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Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Commons

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Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor 2023 West Virginia University

Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical interface between the systemic circulation and the brain. It is a specialized multicellular unit composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes, a basement membrane, and astrocytic end foot processes. BMECs are a principal component of the BBB that provide the structural framework needed for the stringent transport of molecules into the brain. BMEC dysfunction permits the trafficking of neurotoxins from systemic circulation into the brain, which ultimately exacerbates BBB dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Studies have shown that BBB dysfunction is a key determinant of cognitive decline in sepsis. However, there are critical knowledge ...


Role Of Nuclear Lamins In Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells, Camila Yattah 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Role Of Nuclear Lamins In Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells, Camila Yattah

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Differentiation of oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells is a highly regulated process characterized by a series of molecular changes, resulting in nuclear and morphological features unique to the mature oligodendrocyte state. Heterochromatin formation starting at the nuclear periphery, as well as increased nuclear rigidity are characteristically observed. The nuclear periphery is characterized by the presence of the nuclear lamina and it has been implicated in higher-order genome organization in cells. Lamins are the protein components of the nuclear lamina, and their expression is dependent upon the cell differentiation stage of the cells. While Lamin B1 (LMNB1) expression is high in progenitors ...


The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen KW Wong 2022 Western University

The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of The Distributed Representation Of Operant Memory In Aplysia, Renan Murillo Costa 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Analysis Of The Distributed Representation Of Operant Memory In Aplysia, Renan Murillo Costa

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Operant conditioning, a ubiquitous form of learning in which animals learn from the consequences of behavior, engages a high-dimensional neuronal population space spanning multiple brain regions. A complete characterization of an operant memory remains elusive. Some sites of plasticity participating in the engram underlying an example of operant memory in Aplysia have been previously uncovered. Three studies are described here that sought to draw closer to a thorough characterization of this memory. The first study used a computational model to examine the ways in which sites of plasticity (individually and in combination) contribute to memory expression. Each site of plasticity ...


Chloride Channels That Mediate A Transient Nitric Oxide-Dependent Synaptic Polarity Switch In Retinal Amacrine Cells., Tyler Christopher Rodriguez 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Chloride Channels That Mediate A Transient Nitric Oxide-Dependent Synaptic Polarity Switch In Retinal Amacrine Cells., Tyler Christopher Rodriguez

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Cytosolic chloride (Cl-) concentration determines whether GABAergic and glycinergic synapses are inhibitory or excitatory. Ionotropic GABA and glycine receptors passively conduct Cl­- leading to membrane depolarization or hyperpolarization depending on the Cl- equilibrium potential. Accordingly, the distribution of Cl- across the plasma membrane has the potential to determine the properties of networks of retinal amacrine cells (ACs) and their postsynaptic partners. Ion channels are responsible for establishing Cl- reversal potential. Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule that can be generated in the inner retina where ACs form synapses. We have shown that NO initiates a release of Cl- from ...


Mirnas Levels In A Streptozocin Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Nada Moustafa 2022 American University in Cairo

Mirnas Levels In A Streptozocin Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Nada Moustafa

Theses and Dissertations

Dementia entails a progressive decrease in cognitive functions, with 50%-75% of cases attributed to Alzheimer’s disease (AD); an aging-associated condition characterized by the build-up of tangled phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) protein and beta-amyloid (Aβ) depositions. Sporadic AD (sAD) is multifactorial in nature, resulting from a combination of environmental and genetic predisposing factors. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a leading risk factor for dementia, and deregulation of brain glucose metabolism is associated with early cognitive affection in sAD. Thus, the diabetogenic agent Streptozotocin (STZ) is used to experimentally create an AD model in animals (STZ-induced sAD), in which abnormalities ...


Genetic Circadian Mosaics And The Clock Network’S Contributions To Sleep, Lukasz Widziszewski 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Genetic Circadian Mosaics And The Clock Network’S Contributions To Sleep, Lukasz Widziszewski

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Circadian rhythms are physiological and behavioral changes which follow a 24-hour cycle. Drosophila Melanogaster’s circadian clock neuronal network (CCNN) has been identified and several subpopulations have been characterized based on previous studies; the classifications of subpopulations of neurons within the CCNN are based on a return of anticipatory locomotor activity preceding the two daily light transitions (Lights on = dawn/Lights off = dusk). The neurons responsible for the return of anticipatory morning locomotor activity have been referred to as the M-cells, the group of neurons known to rescue evening anticipatory locomotor activity have been termed the E-cells. In this study ...


Withdrawal From Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Female Specific Susceptibilities To Behavioral Deficits And Neurochemical Perpetuators Of Neurotoxicity And Drug Seeking Behavior, Nicoletta K. Memos 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Withdrawal From Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Female Specific Susceptibilities To Behavioral Deficits And Neurochemical Perpetuators Of Neurotoxicity And Drug Seeking Behavior, Nicoletta K. Memos

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

MA is a potent, highly addictive psychomotor stimulant known to produce neurotoxic effects on the brain leading to neurological impairments1-6 characterized by neurodegeneration of dopaminergic fibers, cell bodies and pathways, as well as brain regions such as the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and midbrain1,5.

