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Enhancing The Quality Of Life For Senior Citizens: A Facilitator’S Guidebook For Mindful Music And Movement, Shannon Sexton 2023 Lesley University

Enhancing The Quality Of Life For Senior Citizens: A Facilitator’S Guidebook For Mindful Music And Movement, Shannon Sexton

Mindfulness Studies Theses

Music appreciation and enjoyment enhance well-being throughout the lifespan. The challenges and constraints that people experience as they age can lead to lack of access to music, decreased physical activity, and fewer avenues for creative expression. Group music and movement interventions created for older populations offer opportunities for social connection and improved quality of life. Mindful practices add further benefit when combined with these interventions. Current available programs are scarce and most often do not encompass mixed modalities. In addition, the benefits of these programs do not show long-term sustainability. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the effects …


Neural Systems Underlying Rdoc Social Constructs: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis, Rosario Pintos Lobo, Katherine L. Bottenhorn, Michael C. Riedel, Afra I. Toma, Megan M. Hare, Donisha D. Smith, Alexandra C. Moor, Isis K. Cowan, Javier A. Valdes, Jessica E. Bartley, Taylor Salo, Emily R. Boeving, Brianna Pankey, Matthew T. Sutherland, Erica D. Musser, Angela R. Laird 2023 Old Dominion University

Neural Systems Underlying Rdoc Social Constructs: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis, Rosario Pintos Lobo, Katherine L. Bottenhorn, Michael C. Riedel, Afra I. Toma, Megan M. Hare, Donisha D. Smith, Alexandra C. Moor, Isis K. Cowan, Javier A. Valdes, Jessica E. Bartley, Taylor Salo, Emily R. Boeving, Brianna Pankey, Matthew T. Sutherland, Erica D. Musser, Angela R. Laird

Psychology Faculty Publications

Neuroscientists have sought to identify the underlying neural systems supporting social processing that allow interaction and communication, forming social relationships, and navigating the social world. Through the use of NIMH’s Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework, we evaluated consensus among studies that examined brain activity during social tasks to elucidate regions comprising the “social brain”. We examined convergence across tasks corresponding to the four RDoC social constructs, including Affiliation and Attachment, Social Communication, Perception and Understanding of Self, and Perception and Understanding of Others. We performed a series of coordinate-based meta-analyses using the activation likelihood estimate (ALE) method. Meta-analysis was performed …


The Role Of Dha In The Impact Of Trem2 On Microglia Activation And Alzheimer’S Disease, Michael A. Palmieri III 2022 Seton Hall University

The Role Of Dha In The Impact Of Trem2 On Microglia Activation And Alzheimer’S Disease, Michael A. Palmieri Iii

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurological disease that is associated with microglia activation. An important receptor involved in microglia activation is Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2). Recent studies suggest that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could reduce the neuroinflammation that is associated with microglia activation. We hypothesized that when DHA concentration was increased, TREM2 expression would decrease, microglia activity would be inhibited, and a resulting decrease in neuroinflammation would be observed. We examined peer-reviewed journal articles from 2017-2022 that investigated the relationship between TREM2 activation and severity of AD symptoms, the protective properties of DHA against AD, and the …


Multilingualism And Memory: Investigating Possible Differences In The Abilities Of Monolingual And Multilingual College Students, Clara E. Barned 2022 Bowling Green State University

Multilingualism And Memory: Investigating Possible Differences In The Abilities Of Monolingual And Multilingual College Students, Clara E. Barned

Honors Projects

This study investigated whether there is a difference in the memories of monolingual and multilingual undergraduate students using simple memorization tasks. There were 46 participants, 30 of which were monolingual (only knew one language) and 16 of which were multilingual (knew two or more languages). There was found to be no significant difference between the performance of the two groups, with the data generating a p-value of 0.557. This study further suggests related avenues of research and ways in which the study could be improved in the future.


