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Insulin Resistance And Oxidative Stress: In Relation To Cognitive Function And Psychopathology In Drug-Naive, First-Episode Drug-Free Schizophrenia, Qi Tao, Yu Miao, Huihui Li, Xiuxia Yuan, Xufeng Huang, Yunpeng Wang, Ole A. Andreassen, Xiaoduo Fan, Yongfeng Yang, Xueqin Song 2020 Zhengzhou University

Insulin Resistance And Oxidative Stress: In Relation To Cognitive Function And Psychopathology In Drug-Naive, First-Episode Drug-Free Schizophrenia, Qi Tao, Yu Miao, Huihui Li, Xiuxia Yuan, Xufeng Huang, Yunpeng Wang, Ole A. Andreassen, Xiaoduo Fan, Yongfeng Yang, Xueqin Song

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Objective: The present study aimed to examine whether insulin resistance and oxidative stress are associated with cognitive impairment in first-episode drug-free schizophrenia (SZ) patients.

Methods: Ninety first-episode SZ patients and 70 healthy controls were enrolled. Fasting insulin (FINS) and markers of oxidative stress [oxidized glutathione (GSSG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO) and uric acid (UA) levels] were measured in serum before pharmacological treatment was initiated. Psychiatric symptoms and cognitive function were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), respectively. In addition, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was also ...


Examining The Structure Of Symbolic Number Representations In The Parietal Cortex: An Rsa Study, Aymee Alvarez Rivero 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Examining The Structure Of Symbolic Number Representations In The Parietal Cortex: An Rsa Study, Aymee Alvarez Rivero

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Previous studies using fMRI adaptation to investigate the neural substrate of symbolic number processing have found ratio-dependent responses in regions of the parietal cortex, suggesting that number symbols are coded by overlapping neuronal populations: the larger the ratio between two numerals, the more their representation overlap. The current study analyzed the distributed patterns of activation associated with numerals presented during this task. I could not find substantial evidence supporting the ratio-dependent structure of the similarity space predicted by the univariate adaptation analyses. I also failed to find evidence in favor of the alternative model that similarities were driven by lexical ...


Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin Receptor-Expressing Neurons In The Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus Regulates Maternal Behavior, Kaustubh Sharma 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin Receptor-Expressing Neurons In The Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus Regulates Maternal Behavior, Kaustubh Sharma

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin is involved in the regulation of social behaviors, including social recognition, pair bonding, and sex-specific parental behaviors in a variety of species. Oxytocin triggers these social behaviors by binding to oxytocin receptors (OXTR) in various parts of the brain. Oxytocin-induced sex-typical behavior, therefore, suggests a sexual dimorphic distribution of OXTR in the brain. In recent years, the oxytocin system in the brain received tremendous attention as a potential pharmacological target for treatment of many psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, autism spectrum disorders, and even sex-specific psychiatric disorder like postpartum depression (PPD). An important problem and a ...


Is Executive Function The Universal Acid?, Stephen J. Morse 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Is Executive Function The Universal Acid?, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This essay responds to Hirstein, Sifferd and Fagan’s book, Responsible Brains (MIT Press, 2018), which claims that executive function is the guiding mechanism that supports both responsible agency and the necessity for some excuses. In contrast, I suggest that executive function is not the universal acid and the neuroscience at present contributes almost nothing to the necessary psychological level of explanation and analysis. To the extent neuroscience can be useful, it is virtually entirely dependent on well-validated psychology to correlate with the neuroscientific variables under investigation. The essay considers what executive function is and what the neuroscience adds to ...


Mathematical Modelling Of Temperature Effects On The Afd Neuron Of Caenorhabditis Elegans, Zachary Mobille, Rosangela Follmann, Epaminondas Rosa 2020 Illinois State University

Mathematical Modelling Of Temperature Effects On The Afd Neuron Of Caenorhabditis Elegans, Zachary Mobille, Rosangela Follmann, Epaminondas Rosa

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Nature Of Genes Expressed Differently After Environmental Drug Exposure, Nicci Siffel 2020 Murray State University

The Nature Of Genes Expressed Differently After Environmental Drug Exposure, Nicci Siffel

Scholars Week

The Nature of Genes Expressed Differently after Environmental Drug Exposure

N. Siffel, S. Anderson, B. Subedi, D.R. Hammond-Weinberger

Drug use, of prescription or illicit varieties, alter bodily functions in different ways, especially in the nervous system. These drugs are found in sources of drinking water because they are not removed by wastewater treatment facilities. To investigate the effects of these drugs as they appear in mixtures, we exposed groups of zebrafish embryos to cocktails of drugs and screened for genes that were differentially expressed between the experimental and control groups and could thus give more insight into their biological ...


