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Validity Of Neural Distance Measures In Representational Similarity Analysis, Fabian A. Soto, Emily R. Martin, Hyeonjeong Lee, Nafiz Ahmed, Juan Estepa, Kianoosh Hosseini, Olivia A. Stibolt, Valentina Roldan, Alycia Winters, Mohammadreza Bayat 2022 Florida International University

Validity Of Neural Distance Measures In Representational Similarity Analysis, Fabian A. Soto, Emily R. Martin, Hyeonjeong Lee, Nafiz Ahmed, Juan Estepa, Kianoosh Hosseini, Olivia A. Stibolt, Valentina Roldan, Alycia Winters, Mohammadreza Bayat

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Visual Expertise In An Anatomically-Inspired Model Of The Visual System, Garrison W. Cottrell, Martha Gahl, Shubham Kulkarni 2022 University of California, San Diego

Visual Expertise In An Anatomically-Inspired Model Of The Visual System, Garrison W. Cottrell, Martha Gahl, Shubham Kulkarni

MODVIS Workshop

We report on preliminary results of an anatomically-inspired deep learning model of the visual system and its role in explaining the face inversion effect. Contrary to the generally accepted wisdom, our hypothesis is that the face inversion effect can be accounted for by the representation in V1 combined with the reliance on the configuration of features due to face expertise. We take two features of the primate visual system into account: 1) The foveated retina; and 2) The log-polar mapping from retina to V1. We simulate acquisition of faces, etc., by gradually increasing the number of identities the network learns. …


Characterization Of Local And Global Statistics In Three Kinds Of Medical Images, And An Example Of Their Role In A Clinical Judgment, Jonathan Victor, Amanda Simon, Craig K. Abbey 2022 Weill Cornell Medical College

Characterization Of Local And Global Statistics In Three Kinds Of Medical Images, And An Example Of Their Role In A Clinical Judgment, Jonathan Victor, Amanda Simon, Craig K. Abbey

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Individual Differences In Structure Learning, Philip Newlin 2022 Mississippi State University

Individual Differences In Structure Learning, Philip Newlin

Theses and Dissertations

Humans have a tendency to impute structure spontaneously even in simple learning tasks, however the way they approach structure learning can vary drastically. The present study sought to determine why individuals learn structure differently. One hypothesized explanation for differences in structure learning is individual differences in cognitive control. Cognitive control allows individuals to maintain representations of a task and may interact with reinforcement learning systems. It was expected that individual differences in propensity to apply cognitive control, which shares component processes with hierarchical reinforcement learning, may explain how individuals learn structure differently in a simple structure learning task. Results showed …


A Two-Layer Model Explains Higher-Order Feature Selectivity Of V2 Neurons, Timothy D. Oleskiw, Justin D. Lieber, J. Anthony Movshon, Eero P. Simoncelli 2022 New York University

A Two-Layer Model Explains Higher-Order Feature Selectivity Of V2 Neurons, Timothy D. Oleskiw, Justin D. Lieber, J. Anthony Movshon, Eero P. Simoncelli

MODVIS Workshop

Neurons in cortical area V2 respond selectively to higher-order visual features, such as the quasi-periodic structure of natural texture. However, a functional account of how V2 neurons build selectivity for complex natural image features from their inputs – V1 neurons locally tuned for orientation and spatial frequency – remains elusive.

We made single-unit recordings in area V2 in two fixating rhesus macaques. We presented stimuli composed of multiple superimposed grating patches that localize contrast energy in space, orientation, and scale. V2 activity is modeled via a two-layer linear-nonlinear network, optimized to use a sparse combination of V1-like outputs to account …


A Bayesian Account Of Depth From Shadow, James Elder, Patrick Cavanagh, Roberto Casati 2022 York University

A Bayesian Account Of Depth From Shadow, James Elder, Patrick Cavanagh, Roberto Casati

MODVIS Workshop

When an object casts a shadow on a background surface, the offset of the shadow can be a compelling cue to the relative depth between the object and the background (e.g., Kersten et al 1996, Fig. 1). Cavanagh et al (2021) found that, at least for small shadow offsets, perceived depth scales almost linearly with shadow offset. Here we ask whether this finding can be understood quantitatively in terms of Bayesian decision theory.

