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Full-Text Articles in Neuroscience and Neurobiology

Optimization Of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody For Immunohistochemistry Fluorescence Detection In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Madison Thurber May 2024

Optimization Of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody For Immunohistochemistry Fluorescence Detection In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Madison Thurber

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter produced through the catecholamine synthesis pathway that affects brain activity. Unregulated dopamine levels can lead to various diseases such as Parkinson’s Disease or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Optimization of an immunohistochemistry protocol will allow for the quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase antibody, which indirectly allows for dopamine quantification in dopaminergic regions within the brain. However, the antibody concentration to give the optimal signal-to-noise ratio in IHC varies across studies. Through this experiment, I determined the concentration of tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrH) antibody for immunohistochemistry that gave the best signal-to-background noise ratio within several known dopaminergic regions …


Molecular Mechanisms Of Opioid Use Disorder In Human Brain Models, Emily Mendez May 2024

Molecular Mechanisms Of Opioid Use Disorder In Human Brain Models, Emily Mendez

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a national and global public health crisis with no end in sight. While studies from animal models hint at widespread epigenetic and transcriptomic alterations of opioid drugs, the molecular consequences of long-term exposure to opioid drugs in human brain is still unclear, and human-centered translational models are necessary to discern the human cell type-specific effects of OUD.

Using postmortem brain Brodmann area 9 (BA9) from the UTHealth Brain Collection for Research on Psychiatric Disorders, I identified angiogenic gene networks perturbed in the RNA and protein of OUD subjects, as well as downregulation of many neuron-correlated …


Exploring The Developmental Effects Of Antidepressants In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Alexandra Van Stone Feb 2024

Exploring The Developmental Effects Of Antidepressants In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Alexandra Van Stone

Annual Research Symposium

It is so important to explore the potential side effects of antidepressants especially if these side effects could lead to a future detriment to an individual’s financial and social well-being. A better understanding of these side effects in regards to human developmental issues is imperative considering issues related to mental health and depression affect a large percentage of the population. In this study, we tested if Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans could be a potential model organism to predict possible side effects associated with select antidepressants. Their developmental problems potentially encountered upon drug treatment may be encountered in humans.


Elucidating Neuroinflammation In Multiple Sclerosis By Network Analysis, Nora C. Welsh Feb 2024

Elucidating Neuroinflammation In Multiple Sclerosis By Network Analysis, Nora C. Welsh

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease, differing on many variables, including disease course, sex, and overall activity. Key characteristics of the disease encompass demyelination, axonal damage, neuronal loss, glial cell activation, and the infiltration of peripheral immune cells. Molecular proxies of these functions are secreted proteins, including cytokines and immunoglobulins, which, in the central nervous system (CNS), can be secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A detailed analysis of these secreted proteins can offer insights into the evolving immunological and neurodegenerative features as the disease progresses. To understand the dynamic biological processes involved in MS, I used network analysis …


Harmonious Healing: A Review Of Music Therapy, A Humanities-Based Approach To Alzheimer’S Disease Treatment, Rohan K. Desai Feb 2024

Harmonious Healing: A Review Of Music Therapy, A Humanities-Based Approach To Alzheimer’S Disease Treatment, Rohan K. Desai

Kentucky Undergraduate Journal for the Health Humanities

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease often characterized by memory loss, confusion, and overall cognitive decline. The aging global population has, in recent years, highlighted the fundamental lack of pharmacological treatments for individuals facing an AD diagnosis. In response, a growing body of research has shifted focus to non-pharmacological humanities-based interventions. One such intervention has been music therapy (MT). Music-focused measures have shown great promise as a method of slowing cognitive decline, but mixed results in the literature warrant the need for further investigation. Often, socioeconomic barriers can limit an individual’s access to drug-related treatments, but the affordable …


Exploring A Gene Panel For Parkinson’S Disease In An Egyptian Cohort, Asmaa Saeed Gabr Feb 2024