Individual Differences In Lpp Amplitude And Theta Power Predict Cue-Induced Eating During A Cued Food Delivery Task, Kyla Gibney 2022 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Individual Differences In Lpp Amplitude And Theta Power Predict Cue-Induced Eating During A Cued Food Delivery Task, Kyla Gibney

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Due to individual differences in the brain’s reward system, some individuals are more vulnerable than others to maladaptive, reward-seeking behaviors, such as substance use or compulsive eating. A body of research has demonstrated that individuals who attribute higher levels of incentive salience to reward-associated cues than to pleasant images (termed “C>P group” throughout) are more vulnerable to compulsive eating than those who attribute higher incentive salience to pleasant images than reward- associated cues (P>C group). Meanwhile, a separate body of research has demonstrated that cognitive control also regulates eating by enabling top-down attentional control. This dissertation aims to …


The Effect Of Active Learning On Viewpoint Dependence For Novel Objects, Cassandra Wallace Bacher 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Active Learning On Viewpoint Dependence For Novel Objects, Cassandra Wallace Bacher

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Active learning of novel objects can facilitate subsequent object recognition and discrimination, but the reasons for its beneficial effects remain unclear. One potential explanation is that active learning enables the formation of a more detailed, realistic, or useful neural object representation than does passive learning. The current study addressed the question of whether active vs. passive learning of objects affects viewpoint discrimination. Participants learned novel wire-like objects either actively or passively and then completed a psychophysical task which they discriminated object orientation. This study did not find a significant difference in viewpoint discrimination between actively and passively learned object representations, …


Using Machine Learning To Identify Neural Mechanisms Underlying The Development Of Cognition In Children And Adolescents With Adhd, Brian Pho 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Using Machine Learning To Identify Neural Mechanisms Underlying The Development Of Cognition In Children And Adolescents With Adhd, Brian Pho

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Childhood and adolescence are marked by improvements to cognition and by the emergence of neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). What neural mechanisms are associated with cognitive development in ADHD? In this study, I applied machine learning models to functional connectivity profiles to identify patterns of network connectivity that predict various cognitive abilities in a group of participants ages 6 to 16 with ADHD. The models successfully predicted IQ, visual spatial, verbal comprehension, and fluid reasoning in children ages 6 to 11, but not adolescents. Furthermore, the models identified connections with the default mode, memory retrieval, and …


The Express Sensorimotor Response Selects Visual Features Based On Instruction, David Youhanna Mekhaiel 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Express Sensorimotor Response Selects Visual Features Based On Instruction, David Youhanna Mekhaiel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In time-sensitive situations, orienting reflexes allow us to move rapidly in response to stimuli. The express sensorimotor response (ESR) is an orienting reflex presenting as a brief burst of muscle recruitment. Previous studies have identified commonalities between ESRs and express saccades, another orienting reflex.

In this study, we investigate if ESRs share in a characteristic of express saccades: preference for faces. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to reach toward one of two simultaneously appearing targets: a face and another image. Muscle activity in the pectoralis major muscle of the reaching arm was recorded using skin surface EMGs.

We …


Belonging Amidst Bias: Embracing Difference On The Path To Common Humanity, Alyssia Sheikh 2022 Lesley University

Belonging Amidst Bias: Embracing Difference On The Path To Common Humanity, Alyssia Sheikh

Mindfulness Studies Theses

The mindfulness community prioritizes self-awareness and common humanity, but is often entrapped by the idea that oneness is equivalent to sameness. This inclination for objectivity is rooted in the same neural propensities that facilitate bias; the brain is a subjective organ, however, and so neurologically speaking, bias is inevitable. This paper asks: Is striving for sameness separating us from interconnectedness? A human experience is a subjective, diverse, and variable one. The path to shared humanity and social justice co-occurs with increasing cultural humility through mindful awareness and acknowledging our subjective nature. Exploring our neurological tendency to make assumptions, we …


Dietary Fatty Acids And The Brain: Mechanisms Behind Neurodegeneration And Neuroprotection, Bianca Kdeiss 2022 Loma Linda University

Dietary Fatty Acids And The Brain: Mechanisms Behind Neurodegeneration And Neuroprotection, Bianca Kdeiss