A C. Elegans Neuron Both Promotes And Suppresses Motor Behavior To Fine Tune Motor Output [Preprint], Zhaoyu Li, Jiejun Zhou, Khursheed A. Wani, Teng Yu, Elizabeth A. Ronan, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor, Jianfeng Liu, X.Z. Shawn Xu 2020 University of Queensland

A C. Elegans Neuron Both Promotes And Suppresses Motor Behavior To Fine Tune Motor Output [Preprint], Zhaoyu Li, Jiejun Zhou, Khursheed A. Wani, Teng Yu, Elizabeth A. Ronan, University Of Michigan - Ann Arbor, Jianfeng Liu, X.Z. Shawn Xu

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

How neural circuits drive behavior is a central question in neuroscience. Proper execution of motor behavior requires the precise coordination of many neurons. Within a motor circuit, individual neurons tend to play discrete roles by promoting or suppressing motor output. How exactly neurons function in specific roles to fine tune motor output is not well understood. In C. elegans, the interneuron RIM plays important yet complex roles in locomotion behavior. Here, we show that RIM both promotes and suppresses distinct features of locomotion behavior to fine tune motor output. This dual function is achieved via the excitation and inhibition of ...


Ampa Receptor Surface Expression Is Regulated By S-Nitrosylation Of Thorase And Transnitrosylation Of Nsf, George K. E. Umanah, Mehdi Ghasemi, Valina L. Dawson 2020 Johns Hopkins University

Ampa Receptor Surface Expression Is Regulated By S-Nitrosylation Of Thorase And Transnitrosylation Of Nsf, George K. E. Umanah, Mehdi Ghasemi, Valina L. Dawson

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) trafficking affects multiple brain functions, such as learning and memory. We have previously shown that Thorase plays an important role in the internalization of AMPARs from the synaptic membrane. Here, we show that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation leads to increased S-nitrosylation of Thorase and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF). S-nitrosylation of Thorase stabilizes Thorase-AMPAR complexes and enhances the internalization of AMPAR and interaction with protein-interacting C kinase 1 (PICK1). S-nitrosylated NSF is dependent on the S-nitrosylation of Thorase via trans-nitrosylation, which modulates the surface insertion of AMPARs. In the presence of the S-nitrosylation-deficient C137L Thorase ...


Mindfulness And Behavior Change, Zev Schuman-Olivier, Marcelo Trombka, David A. Lovas, Judson A. Brewer, David R. Vago, Richa Gawande, Julie P. Dunne, Sara W. Lazar, Eric B. Loucks, Carl E. Fulwiler 2020 Harvard Medical School

Mindfulness And Behavior Change, Zev Schuman-Olivier, Marcelo Trombka, David A. Lovas, Judson A. Brewer, David R. Vago, Richa Gawande, Julie P. Dunne, Sara W. Lazar, Eric B. Loucks, Carl E. Fulwiler

Psychiatry Publications

Initiating and maintaining behavior change is key to the prevention and treatment of most preventable chronic medical and psychiatric illnesses. The cultivation of mindfulness, involving acceptance and nonjudgment of present-moment experience, often results in transformative health behavior change. Neural systems involved in motivation and learning have an important role to play. A theoretical model of mindfulness that integrates these mechanisms with the cognitive, emotional, and self-related processes commonly described, while applying an integrated model to health behavior change, is needed. This integrative review (1) defines mindfulness and describes the mindfulness-based intervention movement, (2) synthesizes the neuroscience of mindfulness and integrates ...


Elucidating The Consequence And Cause Of Microrna Dysregulation In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als), Zachary C. E. Hawley 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Elucidating The Consequence And Cause Of Microrna Dysregulation In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als), Zachary C. E. Hawley

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neurodegenerative disorder with an average life expectancy of 2-5 years post-diagnosis. Common pathological features associated with ALS are the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions of intermediate filaments and RNA-binding proteins within motor neurons. The formation of intermediate filament cytoplasmic inclusions is believed to be driven by a loss of stochiometric expression between five neuronal intermediate filament proteins—NFL, NFM, NFH, INA and PRPH—where there is a selective suppression of the steady-state levels of NEFL, INA and PRPH mRNA. Further, three RNA-binding proteins—TDP-43, FUS and RGNEF—have been shown to co-aggregate with ...