Exploring A Gene Panel For Parkinson’S Disease In An Egyptian Cohort, Asmaa Saeed Gabr

Theses and Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease is a highly heterogeneous disorder characterized by diverse neuropathological features, clinical presentations and progression patterns. In Egypt, Parkinson’s disease incidence rates lie outside the range reported elsewhere. The genetic background to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease has been postulated for a long time. However, Parkinson’s disease has never been systematically investigated in Egypt. This study aimed to explore genetic variants and interactions that are associated with the familial and sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease in an Egyptian cohort. This includes examining variants in PD-related genes, exploring the role of specific genes like MAPT and adjacent genomic regions, and …


Birds, Bats And Minds. Tales Of A Revolutionary Scientist: Donald R. Griffin. Volume Three, Carolyn A. Ristau Feb 2024

Birds, Bats And Minds. Tales Of A Revolutionary Scientist: Donald R. Griffin. Volume Three, Carolyn A. Ristau

eBooks

In this three-volume biography, we revisit the life and accomplishments of the revolutionary scientist, Donald R. Griffin. He encountered a lifetime of initial hostile resistance to his ideas and studies; now they are largely accepted. He and a colleague discovered the phenomenon of echolocation used by bats to navigate and capture insects, proposed that birds navigate guided by such cues as the sun and stars, and suggested that animals are likely aware, thinking and feeling beings. Forty interviews with his colleagues and friends help us understand the young emerging scientist and the mature researcher. We learn about his and others’ …


Birds, Bats And Minds. Tales Of A Revolutionary Scientist: Donald R. Griffin. Volume 2, Carolyn A. Ristau Feb 2024

Birds, Bats And Minds. Tales Of A Revolutionary Scientist: Donald R. Griffin. Volume 2, Carolyn A. Ristau

eBooks

In this three-volume biography, we revisit the life and accomplishments of the revolutionary scientist, Donald R. Griffin. He encountered a lifetime of initial hostile resistance to his ideas and studies; now they are largely accepted. He and a colleague discovered the phenomenon of echolocation used by bats to navigate and capture insects, proposed that birds navigate guided by such cues as the sun and stars, and suggested that animals are likely aware, thinking and feeling beings. Forty interviews with his colleagues and friends help us understand the young emerging scientist and the mature researcher. We learn about his and others’ …


Methamphetamine-Induced Dna Double-Stranded Breaks: The Impact Of The Dopamine Transporter And Insights Into The Mechanisms Of Dna Damage In Mouse Neuro 2a Cells, Lizette Couto Feb 2024

Methamphetamine-Induced Dna Double-Stranded Breaks: The Impact Of The Dopamine Transporter And Insights Into The Mechanisms Of Dna Damage In Mouse Neuro 2a Cells, Lizette Couto

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Methamphetamine (METH) abuse remains a global health concern, with emerging evidence highlighting its genotoxic potential. In the central nervous system METH enters dopaminergic cells primarily through the dopamine transporter (DAT), which controls the dynamics of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission by driving the reuptake of extracellular DA into the presynaptic neuronal cell. Additional effects of METH on the storage of DA in synaptic vesicles lead to the dysregulated cytosolic accumulation of DA. Previous studies have shown that after METH disrupts intracellular vesicular stores of DA, the excess DA in the cytosol is rapidly oxidized. This generates an abundance of reactive oxygen species …


Enhancing Workplace Neuro Health And Productivity: The Synergy Of Wearable Technology With Biophilic And Oxygenation Strategies, Piper Hutson, James Hutson Feb 2024

Enhancing Workplace Neuro Health And Productivity: The Synergy Of Wearable Technology With Biophilic And Oxygenation Strategies, Piper Hutson, James Hutson

