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Towards A New Role Of Mitochondrial Hydrogen Peroxide In Synaptic Function, Cliyahnelle Z. Alexander 2024 CUNY Bernard M Baruch College

Towards A New Role Of Mitochondrial Hydrogen Peroxide In Synaptic Function, Cliyahnelle Z. Alexander

Student Theses and Dissertations

Aerobic metabolism is known to generate damaging ROS, particularly hydrogen peroxide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules containing oxygen that have the potential to cause damage to cells and tissues in the body. ROS are highly reactive atoms or molecules that rapidly interact with other molecules within a cell. Intracellular accumulation can result in oxidative damage, dysfunction, and cell death. Due to the limitations of H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) detectors, other impacts of ROS exposure may have been missed. HyPer7, a genetically encoded sensor, measures hydrogen peroxide emissions precisely and sensitively, even at sublethal levels, during …


Screen For Beneficial Genetic And Chemical Modifiers In Drosophila Models Of Als And Traumatic Brain Injury, Will Bonderer 2024 Southern Methodist University

Screen For Beneficial Genetic And Chemical Modifiers In Drosophila Models Of Als And Traumatic Brain Injury, Will Bonderer

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

The underlying molecular processes of aberrant protein expression in neurodegeneration are intricate and multifaceted, with ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) emerging as a promising avenue of exploration. Ribosome-associated quality control is integral to cellular function. Its evolutionarily conserved pathway encompasses a network of mechanisms designed to ensure the fidelity of protein synthesis, folding, and degradation within the cells of all eukaryotes. The ribosome, central to protein synthesis, plays a pivotal role in this quality control network, and its malfunction can lead to the accumulation of misfolded or aberrant proteins. In the context of neurodegenerative disorders, this dysfunction can have dire consequences. …


Estrogen Replacement Therapy To Reduce Neurodegeneration And Socio-Cognitive Deficits In A Female Sprague Dawley Rat Model Of Early-Onset Alzheimer’S Disease, Miriam Kirylo 2024 Trinity College

Estrogen Replacement Therapy To Reduce Neurodegeneration And Socio-Cognitive Deficits In A Female Sprague Dawley Rat Model Of Early-Onset Alzheimer’S Disease, Miriam Kirylo

Senior Theses and Projects

No abstract provided.


Comparative Analyses Of Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Serotypes 1, 2 And 9 In The Sod Mouse Model Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Talia Hartman, Jeremy Francis, Paola Leone 2024 Rowan University

Comparative Analyses Of Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Serotypes 1, 2 And 9 In The Sod Mouse Model Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Talia Hartman, Jeremy Francis, Paola Leone

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

6–7-week-old G93A SOD mice were given 1x1010 vector genomes of three different self-complimentary (sc) AAV capsid serotypes (AAV1, 2, and 9) all containing an identical CBh-driven GFP reporter expression cassette. Each serotype was delivered via either the intrathecal (IT) or intra cisterna magna (ICM) route of administration (ROA). Transduction by each serotype, via each of the two ROA was compared for the cortex and each of the lumbar, thoracic, and cervical regions of the spinal cord, with percent neuronal tropism calculated in each region. AAV2 was effective at transducing spinal cord neurons but disappointingly ineffective at transducing cortical neurons by …


Optimization Of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody For Immunohistochemistry Fluorescence Detection In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Madison Thurber 2024 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Optimization Of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody For Immunohistochemistry Fluorescence Detection In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Madison Thurber

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter produced through the catecholamine synthesis pathway that affects brain activity. Unregulated dopamine levels can lead to various diseases such as Parkinson’s Disease or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Optimization of an immunohistochemistry protocol will allow for the quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase antibody, which indirectly allows for dopamine quantification in dopaminergic regions within the brain. However, the antibody concentration to give the optimal signal-to-noise ratio in IHC varies across studies. Through this experiment, I determined the concentration of tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrH) antibody for immunohistochemistry that gave the best signal-to-background noise ratio within several known dopaminergic regions …


Isolation Of Aged Mouse Primary Microglia As A Model System For Alzheimer’S Disease Research, Michael Landis 2024 Ursinus College

Isolation Of Aged Mouse Primary Microglia As A Model System For Alzheimer’S Disease Research, Michael Landis

