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Molecular Mechanisms Of Opioid Use Disorder In Human Brain Models, Emily Mendez 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

Molecular Mechanisms Of Opioid Use Disorder In Human Brain Models, Emily Mendez

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a national and global public health crisis with no end in sight. While studies from animal models hint at widespread epigenetic and transcriptomic alterations of opioid drugs, the molecular consequences of long-term exposure to opioid drugs in human brain is still unclear, and human-centered translational models are necessary to discern the human cell type-specific effects of OUD.

Using postmortem brain Brodmann area 9 (BA9) from the UTHealth Brain Collection for Research on Psychiatric Disorders, I identified angiogenic gene networks perturbed in the RNA and protein of OUD subjects, as well as downregulation of many neuron-correlated …


Birds, Bats And Minds. Tales Of A Revolutionary Scientist: Donald R. Griffin. Volume 2, Carolyn A. Ristau 2024 WellBeing International

Birds, Bats And Minds. Tales Of A Revolutionary Scientist: Donald R. Griffin. Volume 2, Carolyn A. Ristau

eBooks

In this three-volume biography, we revisit the life and accomplishments of the revolutionary scientist, Donald R. Griffin. He encountered a lifetime of initial hostile resistance to his ideas and studies; now they are largely accepted. He and a colleague discovered the phenomenon of echolocation used by bats to navigate and capture insects, proposed that birds navigate guided by such cues as the sun and stars, and suggested that animals are likely aware, thinking and feeling beings. Forty interviews with his colleagues and friends help us understand the young emerging scientist and the mature researcher. We learn about his and others’ …


The Role Of Glutamate In The Medial Prefrontal Cortex In The Acquistion And Expression Of Conditioned Approach, Rudolf Nisanov 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Glutamate In The Medial Prefrontal Cortex In The Acquistion And Expression Of Conditioned Approach, Rudolf Nisanov

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A series of experiments were conducted to assess the role of glutamatergic stimulation in the dorsal and ventral regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in both the acquisition and expression of reward-related learning using a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, the conditioned-approach paradigm. Rats with surgically implanted cannulas were exposed to Pavlovian conditioning sessions that occurred on three alternative days (acquisition) or seven consecutive days (expression). These 60-min conditioning sessions consisted of 30 pairings of light (CS) and food pellets (US) presented under a random time schedule. After a two-day break, rats underwent a session with no CS or US and …


Neurochemical Signaling Of Reward-Based Learning In Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons, Kyla F. Wholley 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Neurochemical Signaling Of Reward-Based Learning In Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons, Kyla F. Wholley

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons signal and participate in reward-related learning. Specifically, dopamine is postulated to encode reward-related environmental stimuli to compute reward prediction errors (RPEs). It is through the computation and maintenance of RPEs that learning occurs. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie how dopamine neurons compute RPEs and facilitate reward-related learning. The present study utilized fiber photometry in conjunction with a Pavlovian reward-based task to identify how GABA inputs to VTA dopamine neurons contribute to the computation of RPEs and reward-based behavior. Activity of GABA inputs to VTA dopamine neurons increased for reward-predicting …


The Scientist Who Discovered Bat Sonar And The Minds Of Animals. Donald R Griffin: A Revolutionary. Volume 1, Carolyn A. Ristau 2024 WellBeing International

The Scientist Who Discovered Bat Sonar And The Minds Of Animals. Donald R Griffin: A Revolutionary. Volume 1, Carolyn A. Ristau

eBooks

In this three-volume biography, we revisit the life and accomplishments of the revolutionary scientist, Donald R. Griffin. He encountered a lifetime of initial hostile resistance to his ideas and studies; now they are largely accepted. He and a colleague discovered the phenomenon of echolocation used by bats to navigate and capture insects, proposed that birds navigate guided by such cues as the sun and stars, and suggested that animals are likely aware, thinking and feeling beings. Forty interviews with his colleagues and friends help us understand the young emerging scientist and the mature researcher. We learn about his and others’ …


The Effect Of Caffeine On Bee Behavior: A Progressive Ratio Study, Kayle Cohen, Becky Hansis-O'Neill, Aimee Dunlap Dr 2024 University of Missouri-St. Louis