Estimating relative depth from shadow offset is complicated by the fact that the shadow offset is co-determined by the slant of the light source relative to the …


Fixational Eye Movements, Perceptual Filling-In, And Perceptual Fading Of Grayscale Images, Michael E. Rudd 2022 University of Nevada, Reno

Fixational Eye Movements, Perceptual Filling-In, And Perceptual Fading Of Grayscale Images, Michael E. Rudd

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Constraining Computational Models Of Brightness Perception: What’S The Right Psychophysical Data?, Guillermo Aguilar, Joris Vincent, Marianne Maertens 2022 Technische Universitat Berlin

Constraining Computational Models Of Brightness Perception: What’S The Right Psychophysical Data?, Guillermo Aguilar, Joris Vincent, Marianne Maertens

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Identifying And Localizing Multiple Objects Using Artificial Ventral And Dorsal Visual Cortical Pathways, Zhixian Han, Anne Sereno 2022 Purdue University

Identifying And Localizing Multiple Objects Using Artificial Ventral And Dorsal Visual Cortical Pathways, Zhixian Han, Anne Sereno

MODVIS Workshop

We concluded in our previous study that model cortical visual pathways actively retained information differently according to the different goals of the training tasks. One limitation of our study was that there was only one object in each input image whereas in reality there may be multiple objects in a scene. In our current study, we try to find a brain-like algorithm that can recognize and localize multiple objects.


Model Of Visual Contrast Gain Control And Pattern And Noise Masking, Joshua A. Solomon 2022 City, University of London

Model Of Visual Contrast Gain Control And Pattern And Noise Masking, Joshua A. Solomon

MODVIS Workshop

The first stage of the model can be subdivided into a global contrast sensitivity function (a 2-D log-parabolic filter of spatial frequency), followed by an array of sensors having Gabor-pattern receptive fields. The second stage is contrast gain control. At this stage, sensor outputs are subjected to an expansive transformation. Then the outputs are pooled and used to inhibit (or “normalize”) each other. Inhibition is strongest between sensors with similar preferences for orientation, spatial frequency and spatial location. In the final stage of the model, the nomalized sensor outputs for each image are subjected to Minkowski pooling. Two-alternative, forced-choice detection …


Trauma Healing With The Neurosequential Model Of Therapy And Bal-A-Vis-X, Becky Johnston 2022 James Madison University

Trauma Healing With The Neurosequential Model Of Therapy And Bal-A-Vis-X, Becky Johnston

Educational Specialist, 2020-current

Stigma related to childhood trauma is shifting with the help of advancements in the understanding of neurobiology and interventions that are proving to be effective for healing. There are immense costs and consequences for survivors of childhood trauma and their loved ones that were not so long ago considered irrelevant and the notion that kids bounce back from adversity was previously popular in the psychological community (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017). The broad strokes of Dr. Bruce Perry’s clinical intervention model, The Neurosequential Model of Therapy (NMT) describes a trauma-sensitive, sequential approach to changing the stress response within mental health counseling. …


The Effects Of Astrocytic Derived Insulin-Like Growth Factor (Igf-1) On Cognition And Astrocytes, Destiny Wilson 2022 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Astrocytic Derived Insulin-Like Growth Factor (Igf-1) On Cognition And Astrocytes, Destiny Wilson