Biology Honors Papers

Microglia and their role as the immune cells of the central nervous system are an emerging area of interest within Alzheimer’s research, particularly as they have shown in a benevolent and malevolent cellular context. Models of Alzheimer’s disease are very light in studying microglia, so in this study a model of microglia isolated from aged mice is established in order to study the phagocytic activity and protein expression of microglia in response to Amyloid Beta. The cells were isolated from aged mice and cultured before being used to confirm cellular identity, as well as to measure phagocytic activity. This study …


Biophysical Model Of Retraction Motor Neurons And Their Modification By Operant Conditioning, Maria Rasheed 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

Biophysical Model Of Retraction Motor Neurons And Their Modification By Operant Conditioning, Maria Rasheed

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Operant conditioning (OC) is a form of associative learning in which an animal modifies its behavior based on the consequences that follow that behavior. Despite its ubiquity, the underlying mechanisms of OC are poorly understood. Insights into the mechanisms of OC can be obtained by studying Aplysia feeding behavior as it can be modified by OC. This behavior is mediated by a central pattern generator (CPG) network in the buccal ganglia that contains a relatively small number of neurons. This CPG generates rhythmic motor patterns (BMPs) that move food into the gut by closing a tongue-like structure (i.e., radula) during …


Molecular Mechanisms Of Opioid Use Disorder In Human Brain Models, Emily Mendez 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

Molecular Mechanisms Of Opioid Use Disorder In Human Brain Models, Emily Mendez

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a national and global public health crisis with no end in sight. While studies from animal models hint at widespread epigenetic and transcriptomic alterations of opioid drugs, the molecular consequences of long-term exposure to opioid drugs in human brain is still unclear, and human-centered translational models are necessary to discern the human cell type-specific effects of OUD.

Using postmortem brain Brodmann area 9 (BA9) from the UTHealth Brain Collection for Research on Psychiatric Disorders, I identified angiogenic gene networks perturbed in the RNA and protein of OUD subjects, as well as downregulation of many neuron-correlated …


Ethanol-Induced Alterations To Astrocytic Glutamate Transporter Mrna Expression In The Mpfc Of Adult Mice, Zachary Evans 2024 Binghamton University--SUNY

Ethanol-Induced Alterations To Astrocytic Glutamate Transporter Mrna Expression In The Mpfc Of Adult Mice, Zachary Evans

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is one of several brain structures that is contained in the mesolimbocortical pathway and controls many processes involved in alcohol use disorder (AUD). There is vast glutamatergic output from the mPFC to other mesolimbocortical regions; neuroplastic changes to this system are believed to be closely tied to the development and maintenance of AUD. Astrocytes are key regulators of glutamatergic transmission through their uptake of excess glutamate from the synapse and recycling back into neurons. Ethanol (EtOH) alters the expression of astrocytic genes that encode for transporters that control glutamate homeostasis; these include the glutamate transporter-1 …


Gucy2c Signaling Limits Dopaminergic Neuron Vulnerability To Toxic Insults, Lara Cheslow, Matthew Byrne, Jessica Kopenhaver, Lorraine Iacovitti, Richard Smeyne, Adam Snook, Scott Waldman 2024 Thomas Jefferson University

Gucy2c Signaling Limits Dopaminergic Neuron Vulnerability To Toxic Insults, Lara Cheslow, Matthew Byrne, Jessica Kopenhaver, Lorraine Iacovitti, Richard Smeyne, Adam Snook, Scott Waldman

Farber Institute for Neuroscience Faculty Papers

Mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) are central drivers of dopaminergic (DA) neuron death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Guanylyl cyclases and their second messenger cyclic (c)GMP support mitochondrial function, protecting against ROS and promoting cell survival in several tissues. However, the role of the guanylyl cyclase-cGMP axis in defining the vulnerability of DA neurons in the SNpc in PD remains unclear, in part due to the challenge of manipulating cGMP levels selectively in midbrain DA neurons. In that context, guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), a receptor primarily expressed by intestinal epithelial cells, …


In Silico Identification Of Small Molecule Agonist Binding Sites On Kcc2, Kenyon Mitchell, Alfred Amendolara, Ruth Hunter, Jaden Miner, Andrew Payne 2024 Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine

In Silico Identification Of Small Molecule Agonist Binding Sites On Kcc2, Kenyon Mitchell, Alfred Amendolara, Ruth Hunter, Jaden Miner, Andrew Payne

