioids due to the introduction of these substances for pain management. There are very few studies examining the relationship between unintentional deaths caused by opioid usage following spinal cord injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend of opioid-related mortality of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) over the years and compare these findings to the mortality rates due to opioid misuse in the general population. In this study, we used data provided by the National Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems (NSCIMS) for SCI 1999-2016 …


Selective Recruitment Of Cerebellum In Cognition, Ladan Shahshahani 2023 Western University

Selective Recruitment Of Cerebellum In Cognition, Ladan Shahshahani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Previous studies of cerebellar function in humans have shown that it is activated by a myriad of tasks ranging from motor learning and language to working memory and more. These studies have prompted a deviation from the traditional view of the cerebellum as a purely motor structure. However, the precise contribution of the cerebellum to these tasks remains ambiguous.

A prevalent assumption in fMRI studies is interpreting BOLD activation as evidence of the cerebellum's involvement in specific tasks. However, this interpretation is potentially misleading, especially considering that the BOLD signal predominantly represents cerebellar input, with output activity largely absent. Consequently, …


Modelling Prenatal Hypoxia As A Risk Factor For Schizophrenia Vulnerability In Patient-Derived Cerebral Organoids, Dana M. Gummerson 2023 Western University

Modelling Prenatal Hypoxia As A Risk Factor For Schizophrenia Vulnerability In Patient-Derived Cerebral Organoids, Dana M. Gummerson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prenatal hypoxia during fetal development is a significant environmental risk factor linked to schizophrenia (SCZ) vulnerability. However, hypoxia’s impact on human brain development at the cellular level remains unclear. Our laboratory has developed human cerebral organoids using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from healthy control or SCZ patient cell lines to address these questions. This creates a platform that allows for the investigation into the pathophysiology of SCZ and hypoxia in tandem. Organoids were exposed to hypoxic conditions at one month of development, mimicking the early stages of cortical growth in the human fetus. Results reveal innate differences in …


Post-Activation Performance Enhancement Through Variable Loading Maintains Power Output Over Five Sets In Highly Trained Athletes, Robert Rocanelli, Morgan Siegel, Pedro Yunes, Pete Bommarito, Monique Mokha 2023 Nova Southeastern University

Post-Activation Performance Enhancement Through Variable Loading Maintains Power Output Over Five Sets In Highly Trained Athletes, Robert Rocanelli, Morgan Siegel, Pedro Yunes, Pete Bommarito, Monique Mokha

Journal for Sports Neuroscience

The goal was to examine the acute effects of five sets of variable loading (VL) on the post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) response during a live training session in highly trained athletes. PAPE is the phenomenon where acute improvements in power production in light loaded movements occur post near maximal loaded muscle contraction. PAPE may be induced with VL where resistance in the form of chains or bands is added to the bar as it displaces in the concentric phase. Participants were American football players from a variety of field positions (n=12, height =188 ± 0.01 cm, total body mass = …


Bisphenol-A And Phthalate Metabolism In Children With Neurodevelopmental Disorders, T Peter Stein, Margaret D Schluter, Robert A Steer, Xue Ming 2023 Rowan University

Bisphenol-A And Phthalate Metabolism In Children With Neurodevelopmental Disorders, T Peter Stein, Margaret D Schluter, Robert A Steer, Xue Ming

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism spectrum (ASD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity (ADHD) disorders are multifactorial. Epidemiological studies have shown associations with environmental pollutants, such as plasticizers. This study focused on two of these compounds, the Bisphenol-A (BPA) and Diethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP). The major pathway for BPA and DEHP excretion is via glucuronidation. Glucuronidation makes insoluble substances more water-soluble allowing for their subsequent elimination in urine.

HYPOTHESIS: Detoxification of these two plasticizers is compromised in children with ASD and ADHD. Consequently, their tissues are more exposed to these two plasticizers.