In MA addiction, women are more vulnerable to the behavioral and cognitive effects of MA compared to men. Adult human literature reveals gender differences in usage patterns and women demonstrate increased vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects and health effects of MA use. Women begin drug use at an earlier age, escalate drug use quicker ...


Estimating Glutamate Transporter Surface Density In Mouse Hippocampal Astrocytes, Anca R. Radulescu, Annalisa Scimemi 2022 State University of New York at New Paltz

Estimating Glutamate Transporter Surface Density In Mouse Hippocampal Astrocytes, Anca R. Radulescu, Annalisa Scimemi

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Investigating The Neuroprotective Effects Of Cannabinoids And Insulin-Like Growth Factors On Glia With Induced Inflammation, Caleb Bloodworth 2022 University of Mississippi

Investigating The Neuroprotective Effects Of Cannabinoids And Insulin-Like Growth Factors On Glia With Induced Inflammation, Caleb Bloodworth

Honors Theses

Chronic inflammation is a driver of numerous neurodegenerative diseases that reduce quality of life for affected individuals. Non-psychoactive cannabinoids have begun to gain more interest in the world of anti-inflammatory medicine for chronically ill patients. Along with these cannabinoids, insulin-like growth factor-1 has been examined for its association with downregulation of inflammation. Our research aimed to investigate how neuroglia are affected by treatment with cannabinoids or IGF-1 in the face of inflammation from HIV-1 protein, Tat, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Preliminary studies in our laboratory showed that neither cannabinoids or IGF-1 treatment altered astrocyte morphology or overall astrocyte viability under baseline ...


Efficacy Of Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol For Hiv-Related Neuropathic Pain, Kaia Horne 2022 University of Mississippi

Efficacy Of Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol For Hiv-Related Neuropathic Pain, Kaia Horne

Honors Theses

Despite the availability and success of antiretroviral therapeutics, ~30% of patients living with HIV experience neuropathic pain that is often intractable. The mechanisms are not known, but there is evidence to support a role for the HIV virotoxins, Tat and/or gp120, which can damage or degenerate neurons and peripheral nerves. One mechanism by which Tat and gp120 promote nerve damage involves the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production from immune cells which can damage or kill bystander cells. Notably, compounds found in Cannabis exert anti-inflammatory effects and many studies report HIV patients to consume more marijuana than seronegative individuals. When ...


The Effects Of Deletion Of The Cytoplasmic Domain Of Robo3 On Drosophila, Jessie Agcaoili 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Deletion Of The Cytoplasmic Domain Of Robo3 On Drosophila, Jessie Agcaoili

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

My research project examines how the deletion of the cytoplasmic domain affects the function of Robo3. If Robo3 is signaling repulsion in response to SLIT this activity should require the cytoplasmic domain. I investigated the functional importance of Robo3 by deleting the cytoplasmic domain of Robo3 using a CRISPR-based technique. This modified gene was then injected into Drosophila embryos where it replaced the normal copy of the gene. Embryos expressing the modified version of robo3 in place of normal robo3 were dissected and examined.


Characterizing Rat Lateral Amygdala Interneurons By Colocalization Of Calcium-Binding Proteins Via Serial Multiplex Immunohistochemistry, Ethan Gasteyer 2022 University of Connecticut

Characterizing Rat Lateral Amygdala Interneurons By Colocalization Of Calcium-Binding Proteins Via Serial Multiplex Immunohistochemistry, Ethan Gasteyer

Honors Scholar Theses

The lateral amygdala is a brain structure that plays an important role in regulating fear and anxiety. Some anxiety disorders are hypothesized to develop from failures in this local inhibitory circuit. Distinct populations of these inhibitory neurons express patterns of calcium- binding proteins and neuropeptides that suggest differences in functionality within the lateral amygdala. Furthermore, these patterns of expression are compared between male and female rats to identify sex differences in the lateral amygdala. Previous studies have reported sex differences in amygdala activation and connectivity, but very little is known about the sexual dimorphism of calcium-binding protein and neuropeptide expression ...


Hypocretin-Receptor Mrna Expression In The Central Amygdala Of Alcohol-Dependent And Non-Dependent Rats, Gabriel Aldridge 2022 East Tennessee State University

Hypocretin-Receptor Mrna Expression In The Central Amygdala Of Alcohol-Dependent And Non-Dependent Rats, Gabriel Aldridge

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hypocretin/Orexin (HCRT) neurotransmission facilitates drug-seeking behavior. HCRT neurotransmission at HCRT-receptors 1 and 2 (HCRT-R1 and -R2, respectively) is implicated in addiction. During the shift to alcohol-dependency, adaptations in neurotransmitter systems occur in reward- and stress-related brain regions. Specifically, neurotransmission systems in the central amygdala (CeA) are modulated by alcohol drinking/exposure. Therefore, this study investigated Hcrtr1 and Hcrtr2 mRNA expression in the CeA of alcohol-dependent rats and in non-dependent controls during acute alcohol withdrawal. Fos mRNA expression in the CeA of alcohol-dependent and non-dependent rats was also determined to assess adaptations in neuronal activation. To our knowledge, this is ...