The Effect Of Caffeine On Bee Behavior: A Progressive Ratio Study, Kayle Cohen, Becky Hansis-O'Neill, Aimee Dunlap Dr

Undergraduate Research Symposium

This presentation focuses on the effect of caffeine on bee behavior using behavioral pharmacology methodologies. Researchers trained bumblebees to drink out of artificial flowers, then administered sucrose nectar or caffeinated sucrose nectar during a schedule of progressive and fixed ratios. The finding suggests that caffeine did increase the number of rewards during the fixed ratio, but not in the progressive ratio. However, research is still ongoing as bees continue to be tested..


The Effect Of Pornography On Marriage And Its Societal Impacts: A Neurobiological Perspective, Katie ROSE Geer 2024 Liberty University

The Effect Of Pornography On Marriage And Its Societal Impacts: A Neurobiological Perspective, Katie Rose Geer

NEXUS: The Liberty Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies

No abstract provided.


Assessing Neurobehavioral Deficits And Neuroinflammation Following Rllb In A Transgenic Mouse Model, Aakaash Gosain 2023 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Assessing Neurobehavioral Deficits And Neuroinflammation Following Rllb In A Transgenic Mouse Model, Aakaash Gosain

Theses

As global conflicts are escalating, military personnel have long faced the constant threat of explosions, heightening the risk of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). The recent increase in war conflicts and combat zones worldwide not only puts the military, service members, and police forces at risk but also innocent civilians who are caught in the crossfire. While moderate to severe bTBIs have been extensively studied, the pathology of repeated low-level blasts (rLLB) remains less understood. This research addresses the gap in knowledge regarding the long-term consequences of rLLB injuries in the neural anatomy. A transgenic mouse model was subjected to …


Nucleus Accumbens Core Single Cell Ensembles Bidirectionally Respond To Experienced Versus Observed Aversive Events, Oyku Dinckol, Noah Harris Wenger, Jennifer E Zachry, Munir Gunes Kutlu 2023 Rowan University

Nucleus Accumbens Core Single Cell Ensembles Bidirectionally Respond To Experienced Versus Observed Aversive Events, Oyku Dinckol, Noah Harris Wenger, Jennifer E Zachry, Munir Gunes Kutlu

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Fear learning is a critical feature of survival skills among mammals. In rodents, fear learning manifests itself through direct experience of the aversive event or social transmission of aversive stimuli such as observing and acting on conspecifics' distress. The neuronal network underlying the social transmission of information largely overlaps with the brain regions that mediate behavioral responses to aversive and rewarding stimuli. In this study, we recorded single cell activity patterns of nucleus accumbens (NAc) core neurons using in vivo optical imaging of calcium transients via miniature scopes. This cutting-edge imaging methodology not only allows us to record activity patterns …


Age Impacts Perineuronal Net Density In The Somatosensory Genital Cortex Independently Of Gonadal Steroid Hormones, Ian D. Warren 2023 Univeristy of Tennessee at Knoxville

Age Impacts Perineuronal Net Density In The Somatosensory Genital Cortex Independently Of Gonadal Steroid Hormones, Ian D. Warren

Masters Theses

A hallmark of pubertal development is the rise in gonadal hormone secretions and the subsequent onset of sexual behavior. The size of the somatosensory genital cortex increases in response to both this rise in gonadal steroid hormones and sexual experience. However, whether specific markers of brain plasticity are similarly impacted by gonadal hormones during puberty is not known. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix structures that unsheathe neurons as they mature, and their maturation coincides with the closure of sensitive periods across several sensory systems. PNNs in somatosensory cortex, as an example, respond to experience-dependent plasticity. Although experience-depended changes …


Using A Toxic Aging Coin To Assess Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Neurotoxicity., Samuel Thomas Vielee 2023 University of Louisville

Using A Toxic Aging Coin To Assess Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Neurotoxicity., Samuel Thomas Vielee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We are facing an aging crisis, with 20% of the U.S. population projected to be geriatric (65+) by 2030 and live another 40+ years. Age-related diseases accompany a growing geriatric population, emphasizing the need to understand their etiology. Environmental pollutants compound this crisis by: 1) geriatrics are more susceptible, exacerbating age-related diseases and comorbidities, and 2) they accelerate biological aging, inducing age-related diseases at younger ages. We address this crisis using a ‘toxic aging coin’ approach; heads examines how age impacts toxicity, tails examines how chemicals accelerate aging. This thesis applies the heads side for Cr(VI)-induced neurotoxicity across ages. We …