Faculty Scholarship

In the contemporary workplace, where a staggering 62% of employees reported experiencing burnout in 2023 according to a Medium article, the integration of wearable technology with biophilic and oxygenation strategies emerges as a vital Neurohemal initiative. This approach is particularly relevant for supporting neurodivergent individuals, as well as those recovering from stroke and long-COVID, in the context of return-to-office mandates. The article underscores the significance of research on increased hydrostatic pressure in circulation, particularly its impact on spinal and spinal cord blood flow during water immersion. This insight lays the groundwork for innovations like non-wet water massage devices, which could …


The Divided Self: Internal Conflict In Literature, Philosophy, Psychology, And Neuroscience, Yulia Greyman Feb 2024

The Divided Self: Internal Conflict In Literature, Philosophy, Psychology, And Neuroscience, Yulia Greyman

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thematic project examines the notion of self-division, particularly in terms of the conflict between cognition and metacognition, across the fields of philosophy, psychology, and, most recently, the cognitive and neurosciences. The project offers a historic overview of models of self-division, as well as analyses of the various problems presented in theoretical models to date. This work explores how self-division has been depicted in the literary works of Edgar Allan Poe, Don DeLillo, and Mary Shelley. It examines the ways in which artistic renderings alternately assimilate, resist, and/or critique dominant philosophical, psychological, and scientific discourses about the self and its …


The Role Of Glutamate In The Medial Prefrontal Cortex In The Acquistion And Expression Of Conditioned Approach, Rudolf Nisanov Feb 2024

The Role Of Glutamate In The Medial Prefrontal Cortex In The Acquistion And Expression Of Conditioned Approach, Rudolf Nisanov

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A series of experiments were conducted to assess the role of glutamatergic stimulation in the dorsal and ventral regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in both the acquisition and expression of reward-related learning using a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, the conditioned-approach paradigm. Rats with surgically implanted cannulas were exposed to Pavlovian conditioning sessions that occurred on three alternative days (acquisition) or seven consecutive days (expression). These 60-min conditioning sessions consisted of 30 pairings of light (CS) and food pellets (US) presented under a random time schedule. After a two-day break, rats underwent a session with no CS or US and …


Neurochemical Signaling Of Reward-Based Learning In Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons, Kyla F. Wholley Feb 2024

Neurochemical Signaling Of Reward-Based Learning In Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons, Kyla F. Wholley

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons signal and participate in reward-related learning. Specifically, dopamine is postulated to encode reward-related environmental stimuli to compute reward prediction errors (RPEs). It is through the computation and maintenance of RPEs that learning occurs. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie how dopamine neurons compute RPEs and facilitate reward-related learning. The present study utilized fiber photometry in conjunction with a Pavlovian reward-based task to identify how GABA inputs to VTA dopamine neurons contribute to the computation of RPEs and reward-based behavior. Activity of GABA inputs to VTA dopamine neurons increased for reward-predicting …


The Scientist Who Discovered Bat Sonar And The Minds Of Animals. Donald R Griffin: A Revolutionary. Volume 1, Carolyn A. Ristau Feb 2024

The Scientist Who Discovered Bat Sonar And The Minds Of Animals. Donald R Griffin: A Revolutionary. Volume 1, Carolyn A. Ristau

eBooks

In this three-volume biography, we revisit the life and accomplishments of the revolutionary scientist, Donald R. Griffin. He encountered a lifetime of initial hostile resistance to his ideas and studies; now they are largely accepted. He and a colleague discovered the phenomenon of echolocation used by bats to navigate and capture insects, proposed that birds navigate guided by such cues as the sun and stars, and suggested that animals are likely aware, thinking and feeling beings. Forty interviews with his colleagues and friends help us understand the young emerging scientist and the mature researcher. We learn about his and others’ …


A Causal Inference Approach For Spike Train Interactions, Zach Saccomano Feb 2024

A Causal Inference Approach For Spike Train Interactions, Zach Saccomano

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Since the 1960s, neuroscientists have worked on the problem of estimating synaptic properties, such as connectivity and strength, from simultaneously recorded spike trains. Recent years have seen renewed interest in the problem coinciding with rapid advances in experimental technologies, including an approximate exponential increase in the number of neurons that can be recorded in parallel and perturbation techniques such as optogenetics that can be used to calibrate and validate causal hypotheses about functional connectivity. This thesis presents a mathematical examination of synaptic inference from two perspectives: (1) using in vivo data and biophysical models, we ask in what cases the …


Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation On Metamemory Vary By Task Difficulty, Tiffanie T. Li Feb 2024

Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation On Metamemory Vary By Task Difficulty, Tiffanie T. Li

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Metamemory is broadly defined as the awareness of one’s memory and consists, in part, of a process referred to as monitoring, where one is assessing the contents of their memory. Feeling of knowing (FOK) is one metamemory monitoring judgment where one rates how strongly they believe they will remember a currently unrecalled item. Prior work has shown that HighDefinition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) over the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) led to greater metamemory accuracy and that HD-tDCS over the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) led to better recall for medium difficulty questions. Other work has also shown that effects …


The Effect Of Caffeine On Bee Behavior: A Progressive Ratio Study, Kayle Cohen, Becky Hansis-O'Neill, Aimee Dunlap Dr Jan 2024

The Effect Of Caffeine On Bee Behavior: A Progressive Ratio Study, Kayle Cohen, Becky Hansis-O'Neill, Aimee Dunlap Dr

Undergraduate Research Symposium

This presentation focuses on the effect of caffeine on bee behavior using behavioral pharmacology methodologies. Researchers trained bumblebees to drink out of artificial flowers, then administered sucrose nectar or caffeinated sucrose nectar during a schedule of progressive and fixed ratios. The finding suggests that caffeine did increase the number of rewards during the fixed ratio, but not in the progressive ratio. However, research is still ongoing as bees continue to be tested..


2023 Ulm Student Research Symposium Proceedings, Burton Ashworth Jan 2024

2023 Ulm Student Research Symposium Proceedings, Burton Ashworth

Multidisciplinary Psychology: A Journal of Collaboration

This is the results and proceedings from the 2023 ULM Student Research Symposium.


The Effect Of Pornography On Marriage And Its Societal Impacts: A Neurobiological Perspective, Katie Rose Geer Jan 2024

The Effect Of Pornography On Marriage And Its Societal Impacts: A Neurobiological Perspective, Katie Rose Geer

NEXUS: The Liberty Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies

No abstract provided.


The Intersection Of Theatre And Cognitive Neuroscience, Mary Katherine Flage Jan 2024

The Intersection Of Theatre And Cognitive Neuroscience, Mary Katherine Flage

NEXUS: The Liberty Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies

No abstract provided.


Comparing Cognitive Tests And Smartphone-Based Assessment In 2 Us Community-Based Cohorts., Ileana De Anda-Duran, Preeti Sunderaraman, Edward Searls, Shirine Moukaled, Xuanyi Jin, Zachary Popp, Cody Karjadi, Phillip H Hwang, Huitong Ding, Sherral Devine, Ludy C Shih, Spencer Low, Honghuang Lin, Vijaya B Kolachalama, Lydia Bazzano, David J Libon, Rhoda Au Jan 2024

Comparing Cognitive Tests And Smartphone-Based Assessment In 2 Us Community-Based Cohorts., Ileana De Anda-Duran, Preeti Sunderaraman, Edward Searls, Shirine Moukaled, Xuanyi Jin, Zachary Popp, Cody Karjadi, Phillip H Hwang, Huitong Ding, Sherral Devine, Ludy C Shih, Spencer Low, Honghuang Lin, Vijaya B Kolachalama, Lydia Bazzano, David J Libon, Rhoda Au

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

BACKGROUND: Smartphone-based cognitive assessments have emerged as promising tools, bridging gaps in accessibility and reducing bias in Alzheimer disease and related dementia research. However, their congruence with traditional neuropsychological tests and usefulness in diverse cohorts remain underexplored.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 406 FHS (Framingham Heart Study) and 59 BHS (Bogalusa Heart Study) participants with traditional neuropsychological tests and digital assessments using the Defense Automated Neurocognitive Assessment (DANA) smartphone protocol were included. Regression models investigated associations between DANA task digital measures and a neuropsychological global cognitive