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

The impact of dietary fat intake on cognitive function has generated growing interest as the incidence of neurodegenerative disorders continues to increase. No known cures for neurodegenerative disorders exist at this time and available pharmacological treatments are limited in their efficacy. As such, prevention and early detection have been emphasized, particularly in the context of modifiable lifestyle factors, such as diet. Despite a recognized association between dietary fat intake and cognition, limited research exists delineating the impact of different types of fat on cognitive function. In this review, research examining the association between cognition and specific dietary fatty acids—such as …


Clustered Protocadherins Ubiquitination And Phosphorylation Regulates Surface Expression, Albert Ptashnik 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Clustered Protocadherins Ubiquitination And Phosphorylation Regulates Surface Expression, Albert Ptashnik

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) are a family of 60 adhesion-like molecules forming a neural barcode. In vertebrate neurons, 60 Pcdhs are coded by a large gene cluster. Numerous axons in the cluster are coding for the different extracellular, transmembrane, variable portion of the cytoplasmic and constant cytoplasmic domains where their expression is controlled epigenetically. These proteins mediate interactions between axons, dendrites, and glial cells during neural development. Yet, Pcdhs are not strictly adhesion molecules. In the amacrine cells of the retina, Pcdhs promote avoidance of the same cell dendrites, where in the cortex Pcdhs promote interactions between dendrites and astrocytes. In …


Unexpected Arousal Suppresses Memory And Metamemory Predictions During Associative Face-Name Recognition Task, Sameer Sabharwal-Siddiqi 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Unexpected Arousal Suppresses Memory And Metamemory Predictions During Associative Face-Name Recognition Task, Sameer Sabharwal-Siddiqi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Successful recognition often depends on probabilistic estimation of memory-signal. Arousal has been shown to offset the influence of heuristic evidence on memory prediction. We conducted three experiments that tested whether arousal also suppresses predictions relevant to memory confidence. Experiments employed associative face-name memory tasks that included retrospective (Experiments 1 and 2) or concurrent (Experiment 3) judgements of confidence. During test, subjects were presented with a masked-affective face on a subset of trials. By timing the masked-affective face to precede a recognition judgement (Experiment 1), we replicated the finding that unexpected arousal offsets the influence of heuristic evidence on expectations of …


Competitive And Facilitative Interactions Between Pavlovian Cues In Human Associative Learning: A Behavioral And Neural Analysis, Fahd Alhazmi 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Competitive And Facilitative Interactions Between Pavlovian Cues In Human Associative Learning: A Behavioral And Neural Analysis, Fahd Alhazmi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Learning to anticipate significant events accurately is a crucial element of survival for all species. The process by which animals acquire this knowledge has been a central question of psychological research. A fundamental assumption of many learning theories is that the predictive value assigned to cues is not simply determined by their probability of reinforcement but rather by their ability to compete with other cues present during learning. The assumption of cue competition has significantly contributed to the development of behavioral and neuroscience research for decades, as it has opened the door to new empirical and theoretical advances on the …


Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Alzheimer’S Disease: Prostaglandin D2 Signaling And Its Human Polymorphisms As Well As A Polypharmacological Approach, Charles H. Wallace 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Alzheimer’S Disease: Prostaglandin D2 Signaling And Its Human Polymorphisms As Well As A Polypharmacological Approach, Charles H. Wallace

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age related neurodegenerative disease with pathology that includes amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and non-resolving neuroinflammation. Non-resolving neuroinflammation lasts the entire course of the disease and has deleterious effects and is often thought to accelerate AD pathology. Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) have commonly been used as therapeutics to treat pain, inflammation and vascular. NSAIDs work by altering the cyclooxygenase (COX) mediated biosynthesis of prostaglandins which are lipid mediators that have many physiological functions, for example nociception, inflammation and vasodilation. Epidemiological studies support the notion that NSAIDs could be used to treat AD. Yet, clinical trials using …