Identification And Delineation Of Neuronal Pathways Underlying Hypophagia, Jing Cai 2023 The Texas Medical Center Library

Identification And Delineation Of Neuronal Pathways Underlying Hypophagia, Jing Cai

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

In terms of metabolism, eating disorders manifest in two extreme directions: overnutrition, which can lead to obesity, and malnutrition, which can result in underweight or even starvation. Both extremes compromise the quality of life. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) standard, eating disorders affect up to 17.9% of young women and 2.4% of young men. Although eating disorders are primarily defined as mental disorders rather than metabolic disorders, they are intertwined with complex emotions and sensory perceptions. However, in contemporary animal research related to eating disorders and feeding behaviors, the majority of neuroscientists still examine …


An Investigation Of The Role Of Amygdalar Circuits In The Production Of Social Behavior, Joseph FD Dwyer 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

An Investigation Of The Role Of Amygdalar Circuits In The Production Of Social Behavior, Joseph Fd Dwyer

Doctoral Dissertations

Adaptive social behaviors allow animals to survive, thrive, and successfully reproduce. These behaviors, including mating, parenting, affiliation, and aggression, can be stereotyped in response to specific stimuli but often display sex-specific, and interoceptive-dependent variations in their execution. A conserved set of brain regions collectively known as the social behavior network (SBN) interprets sensory information about social cues and generates an appropriate behavioral response. In this dissertation I present 5 chapters. Chapter 1 introduces historical research focusing on the neural circuits that drive social behavior and the potential impact of environmental factors on the activity of these circuits. Chapter 2 describes …


Sex Differences In Stress Reactivity, Brain Morphology, And Oxytocin In The Hypothalamus Of The Gray Short-Tailed Opossum (Monodelphis Domestica), Esperanza I. Zacarias, Daniela Rodriguez, Alexandra Chalons, Sasawan Heingraj, Nicole Altamirano, Joseph Rafac, John L. VandeBerg, Mario Gil 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Sex Differences In Stress Reactivity, Brain Morphology, And Oxytocin In The Hypothalamus Of The Gray Short-Tailed Opossum (Monodelphis Domestica), Esperanza I. Zacarias, Daniela Rodriguez, Alexandra Chalons, Sasawan Heingraj, Nicole Altamirano, Joseph Rafac, John L. Vandeberg, Mario Gil

Research Colloquium

Understanding the effects of stress on behavior and cognition is important due to its impact on mental health and wellbeing (Schneiderman et al. 2005). Translational animal research can contribute to the development of new treatments that can improve therapeutic outcomes and our understanding of the neurobiology of stress. In the present study, we complement behavioral stress reactivity with immunohistochemical localization of oxytocin in the hypothalamus, a neuropeptide that regulates stress (Neumann & Slattery, 2016). Oxytocin has potential therapeutic use for mental health disorders (Neumann & Slattery, 2016), and the effects of oxytocin seem to be sexually dimorphic (Love, 2018). Using …


Understanding The Resources, Barriers, Facilitators And Interests About Aging And Dementia Research Of Community Members From The Rio Grande Valley, Karla Daniela Lopez Lorenzo, Rosa V. Pirela Mavarez, Gabriela Osuna, Kendra Stine, Nahalie Chacon de Alvarez, Noe Garza, Gladys E. Maestre 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Understanding The Resources, Barriers, Facilitators And Interests About Aging And Dementia Research Of Community Members From The Rio Grande Valley, Karla Daniela Lopez Lorenzo, Rosa V. Pirela Mavarez, Gabriela Osuna, Kendra Stine, Nahalie Chacon De Alvarez, Noe Garza, Gladys E. Maestre