Annual Research Symposium

Purpose: Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter 2 (KCC2) is a neuronal membrane protein specific to the central nervous system. It is responsible for removing Cl- ions from the intracellular space, maintaining a normal Cl- gradient essential for proper function at inhibitory synapses. Dysregulation causes an upward shift in the Cl- reversal potential resulting in a hyperexcitable state of the postsynaptic neuron. Existing literature indicates that KCC2 may be involved in the addiction pathway of a variety of drugs of abuse, including opioids and alcohol. This makes KCC2 an attractive potential drug target when treating substance use disorders. A novel direct KCC2 agonist, VU0500469, …


Dissecting The Tissue-Specific Contributions To Seizures, Cardiorespiratory Dysfunction, And Sudden Death In The Kv1.1 Mouse Model Of Epilepsy Using Conditional Knockout Approaches, Kelsey Paulhus 2024 Southern Methodist University

Dissecting The Tissue-Specific Contributions To Seizures, Cardiorespiratory Dysfunction, And Sudden Death In The Kv1.1 Mouse Model Of Epilepsy Using Conditional Knockout Approaches, Kelsey Paulhus

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), the primary cause of mortality in epilepsy, remains poorly understood. Studies suggest seizures may trigger dangerous signals affecting the heart and lungs leading to collapse and death. The Kv1.1 deficiency mouse model mirrors clinical SUDEP cases, showing spontaneous seizures, cardiorespiratory issues, and premature death. However, this model lacks regional specificity in Kv1.1 deletion, hindering insights into SUDEP’s mechanisms and anatomical substrates.

This dissertation employs three distinct conditional knockout (cKO) techniques to investigate the individual roles for the forebrain, brainstem, and heart in SUDEP related phenotypes. The findings reveal that the forebrain alone can trigger …


The Binding And Mechanism Of A Positive Allosteric Modulator Of Kv3 Channels, Qiansheng Liang, Gamma Chi, Leonardo Cirqueira, Lianteng Zhi, Agostino Marasco, Nadia Pilati, Martin Gunthorpe, Giuseppe Alvaro, Charles Large, David Sauer, Werner Treptow, Manuel Covarrubias 2024 Thomas Jefferson University

The Binding And Mechanism Of A Positive Allosteric Modulator Of Kv3 Channels, Qiansheng Liang, Gamma Chi, Leonardo Cirqueira, Lianteng Zhi, Agostino Marasco, Nadia Pilati, Martin Gunthorpe, Giuseppe Alvaro, Charles Large, David Sauer, Werner Treptow, Manuel Covarrubias

Farber Institute for Neuroscience Faculty Papers

Small-molecule modulators of diverse voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels may help treat a wide range of neurological disorders. However, developing effective modulators requires understanding of their mechanism of action. We apply an orthogonal approach to elucidate the mechanism of action of an imidazolidinedione derivative (AUT5), a highly selective positive allosteric modulator of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channels. AUT5 modulation involves positive cooperativity and preferential stabilization of the open state. The cryo-EM structure of the Kv3.1/AUT5 complex at a resolution of 2.5 Å reveals four equivalent AUT5 binding sites at the extracellular inter-subunit interface between the voltage-sensing and pore domains of the …


Exploring The Developmental Effects Of Antidepressants In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Alexandra Van Stone 2024 Roseman University of Health Sciences

Exploring The Developmental Effects Of Antidepressants In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Alexandra Van Stone

Annual Research Symposium

It is so important to explore the potential side effects of antidepressants especially if these side effects could lead to a future detriment to an individual’s financial and social well-being. A better understanding of these side effects in regards to human developmental issues is imperative considering issues related to mental health and depression affect a large percentage of the population. In this study, we tested if Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans could be a potential model organism to predict possible side effects associated with select antidepressants. Their developmental problems potentially encountered upon drug treatment may be encountered in humans.


Outclimbing Cognitive Decline: Age, Western Diet, Resistance Exercise, And The Brain., Leila Dzinic 2024 Western University

Outclimbing Cognitive Decline: Age, Western Diet, Resistance Exercise, And The Brain., Leila Dzinic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Increased age and obesity diminish motivation, perseverance, and spatial memory function. Aerobic exercise interventions have successfully rescued some of these processes. However, in older and heavier populations aerobic exercise is not as sustainable due to high risk of injury. Resistance exercise consists of physical activity where maximum oxygen consumption is not increased and has been proposed as a safe and effective intervention for this population. Here, we used touchscreen-based cognitive testing to elucidate the influence of resistance exercise on motivation and spatial memory in aged, diet-induced obese mice, using a water restriction procedure I develop in Chapter 2. Mice underwent …