The Effect Of Fatigue On Brain Connectivity Networks, Shangen Zhang, Jingnan Sun, Xiaorong Gao 2020 Department of School of Computer and Communication Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China

The Effect Of Fatigue On Brain Connectivity Networks, Shangen Zhang, Jingnan Sun, Xiaorong Gao

Brain Science Advances

In the fatigue state, the neural response characteristics of the brain might be different from those in the normal state. Brain functional connectivity analysis is an effective tool for distinguishing between different brain states. For example, comparative studies on the brain functional connectivity have the potential to reveal the functional differences in different mental states. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between human mental states and brain control abilities by analyzing the effect of fatigue on the brain response connectivity. In particular, the phase-scrambling method was used to generate images with two noise levels, while the ...


Review Of Pathological Index Detection And New Rehabilitation Technique Of Drug Addicts, Banghua Yang, Xuelin Gu, Chao Gu, Ding Xu, Chengcheng Fan 2020 School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China

Review Of Pathological Index Detection And New Rehabilitation Technique Of Drug Addicts, Banghua Yang, Xuelin Gu, Chao Gu, Ding Xu, Chengcheng Fan

Brain Science Advances

There are two major research issues with regard to detoxification; one is pathological testing of drug users and the other is rehabilitation methods and techniques. Over the years, domestic and foreign researchers have done a lot of work on pathological changes in the brain and rehabilitation techniques for drug users. This article discusses the research status of these two aspects. At present, the evaluation of brain function in drug addicts is still dominated by a single electroencephalography (EEG), near- infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), or magnetic resonance imaging scan. The multimodal physiological data acquisition method based on EEG–NIRS technique is relatively ...


Genome-Wide Studies Of Time Of Day In The Brain: Design And Analysis, Gang Wu, Marc D. Ruben, Yinyeng Lee, Jiajia Li, Michael E. Hughes, John B. Hogenesch 2020 Divisions of Human Genetics and Immunobiology, Center for Chronobiology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 240 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45229, U.S.A.

Genome-Wide Studies Of Time Of Day In The Brain: Design And Analysis, Gang Wu, Marc D. Ruben, Yinyeng Lee, Jiajia Li, Michael E. Hughes, John B. Hogenesch

Brain Science Advances

Transcriptome profiling at different times of day is powerful for studying circadian regulation in model organisms and humans. To date, 24 h profiles from many tissue types suggest that about half of all genes are circadian-expressed somewhere in the body. However, few of these studies focused on the brain. Thus, despite known links between circadian disruption and neurological disease, we have virtually no mechanistic understanding. In the coming decade, we expect more genome-wide studies of time of day in different brain diseases, regions, and cell types. We expect just as many different approaches to the design and analysis of these ...


Embodied Tactile Perception And Learning, Huaping Liu, Di Guo, Fuchun Sun, Wuqiang Yang, Steve Furber, Tengchen Sun 2020 Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Embodied Tactile Perception And Learning, Huaping Liu, Di Guo, Fuchun Sun, Wuqiang Yang, Steve Furber, Tengchen Sun

Brain Science Advances

Various living creatures exhibit embodiment intelligence, which is reflected by a collaborative interaction of the brain, body, and environment. The actual behavior of embodiment intelligence is generated by a continuous and dynamic interaction between a subject and the environment through information perception and physical manipulation. The physical interaction between a robot and the environment is the basis for realizing embodied perception and learning. Tactile information plays a critical role in this physical interaction process. It can be used to ensure safety, stability, and compliance, and can provide unique information that is difficult to capture using other perception modalities. However, due ...


Circadian Rhythm And Neurodegenerative Disorders, Michelle Werdann, Yong Zhang 2020 Department of Biology, University of Nevada Reno, 1664 N Virginia St, Reno, NV 89557, U.S.A.

Circadian Rhythm And Neurodegenerative Disorders, Michelle Werdann, Yong Zhang

Brain Science Advances

The circadian clock controls daily rhythms in animal physiology, metabolism, and behavior, such as the sleep-wake cycle. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been revealed in many diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, patients with many neurodegenerative diseases often show problems with circadian clocks even years before other symptoms develop. Here we review the recent studies identifying the association between circadian rhythms and several major neurodegenerative disorders. Early intervention of circadian rhythms may benefit the treatment of neurodegeneration.