Honors Theses

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a neuroendocrine signaling hormone that plays a vital role in growth and development, as well as learning and memory. Inhibition of this hormone results in cognitive impairments like those seen with age-related decline. While a majority of research has focused on the role of IGF-1 on neurons, the role of astrocytes still needs to be explored. Our research investigates how astrocytes and cognition are affected as a result of direct regulation of localized IGF-1 production in early development and after puberty. Preliminary studies in our laboratory established a connection between IGF-1 and glial fibrillary …


Investigating The Neuroprotective Effects Of Cannabinoids And Insulin-Like Growth Factors On Glia With Induced Inflammation, Caleb Bloodworth 2022 University of Mississippi

Investigating The Neuroprotective Effects Of Cannabinoids And Insulin-Like Growth Factors On Glia With Induced Inflammation, Caleb Bloodworth

Honors Theses

Chronic inflammation is a driver of numerous neurodegenerative diseases that reduce quality of life for affected individuals. Non-psychoactive cannabinoids have begun to gain more interest in the world of anti-inflammatory medicine for chronically ill patients. Along with these cannabinoids, insulin-like growth factor-1 has been examined for its association with downregulation of inflammation. Our research aimed to investigate how neuroglia are affected by treatment with cannabinoids or IGF-1 in the face of inflammation from HIV-1 protein, Tat, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Preliminary studies in our laboratory showed that neither cannabinoids or IGF-1 treatment altered astrocyte morphology or overall astrocyte viability under baseline …


The Effects Of Acute Exercise Intensity On Retrieval-Induced Forgetting, Geoffrey Reliquias 2022 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Acute Exercise Intensity On Retrieval-Induced Forgetting, Geoffrey Reliquias

Honors Theses

Previous research has indicated that aspects of cognitive inhibition may be enhanced after engaging in acute exercise. Notably, cognitive inhibition has been theorized as a potential mechanism for a form of active forgetting known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). Given that cognitive inhibition may explain the RIF phenomenon, and is also influenced by exercise, it is plausible that acute exercise may directly influence RIF. To our knowledge, only one study has examined whether acute exercise has an effect on RIF. The findings of that study did not find a statistically significant effect for RIF; however, we believe that the rather small …


Examining Levels Of Catecholamine Neurotransmitter Regulatory Proteins Within The Prefrontal Cortex Of Rodents Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Eleni Papadopoulos, Christopher P. Knapp, Claire M. Corbett, Jessica Loweth, Rachel L. Navarra 2022 Rowan University

Examining Levels Of Catecholamine Neurotransmitter Regulatory Proteins Within The Prefrontal Cortex Of Rodents Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Eleni Papadopoulos, Christopher P. Knapp, Claire M. Corbett, Jessica Loweth, Rachel L. Navarra

Stratford Campus Research Day

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from impact to the head can cause long lasting impairments of cognitive processes that lead to increased risk-taking behavior in clinical populations. Our laboratory has recently shown that female, but not age-matched male, rats increase preference for risky choices after multiple experimentally-induced mild TBI’s. Our overarching goal is to understand the neural mechanisms underlying TBI-induced increases in risk-taking behavior.

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a prominent role in risk-based decision making. Sub[1]regions of the PFC include the medial PFC (mPFC), the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and these sub[1]regions play specific …


A Preliminary Report: The Hippocampus And Surrounding Temporal Cortex Of Patients With Schizophrenia Have Impaired Blood-Brain Barrier, Eric L. Goldwaser, Randel L. Swanson, Edgardo J. Arroyo, Venkat Venkataraman, Mary C. Kosciuk, Robert G. Nagele, L. Elliot Hong, Nimish K. Acharya 2022 University of Maryland - Baltimore

A Preliminary Report: The Hippocampus And Surrounding Temporal Cortex Of Patients With Schizophrenia Have Impaired Blood-Brain Barrier, Eric L. Goldwaser, Randel L. Swanson, Edgardo J. Arroyo, Venkat Venkataraman, Mary C. Kosciuk, Robert G. Nagele, L. Elliot Hong, Nimish K. Acharya

Stratford Campus Research Day

Schizophrenia (SZ) is one of the most severe forms of mental illness, yet mechanisms remain unclear. A widely established brain finding in SZ is hippocampal atrophy, and a coherent explanation similarly is lacking. Epidemiological evidence suggests increased cerebrovascular and cardiovascular complications in SZ independent of lifestyle and medication, pointing to disease-specific pathology. Endothelial cell contributions to blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise may influence neurovascular unit and peripheral vascular function, and we hypothesize that downstream functional and structural abnormalities may be explained by impaired BBB.