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that smartphone-based cognitive assessments exhibit concurrent validity with a …


Zebrafish Electroretinogram Responses, Brooke Campbell Jan 2024

Zebrafish Electroretinogram Responses, Brooke Campbell

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The goal of this project is to be able to streamline a protocol for conducting ERGs on zebrafish from mice ERG protocol already present in Dr. Renna’s lab. The objective is to create a protocol specifically for zebrafish and to eliminate any issues that occur when transiting from a mice ERG protocol to a zebrafish ERG protocol and to obtain a light response from zebrafish retinae in differing light intensities. Dr. Renna’s lab has designed an Ex Vivo ERG system with less electrical interference creating defined electrical responses from mouse retina. The setup allows for continual perfusion of the retinal …


Enhancing Proprioception And Regulating Cognitive Load In Neurodiverse Populations Through Biometric Monitoring With Wearable Technologies, James Hutson, Piper Hutson Jan 2024

Enhancing Proprioception And Regulating Cognitive Load In Neurodiverse Populations Through Biometric Monitoring With Wearable Technologies, James Hutson, Piper Hutson

Faculty Scholarship

This paper considers the realm of wearable technologies and their prospective applications for individuals with neurodivergent conditions, specifically Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The study undertakes a multifaceted analysis that encompasses biomarker sensing technologies, AI-driven biofeedback mechanisms, and haptic devices, focusing on their implications for enhancing proprioception and social interaction among neurodivergent populations. While wearables offer a range of opportunities for societal advancement, a discernable gap remains: a scarcity of consumer-oriented applications tailored to the unique physiological and psychological needs of these individuals. Key takeaways underscore the emergent promise of tailored auditory stimuli in workplace dynamics and the efficacy of haptic …


Target Selection And Enhancement During Attentional Tracking, Marvin R. Maechler Jan 2024

Target Selection And Enhancement During Attentional Tracking, Marvin R. Maechler

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

At any waking moment, we are bombarded with more sensory information than we can fully process. Attention is necessary to deal with the dynamic world we live in. One fundamental function of vision and attention is to keep track of moving objects, but what are the targets of attention during tracking?

One of the first theories of attentional tracking predicted that targets would be selected at early processing stages. By employing the double-drift illusion, which dissociates physical and perceived positions of moving objects, we investigated which of these positions is selected for tracking. Contrary to earlier theories and in line …


Evaluating The Potential Of Using Eeg To Monitor Cognitive Workload In Simulated Suborbital Flight, Erik Seedhouse Phd Jan 2024

Evaluating The Potential Of Using Eeg To Monitor Cognitive Workload In Simulated Suborbital Flight, Erik Seedhouse Phd

Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research

Mental workload can be assessed using electrophysiological measures of brain activity, such as electroencephalography (EEG). EEG signals reveal cortical electrical activity. This cortical activity was recorded using specialized headsets. The focus of this research was to study cognitive performance (CP) in four pilots during simulated suborbital flights under nominal day and night profiles and under contingency day and night profiles. A 14-channel EMOTIV EEG headset measured the participants' brain activity while they flew simulated flights in a Suborbital Spaceflight Simulator (SSFS). Several sessions of EEG data were recorded from each subject, and feature extraction was applied. Data revealed that real-time …


Effect Of Dopamine-2-Receptor Manipulation On Social Interaction And Social Decision-Making In Juvenile Fish, Kiren Kanazawa Jan 2024

Effect Of Dopamine-2-Receptor Manipulation On Social Interaction And Social Decision-Making In Juvenile Fish, Kiren Kanazawa