Alzheimer's Disease: A Comprehensive Review Including Personal Experience From Retirement Home Patients, Sydney Fox 2022 Coastal Carolina University

Alzheimer's Disease: A Comprehensive Review Including Personal Experience From Retirement Home Patients, Sydney Fox

Honors Theses

Alzheimer’s Disease is a neurodegenerative illness and disease, the most common type of dementia, and the sixth leading cause of death (Sá et al., 2012). The disease was discovered in 1906 and named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a psychiatrist and neuropathologist. Over time, a variety of hypotheses have developed regarding the cause behind this multifactorial disease, and these will be disclosed in a later section. Nonetheless, the disease was first observed in changes of the brain tissue of a woman who was said to have die from an unusual mental illness with many abnormal bumps. These bumps are now ...


The Relationship Between Circadian Rhythms And Neurodegenerative Disease, Christopher Simpson 2022 Bowling Green State University

The Relationship Between Circadian Rhythms And Neurodegenerative Disease, Christopher Simpson

Honors Projects

Neurodegenerative disease is a pervasive and insidious disease affecting a large proportion of the elderly population. Leading to the degeneration of neural tissue throughout the nervous system, it is a slow and progressive disorder. Because of its nature, it is possible that it has a connection to circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms are the endogenous approximately 24-hour rhythms of the body commonly associated with the sleep-wake cycle, but they account for much more. This review aims to ascertain the relationship between the two by covering several facets of research pursued in the past five years. Beginning with establishing a basic understanding ...


Carboplatin And Thalidomide Induced Neuro-Hepatotoxicity In Rats: Diminish Effect Of Citrullus Colocynthis, Mokhtar Ibrahim Yousef Ph.D., Sarah Samir Othman Ph.D., Moustafa Ahmed F.H. Mahdy Ph.d., Dina K.A.M. Khalil Ph.d., Maher Abd El-naby Kamel Ph.D. 2022 Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Egypt., Delta University for Science and Technology, Gamasa City, Coastal International Road, Mansoura, Egypt.

Carboplatin And Thalidomide Induced Neuro-Hepatotoxicity In Rats: Diminish Effect Of Citrullus Colocynthis, Mokhtar Ibrahim Yousef Ph.D., Sarah Samir Othman Ph.D., Moustafa Ahmed F.H. Mahdy Ph.D., Dina K.A.M. Khalil Ph.D., Maher Abd El-Naby Kamel Ph.D.

Delta University Scientific Journal

Carboplatin and thalidomide are good candidate’s treatments against many types of cancer. Latest studies demonstrated that these chemotherapeutic druges caused oxidative damage. So, the present study was conducted to estimate the neurotoxic and hepatotoxic effects induced by carboplatin/ thalidomide regimen and to explore the potential protective effect of Citrillus colocynthis extract (CCE). The obtained results showed that carboplatin/thalidomide induced histological changes, caused significant elevation in serum liver enzymes, decline in brain and plasma neurotransmitters, and increase in acetylcholine esterase. At the molecular level, thalidomide/carboplatin caused marked elevation in inflammatory and apoptotic markers and suppressed the expression of ...


Trkb Activity Alters Voluntary Alcohol Consumption In Nondependent Mice, Alfred Amendolara 2022 Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine

Trkb Activity Alters Voluntary Alcohol Consumption In Nondependent Mice, Alfred Amendolara

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Novel Methodology For The Investigation Of Dmrt3a Interneurons In Larval Zebrafish, Alfred Amendolara 2022 Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine

Novel Methodology For The Investigation Of Dmrt3a Interneurons In Larval Zebrafish, Alfred Amendolara

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Novel Strategies For Glutamate Clearance In The Glia-Deprived Synaptic Hub Of C. Elegans, Joyce Chan 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Novel Strategies For Glutamate Clearance In The Glia-Deprived Synaptic Hub Of C. Elegans, Joyce Chan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, Glutamate (Glu) is critical for normal neuronal physiology. Disruption in Glu clearance results in hyper-stimulation of glutamatergic circuits, potentially leading to excitotoxic neurodegeneration. The canonical model of brain connectivity describes glutamatergic synapses as well insulated and enveloped by glia. These glia express Glu Transporters (GluTs) which work to clear Glu following synaptic activity. However, critical areas of the brain such as the mammalian hippocampus display poor synaptic isolation, which may result in Glu spillover between adjacent synapses and subsequent loss of circuit specificity. How accurate signal transmission is achieved in these ...


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