Research Symposium

Background: One of ten people aged 65 develops Alzheimer’s Disease and it is one of the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States. The Rio Grande Valley (RGV) is mostly constituted by Hispanic/Latinos (93%), a population that has a 1.5X increased risk of AD onset. Nevertheless, there are not enough resources to support people living with dementia and their care partners. This study will leverage research efforts deployed by the RGV Alzheimer’s Disease Resource Center for Minority Aging Research to understand the social representations about the resources, barriers, facilitators, and interests of the RGV community about dementia and Alzheimer’s …


Editorial: Sex Differences In The Neurobiology Of Drug Relapse Vulnerability, Daniel F Manvich, Jessica A Loweth, Wendy J Lynch, Jayme R McReynolds 2023 Rowan University

Editorial: Sex Differences In The Neurobiology Of Drug Relapse Vulnerability, Daniel F Manvich, Jessica A Loweth, Wendy J Lynch, Jayme R Mcreynolds

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Automatic Analysis Of The Frequency, Vigor, And Complexity Of Spontaneous Locomotion Bouts Of Mice With Loss And Gain Of Function Of The G Protein-Coupled Receptor Smoothened In Cholinergic Neurons, Aleksandra Feshchenko 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Automatic Analysis Of The Frequency, Vigor, And Complexity Of Spontaneous Locomotion Bouts Of Mice With Loss And Gain Of Function Of The G Protein-Coupled Receptor Smoothened In Cholinergic Neurons, Aleksandra Feshchenko

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Locomotion, a fundamental behavior, is classically assessed using simple metrics of velocity and total distance moved in an open field. This behavior however offers rich data about the organization and breadth of actions an animal can take while only facing limitations due to the bio-mechanical constraints of the organism. Importantly, these actions are not biased towards a particular task-solution space imposed by many behavioral paradigms. Here, to analyze motor complexity in freely ambulating mice, we developed a method for the automatic and unbiased identification of locomotor bouts which we call Bout Finder (BF). This analysis utilizes Open Feld data to …


Brainwaves, Memory, And Reward, Rebecca McCune 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Brainwaves, Memory, And Reward, Rebecca Mccune

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The development of effective educational curricula for enhancing learning involves the crucial consideration of effort and rewards. In the realm of education, teachers commonly employ rewards as motivational tools. Traditionally, these rewards are given to students as a recognition of their successful performance. However, a thought-provoking idea emerges: What if we were to extend rewards to students not solely based on accurate answers, but also on the effort they invest, even in cases where their actual response might be incorrect? Our study explores the potential impact of this approach on the way information is absorbed and subsequently retained, specifically focusing …


The Role Of Serotonin In The Estradiol-Dependent Selectivity Of Auditory Regions In Songbirds, Calista J. Henry 2023 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of Serotonin In The Estradiol-Dependent Selectivity Of Auditory Regions In Songbirds, Calista J. Henry

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Breeding-typical levels of estradiol in songbirds has been shown to lead to selective auditory processing and induce a release of serotonin in auditory regions of the forebrain. These findings triggered the question of whether auditory discrimination is driven by estradiol directly, or by the associated release of serotonin. I treated non-breeding female white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) with either blank implants, 17β-estradiol, serotonin enhancer and blank implants, or serotonin antagonist and 17β-estradiol implants. Birds then heard male conspecific songs or control tones, and ZENK-immunoreactivity was quantified in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM). While I did not …


Sex Differences In Mood And Anxiety-Related Outcomes In Response To Adolescent Nicotine Exposure, Tsun Hay Jason Ng 2023 The University of Western Ontario

Sex Differences In Mood And Anxiety-Related Outcomes In Response To Adolescent Nicotine Exposure, Tsun Hay Jason Ng

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nicotine dependence is causally linked to increased risk of mood/anxiety disorders in later life. Females are reported to experience a higher prevalence of anxiety/depressive disorders and challenges in smoking cessation therapies, suggesting a potential sex-specific response to nicotine exposure and mood/anxiety disorder risk. However, pre-clinical evidence of sex-specific responses to adolescent nicotine exposure is unclear. Thus, to determine any sex differences in anxiety/depressive-related outcomes, adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg; 3x daily) or saline injections for 10 consecutive days, followed by behavioural testing, in-vivo electrophysiology and Western Blot analyses. Our results revealed that adolescent nicotine …


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