CMC Senior Theses

Animals interact in intricate social networks. Social behavior is imperative in shaping relationships, in communication, and adapting to changing environments. Despite its profound effects on individual fitness and health, neural-molecular mechanisms behind social behavior and social decision-making continue to be identified. In the present study, we focused on the regulation of social behavior by the Dopamine-2-Receptor (D2R), based on its role in context-dependent social behavior. We used juvenile African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, to investigate the effect of dopamine signaling manipulation on their aggressive, territorial, and affiliative behaviors. We hypothesize that D2R manipulation affects social decision-making in juvenile A. burtoni. …


Utilizing Ai Integrated Neuroimaging Technology To Expand Upon Machine Learning In Positron Emission Tomography Technology With The Aim Of Detecting Amyloid Beta Biomarkers Early In The Onset Of Alzheimer's., Ethan S. Terman Jan 2024

Utilizing Ai Integrated Neuroimaging Technology To Expand Upon Machine Learning In Positron Emission Tomography Technology With The Aim Of Detecting Amyloid Beta Biomarkers Early In The Onset Of Alzheimer's., Ethan S. Terman

Undergraduate Research Posters

Early intervention in Alzheimer's is vital for treatment. The earlier a professional can detect symptoms and make a diagnosis the earlier a prognosis can be implemented. With the prevalence of data in our day-to-day world combined with Artificial intelligence (AI), utilizing both for machine learning can pave the way for more accurate and efficient detection of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. AI combined with Machine learning (ML) increases diagnostic efficiency and reduces human errors, making it a valuable resource for physicians and clinicians alike. With the increasing amount of data processing and image interpretation required, the ability to use AI …


The Role Of Semaphorins In Response To Injury In C. Elegans Neurons, Maria Belen Harreguy Alfonso Dec 2023

The Role Of Semaphorins In Response To Injury In C. Elegans Neurons, Maria Belen Harreguy Alfonso

Dissertations

When neural tissue is injured by trauma, delicate neuronal processes such as axons and dendrites are prone to lesion damage and often disconnect. The molecular, cellular, and circuit mechanisms that underlie the regrowth and reconnection of these processes and the recovery of behavior are major challenges in the fields of neuroscience, regeneration, and resilience. At the molecular and cellular levels, signaling pathways that mediate neuronal growth cone guidance during development can play a role in neuronal regeneration and recovery from injury. One family of signaling proteins involved in this process comprises the highly conserved semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins. …


Assessing Neurobehavioral Deficits And Neuroinflammation Following Rllb In A Transgenic Mouse Model, Aakaash Gosain Dec 2023

Assessing Neurobehavioral Deficits And Neuroinflammation Following Rllb In A Transgenic Mouse Model, Aakaash Gosain

Theses

As global conflicts are escalating, military personnel have long faced the constant threat of explosions, heightening the risk of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). The recent increase in war conflicts and combat zones worldwide not only puts the military, service members, and police forces at risk but also innocent civilians who are caught in the crossfire. While moderate to severe bTBIs have been extensively studied, the pathology of repeated low-level blasts (rLLB) remains less understood. This research addresses the gap in knowledge regarding the long-term consequences of rLLB injuries in the neural anatomy. A transgenic mouse model was subjected to …


The Potential Of Stem Cell Therapy In Multiple Sclerosis Treatment: A Review, Sorina Amarculesei, Ava O'Meara Cushen, Cathy Brougham Dec 2023

The Potential Of Stem Cell Therapy In Multiple Sclerosis Treatment: A Review, Sorina Amarculesei, Ava O'Meara Cushen, Cathy Brougham

SURE Journal: Science Undergraduate Research Experience Journal

Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. There are currently 2.8 million people living with Multiple Sclerosis worldwide, including 9000 people in Ireland, with a prevalence of 193 per 100,000 people. Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis include sensory loss, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, spasticity, depression, optic neuritis, gait ataxia, diplopia, and loss of bladder control. Currently, there is no standardised treatment or cure for Multiple Sclerosis with many strategies focusing on symptoms. Stem cells have emerged as promising approaches for Multiple Sclerosis therapeutics. Clinical trials primarily focus on mesenchymal stem cell-based therapies for Multiple Sclerosis. Furthermore, …