Efficacy Of Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol For Hiv-Related Neuropathic Pain, Kaia Horne 2022 University of Mississippi

Efficacy Of Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol For Hiv-Related Neuropathic Pain, Kaia Horne

Honors Theses

Despite the availability and success of antiretroviral therapeutics, ~30% of patients living with HIV experience neuropathic pain that is often intractable. The mechanisms are not known, but there is evidence to support a role for the HIV virotoxins, Tat and/or gp120, which can damage or degenerate neurons and peripheral nerves. One mechanism by which Tat and gp120 promote nerve damage involves the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production from immune cells which can damage or kill bystander cells. Notably, compounds found in Cannabis exert anti-inflammatory effects and many studies report HIV patients to consume more marijuana than seronegative individuals. When people …


Effects Of Storage Conditions On Bpa Leaching From Infant Oral Hygiene Products Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Emma Bynum 2022 Ouachita Baptist University

Effects Of Storage Conditions On Bpa Leaching From Infant Oral Hygiene Products Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Emma Bynum

Honors Theses

Infants are at the highest risk of BPA exposure compared to any other stage of life. Because an infant’s endocrine system is developing, exposure to an endocrine-disruptor, such as BPA, can be especially harmful. Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a structural component in many plastic products, which acts as an endocrine-disruptor mimicking estrogen. This hormonal disruption has been linked to obesity, reproductive issues, cardiovascular problems, and the neurodevelopment disorders. While the FDA monitors things like baby bottles, canned goods, and plastic containers for BPA, infantile oral hygiene products are not closely monitored. Previous research tested infant toothbrushes on the market using a …


Scale-Free Behavioral Dynamics Directly Linked With Scale-Free Cortical Dynamics, Sabrina Jones 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Scale-Free Behavioral Dynamics Directly Linked With Scale-Free Cortical Dynamics, Sabrina Jones

Physics Undergraduate Honors Theses

In organisms, an interesting phenomenon occurs in both behavior and neuronal activity: organization with fractal, scale-free fluctuations over multiple spatiotemporal orders of magnitude (1,2). In regard to behavior, this sort of complex structure-- which manifests itself from small scale fidgeting to purposeful, full body movements-- may support goals such as foraging (3-6), visual search (4), and decision making (7,8). Likewise, the presence of this sort of structure in the cerebral cortex in the form of spatiotemporal cascades, coined “neuronal avalanches,” may offer optimal information transfer (9). Thus, when considering the functional relationship between the cerebral cortex and movements of the …


Defining The Role Of Locus Coeruleus Noradrenergic Neurons In The Modulation Of Homeostatic Feeding, Julia Paul 2022 University of Connecticut

Defining The Role Of Locus Coeruleus Noradrenergic Neurons In The Modulation Of Homeostatic Feeding, Julia Paul

Honors Scholar Theses

The locus coeruleus (LC) is a hindbrain structure that is the major source of norepinephrine (NE) input to the cortex and other forebrain areas. It is involved in processes of arousal, attention, and stress. It has been shown that the locus coeruleus norepinephrine system is also involved in the modulation of feeding. In this experiment, we used triple transgenic mice expressing the hM3Dq receptor in LC-NE neurons. These mice and littermate controls were overnight fasted then injected with vehicle or deschloroclozapine (DCZ), which is an inert ligand that solely activates the designer hM3Dq receptor. The mice were then immediately placed …


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