Chronotype Distribution In The Chinese Population, Zhiwei Liu, Yingying Dong, Ying Xu, Fei Zhou 2020 Cambridge-Suda (CAM-SU) Genomic Resource Center, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuropsychiatric Diseases Research, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu, China

Chronotype Distribution In The Chinese Population, Zhiwei Liu, Yingying Dong, Ying Xu, Fei Zhou

Brain Science Advances

Purpose:Individual chronotypes are reported to be closely associated with mood, health status, and even disease progression. However, no reports of chronotype distribution in the Chinese population have been made available to date.Methods:We performed a chronotype survey using the classic Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire both online and offline. The webpage-based online survey was distributed via a social network application on mobile phones. The offline survey was distributed to local primary and middle schools. A total of 9476 questionnaires were collected, of which 8395 were valid. The mean age of the participants was 30.38 ± 11.47 years, and 37 ...


The Progress In The Treatment Of Spastic Cerebral Palsy With Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy (Sdr), Qi Sun, Wenling Huang, Bowen Deng, Jingpei Ren, Yi Zhao, Xiaohong Mu, Lin Xu 2020 Department of Orthopedics, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100700, China

The Progress In The Treatment Of Spastic Cerebral Palsy With Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy (Sdr), Qi Sun, Wenling Huang, Bowen Deng, Jingpei Ren, Yi Zhao, Xiaohong Mu, Lin Xu

Brain Science Advances

Spasticity is the main disabling clinical manifestation of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) has been performed for the treatment of spastic CP in Asia for quite some time from 1990. The purpose of this review is to discuss the historical origin and development of SDR. Our goal here is to identify the current patient selection criteria for SDR and to point out indications and contraindications based on the patients with CP, age from 2 to 18 years-old, over 6000 cases, who received SDR surgery with spasticity of muscle tension more than 3 degrees in our center ...


Selective Peripheral Neurotomy (Spn) As A Treatment Strategy For Spasticity, Juan Fan, Ronald Milosevic, Shijie Wang 2020 Yuquan Hosipital, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100040, China

Selective Peripheral Neurotomy (Spn) As A Treatment Strategy For Spasticity, Juan Fan, Ronald Milosevic, Shijie Wang

Brain Science Advances

Spasticity can be caused by central nervous system dysfunction, such as cerebral palsy and stroke. The accepted pathogenesis of spasticity is that the muscles are in the state of uninhibited stretch reflex without enough control of central nervous system. So far, there is no ideal way about how to repair central nervous system. However, the uninhibited stretch reflex can be reduced, targeting the posterior root of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves innervating the limbs, which are called selective posterior rhizotomy (SPR) and selective peripheral neurotomy (SPN), respectively. SPN is indicated for focal or multifocal spasticity, which is well accepted ...


Orthopedic Treatment Of The Lower Limbs In Spastic Paralysis, Xiaohong Mu, Bowen Deng, Jie Zeng, Houjun Zhang, Yi Zhao, Qi Sun, Jie Xu, Le Wang, Lin Xu 2020 Department of Orthopedics, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100700, China

Orthopedic Treatment Of The Lower Limbs In Spastic Paralysis, Xiaohong Mu, Bowen Deng, Jie Zeng, Houjun Zhang, Yi Zhao, Qi Sun, Jie Xu, Le Wang, Lin Xu

Brain Science Advances

Spastic paralysis of the limb mainly results from the central lesion, in which spastic cerebral palsy is the common cause. Due to durative muscle spasm in spastic cerebral palsy, it is often accompanied by the formation of secondary musculoskeletal deformities, resulting in limb motor disability. Based on its pathogenesis, surgical treatment is currently applied: selective posterior rhizotomy (SPR) or orthopedic surgery. The primary purpose of early orthopedic surgery was simply to correct limb deformities, which usually led to the recurrence of deformity as a result of the presence of spasticity. With the application of SPR, high muscle tone was successfully ...


Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring In Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy (Sdr), Wenbin Jiang, Qijia Zhan, Junlu Wang, Rong Mei, Bo Xiao 2020 Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai Children’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200062, China

Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring In Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy (Sdr), Wenbin Jiang, Qijia Zhan, Junlu Wang, Rong Mei, Bo Xiao

Brain Science Advances

For decades, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) has been used to guide selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) for the treatment of spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Electromyography (EMG) interpretation methods, which are the core of IONM, have never been fully discussed and addressed, and their importance and necessity in SDR have been questioned for years. However, outcomes of CP patients who have undergone IONM-guided SDR have been favorable, and surgery-related complications are extremely minimal. In this paper, we review the history of evolving EMG interpretation methods as well as their neuroelectro- physiological basis.


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