Human Neuroimaging Reveals That Agency In A Video Game Boosts Functional Connectivity Within And Between Networks, Emily J. Davidson 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Human Neuroimaging Reveals That Agency In A Video Game Boosts Functional Connectivity Within And Between Networks, Emily J. Davidson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In naturalistic settings, brains continuously interface with a dynamic and interactive external environment. The inclusion of such an environment in an fMRI study is difficult, given the practical constraints imposed by the machine itself. This study sought to test whether the ecological validity of fMRI could be enhanced by testing a new paradigm that incorporated a dynamic and interactive virtual environment (DIVE). To determine the viability of this paradigm, functional connectivity was assessed during a DIVE condition and compared to functional connectivity patterns acquired in conditions with equally dynamic stimuli but that lacked interactivity with the environment. This study found …


Examining The Relationships Between Socio-Cognitive Factors And Neural Synchrony During Movie Watching Across Development, Kathleen M. Lyons 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Examining The Relationships Between Socio-Cognitive Factors And Neural Synchrony During Movie Watching Across Development, Kathleen M. Lyons

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

While different cognitive abilities mature, the conscious experiences of children likely become richer and more elaborate. A challenge in investigating relationships between cognitive development and real-world experiences is having measures that assess naturalistic processing. Movie watching offers a solution, since following the plot of a film requires cognitive processes that are similar to real-world experiences. When different adults watch the same film, their brain activity begins to align (known as neural synchrony). The strength of this alignment has been shown to reflect the degree to which different individuals are having a similar experience of the movie. While this phenomenon has …


The Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation On Beat Perception And Motor Performance, Marina Emerick 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation On Beat Perception And Motor Performance, Marina Emerick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Humans have an intrinsic tendency to move to music. However, our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the music-movement connection remains limited, and most studies have used correlational methods. Here, we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to causally investigate the role of four motor brain regions involved in movement timing and beat perception: the supplementary motor area (SMA), left and right premotor cortices (PMC), and cerebellum. Subjects were randomly assigned to a brain region to be stimulated and received anodal, cathodal, or sham stimulation on three different days while they reproduced rhythmic sequences. The sequences had either a strong …


Resistance Training Improves White Matter Structural Connectivity In Older Adults At-Risk For Cognitive Decline, Ryu Lien 2022 Western University

Resistance Training Improves White Matter Structural Connectivity In Older Adults At-Risk For Cognitive Decline, Ryu Lien

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Diabetes is a global health concern that impacts 415 million people worldwide. Individuals who are at-risk for diabetes (characterized by high blood glucose and/or being overweight) have white matter atrophy, decreased cognitive function, and an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recently, resistance training (RT) has been shown to lower white matter atrophy and white matter lesion volume. However, investigating changes in white matter tracts is complex, hence previous findings remain inconclusive. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) serves as a highly sensitive tool that enables visualization and characterization of white matter tracts and has the potential to combat this complexity. The …


Human Claustrum Activation During Pain, Zoravar S. Sidhu, David A. Seminowicz, Brent W. Stewart 2022 Western University

Human Claustrum Activation During Pain, Zoravar S. Sidhu, David A. Seminowicz, Brent W. Stewart

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Chronic pain is one of the principal causes of disability in the world. Many if not all of us deal with or know of someone who deals with chronic pain. Interestingly, it appears that a mysterious part of the brain known as the claustrum has a hand in chronic pain. Although little is known about the actual function of the claustrum, it is hypothesized to synchronize cortical networks during tasks which have a cognitive load.

Recent literature has indicated that during chronic pain conditions, neural network recruitment is modified. In addition, an analysis of an existing fMRI data set determined …


Assessing The Impact Of Lipopolysaccharide On Learning And Memory In Rats, Anahat Luthra 2022 Western University

Assessing The Impact Of Lipopolysaccharide On Learning And Memory In Rats, Anahat Luthra

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) have a bi-direction relationship, modulating one another.4 Proinflammatory cytokines released from CNS immune cells have an impact on cognitive processes such as learning and memory.1 Liposaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, which is used to activate proinflammatory cytokine release has been found to impact learning and memory processes, such as in the anticipatory nausea paradigm (ANP).2 Anticipatory nausea and vomiting is that which may occur before a chemotherapy treatment session begins in a patient who has had chemotherapy before. It is caused by triggers like …


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