Methamphetamine-Induced Dna Double-Stranded Breaks: The Impact Of The Dopamine Transporter And Insights Into The Mechanisms Of Dna Damage In Mouse Neuro 2a Cells, Lizette Couto 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Methamphetamine-Induced Dna Double-Stranded Breaks: The Impact Of The Dopamine Transporter And Insights Into The Mechanisms Of Dna Damage In Mouse Neuro 2a Cells, Lizette Couto

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Methamphetamine (METH) abuse remains a global health concern, with emerging evidence highlighting its genotoxic potential. In the central nervous system METH enters dopaminergic cells primarily through the dopamine transporter (DAT), which controls the dynamics of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission by driving the reuptake of extracellular DA into the presynaptic neuronal cell. Additional effects of METH on the storage of DA in synaptic vesicles lead to the dysregulated cytosolic accumulation of DA. Previous studies have shown that after METH disrupts intracellular vesicular stores of DA, the excess DA in the cytosol is rapidly oxidized. This generates an abundance of reactive oxygen species …


The Role Of Glutamate In The Medial Prefrontal Cortex In The Acquistion And Expression Of Conditioned Approach, Rudolf Nisanov 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Glutamate In The Medial Prefrontal Cortex In The Acquistion And Expression Of Conditioned Approach, Rudolf Nisanov

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A series of experiments were conducted to assess the role of glutamatergic stimulation in the dorsal and ventral regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in both the acquisition and expression of reward-related learning using a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, the conditioned-approach paradigm. Rats with surgically implanted cannulas were exposed to Pavlovian conditioning sessions that occurred on three alternative days (acquisition) or seven consecutive days (expression). These 60-min conditioning sessions consisted of 30 pairings of light (CS) and food pellets (US) presented under a random time schedule. After a two-day break, rats underwent a session with no CS or US and …


Exploring A Gene Panel For Parkinson’S Disease In An Egyptian Cohort, Asmaa Saeed Gabr 2024 American University in Cairo

Exploring A Gene Panel For Parkinson’S Disease In An Egyptian Cohort, Asmaa Saeed Gabr

Theses and Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease is a highly heterogeneous disorder characterized by diverse neuropathological features, clinical presentations and progression patterns. In Egypt, Parkinson’s disease incidence rates lie outside the range reported elsewhere. The genetic background to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease has been postulated for a long time. However, Parkinson’s disease has never been systematically investigated in Egypt. This study aimed to explore genetic variants and interactions that are associated with the familial and sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease in an Egyptian cohort. This includes examining variants in PD-related genes, exploring the role of specific genes like MAPT and adjacent genomic regions, and …


Calcium And Proteasomal Regulation Of Er-To-Golgi Protein Transport In Neurons, Samuel A. Galindo 2024 The University Of Montana

Calcium And Proteasomal Regulation Of Er-To-Golgi Protein Transport In Neurons, Samuel A. Galindo

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

Regulatory mechanisms of protein trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are critical to understand since neurodegenerative diseases involve defects in this process leading to chronic ER stress and cell death. This study aimed to better understand the calcium regulatory mechanisms of ER-to-Golgi trafficking in hybrid neuroglioblastoma cells (NG108). Specifically, we asked whether proteasomal degradation of transport machinery was involved in the previously demonstrated upregulation of ER-to-Golgi transport evoked by calcium signaling. Based upon previous literature, we believe that the calcium induced increase in transport is due to the activation of the calcium sensitive regulatory protein apoptosis linked gene 2 (ALG-2) …


Traumatic Brain Injury Induces Cerebrovascular Dysfunction: Consequences For Ischemia And Cerebral Hypoperfusion, Bailey J. Whitehead 2024 West Virginia University

Traumatic Brain Injury Induces Cerebrovascular Dysfunction: Consequences For Ischemia And Cerebral Hypoperfusion, Bailey J. Whitehead

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant health concern across the United States as well as the broader globe, affecting millions of individuals on an annual basis. While most recover from their TBI and resume their lives normally, some subsets of TBI survivors continue to experience impairments and increased risk for future diseases like cardiovascular disease, stroke, and aging related disease like Alzheimer’s Disease or VCID.

TBI remains a fundamentally difficult neurological injury to pin down mechanistically, due to the variability in severity, timing, and age of patient, among other factors. One significant factor in the pathology has consistently been …


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