METHODS: We measured the efficiency of glucuronidation in three groups of children, …


Oligodendrocyte 2phatal Reveals Dynamics Of Myelin Degeneration And Repair, Timothy W. Chapman 2023 Dartmouth College

Oligodendrocyte 2phatal Reveals Dynamics Of Myelin Degeneration And Repair, Timothy W. Chapman

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Oligodendrocytes are responsible for producing myelin in the central nervous system. This lipid-rich coating along axons helps to increase action potential velocity, provide metabolic support to axons, and facilitate fine-tuning of neuronal circuitry. Demyelination and/or myelin dysfunction is widespread in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Despite this, we know very little about how individual oligodendrocytes, or the myelin sheaths they produce, degenerate. Myelin repair, carried out by resident oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), is known to occur following myelin damage in certain contexts. We sought to investigate the cellular dynamics of oligodendrocyte degeneration and repair by developing a non-inflammatory demyelination model, combining …


Hla-Ii-Dependent Neuroimmune Changes In Group A Streptococcal Necrotizing Fasciitis, Ganesh Ambigapathy, Santhosh Mukundan, Kumi Nagamoto-Combs, Colin Combs, Suba Nookala 2023 University of North Dakota

Hla-Ii-Dependent Neuroimmune Changes In Group A Streptococcal Necrotizing Fasciitis, Ganesh Ambigapathy, Santhosh Mukundan, Kumi Nagamoto-Combs, Colin Combs, Suba Nookala

Biomedical Sciences Faculty Publications

Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) bacteria cause a spectrum of human diseases ranging from self-limiting pharyngitis and mild, uncomplicated skin infections (impetigo, erysipelas, and cellulitis) to highly morbid and rapidly invasive, life-threatening infections such as streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis (NF). HLA class II allelic polymorphisms are linked with differential outcomes and severity of GAS infections. The dysregulated immune response and peripheral cytokine storm elicited due to invasive GAS infections increase the risk for toxic shock and multiple organ failure in genetically susceptible individuals. We hypothesized that, while the host immune mediators regulate the immune responses against …


Automatic Analysis Of The Frequency, Vigor, And Complexity Of Spontaneous Locomotion Bouts Of Mice With Loss And Gain Of Function Of The G Protein-Coupled Receptor Smoothened In Cholinergic Neurons, Aleksandra Feshchenko 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Automatic Analysis Of The Frequency, Vigor, And Complexity Of Spontaneous Locomotion Bouts Of Mice With Loss And Gain Of Function Of The G Protein-Coupled Receptor Smoothened In Cholinergic Neurons, Aleksandra Feshchenko

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Locomotion, a fundamental behavior, is classically assessed using simple metrics of velocity and total distance moved in an open field. This behavior however offers rich data about the organization and breadth of actions an animal can take while only facing limitations due to the bio-mechanical constraints of the organism. Importantly, these actions are not biased towards a particular task-solution space imposed by many behavioral paradigms. Here, to analyze motor complexity in freely ambulating mice, we developed a method for the automatic and unbiased identification of locomotor bouts which we call Bout Finder (BF). This analysis utilizes Open Feld data to …


Examining Metacognitive Access To Low-Level Ensemble Representations, Vladimir Mudragel 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Examining Metacognitive Access To Low-Level Ensemble Representations, Vladimir Mudragel

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Ensemble perception is a process that allows our sensory systems to rapidly extract summary information about the stimuli in the environment. For example, we are able to get a sense of the average number of items in a group of similar items (Burr & Ross, 2008; Halberda, Sires, & Feigenson, 2006) or the average size of a group of similar shapes of different sizes (Ariely, 2001). It is theorized that the qualitative result of ensemble perception is that it provides a gist impression of the current environment, which then enables attentional processes in the brain to determine which parts of …


Characterization Of Pathological Tau Mutants, Charles J. McDonald 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Characterization Of Pathological Tau Mutants, Charles J. Mcdonald

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Tau is a protein expressed exclusively in glia and neurons in the central nervous system and implicated in several neurogenerative diseases called “tauopathies”. Among all the tauopathies, one third is characterized by the presence of genetic mutations leading to the synthesis of tau proteins with single amino acid substitutions at specific locations and affecting protein function. While most of the initial studies have emphasize the functional role of tau as modulator of the axonal cytoskeleton, it has recently been well accepted that tau is also an intrinsically disordered protein that tends to form membraneless organelles called coacervates, due to a …


Electrophysiological Signatures Of Stress Adaptability In The Bnst-Vta Pathway, Yuka Miura 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Electrophysiological Signatures Of Stress Adaptability In The Bnst-Vta Pathway, Yuka Miura

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Chronic stress has detrimental effects on psychological and physiological health. Incapability to adapt to chronic stress can lead to depression, anxiety disorders, and addiction. The brain regions critical for reward processing share diverse physiological and molecular changes linked to depressive-like behaviors as a result of chronic stress. Cumulative evidence shows that counteraction or prevention of these alterations in neurons, occasionally in a projection-specific manner, can enhance stress adaptation or resilience.

Chronic stress induces various changes in the brain, including in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The neural projections from the BNST …


Brainwaves, Memory, And Reward, Rebecca McCune 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Brainwaves, Memory, And Reward, Rebecca Mccune

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The development of effective educational curricula for enhancing learning involves the crucial consideration of effort and rewards. In the realm of education, teachers commonly employ rewards as motivational tools. Traditionally, these rewards are given to students as a recognition of their successful performance. However, a thought-provoking idea emerges: What if we were to extend rewards to students not solely based on accurate answers, but also on the effort they invest, even in cases where their actual response might be incorrect? Our study explores the potential impact of this approach on the way information is absorbed and subsequently retained, specifically focusing …


You Hurt My Feelings: Autonomic And Behavioral Responses To Social Exclusion And The Moderating Effect Of Psychopathic Traits, Liat Kofler 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

You Hurt My Feelings: Autonomic And Behavioral Responses To Social Exclusion And The Moderating Effect Of Psychopathic Traits, Liat Kofler

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Humans have a fundamental need to form and maintain social connections, and thus experiencing social exclusion is extremely distressing as it threatens this basic human need. Individuals who are socially excluded often respond aggressively, not only towards their ostracizers but also towards innocent bystanders, with ostracism being implicated in extreme acts of violence such as school shootings. However, individual differences in behavior exist within the context of social exclusion as not everyone responds aggressively after being ostracized. Identifying risk factors for retaliatory aggressive behavior following experiences of social exclusion may facilitate the development of targeted interventions aimed at mitigating such …


Proceedings From The Third Annual Society For Neurosports Conference, NeuroSports Editorial Staff 2023 Nova Southeastern University

Proceedings From The Third Annual Society For Neurosports Conference, Neurosports Editorial Staff

Journal for Sports Neuroscience

Proceedings from the Third Annual Society for NeuroSports Conference


Visual Cortical Traveling Waves: From Spontaneous Spiking Populations To Stimulus-Evoked Models Of Short-Term Prediction, Gabriel B. Benigno 2023 The University of Western Ontario

Visual Cortical Traveling Waves: From Spontaneous Spiking Populations To Stimulus-Evoked Models Of Short-Term Prediction, Gabriel B. Benigno

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thanks to recent advances in neurotechnology, waves of activity sweeping across entire cortical regions are now routinely observed. Moreover, these waves have been found to impact neural responses as well as perception, and the responses themselves are found to be structured as traveling waves. How exactly do these waves arise? Do they confer any computational advantages? These traveling waves represent an opportunity for an expanded theory of neural computation, in which their dynamic local network activity may complement the moment-to-moment variability of our sensory experience.

This thesis aims to help uncover the origin and role of traveling waves in the …


Music Advocacy: The Cognitive Development, Behavioral And Emotional Management, And Academic Success That Music Education Provides Students In Louisiana’S Low Socioeconomic Elementary Schools, Cory D. Dugar 2023 Liberty University

Music Advocacy: The Cognitive Development, Behavioral And Emotional Management, And Academic Success That Music Education Provides Students In Louisiana’S Low Socioeconomic Elementary Schools, Cory D. Dugar

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

There are many technological curricular activities in math and science classrooms, yet few are found in music classrooms. Although many elementary schools may be benefiting from advocacy for music and technology, many elementary schools in the state of Louisiana have lost funding for music programs. For the Louisiana Department of Education to act as an advocate for music education, there must be a thorough understanding of the benefits of music education. Extensive research is one way to suggest that elementary music classes can raise the cognitive capacity of elementary students and could be the catalyst for ensuring the upcoming generation’s …


Neural Dynamics Of Visual Processes In Challenging Visibility Conditions, Saba Charmi Motlagh 2023 Western University

Neural Dynamics Of Visual Processes In Challenging Visibility Conditions, Saba Charmi Motlagh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In our daily visual experience, our brain effortlessly categorizes countless objects, enabling us to perceive and interpret the world around us. This core object recognition process is vital for our survival and adaptive behavior, allowing us to recognize objects despite variations in appearance. The incredible speed at which we accomplish this task is a testament to the efficiency of our visual system and the significance of visual processing is evident in the allocation of nearly half of the neocortex in primates to this function. Unraveling the intricacies of how the human visual system tackles this complex challenge has long been …


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