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Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor 2023 West Virginia University

Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical interface between the systemic circulation and the brain. It is a specialized multicellular unit composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes, a basement membrane, and astrocytic end foot processes. BMECs are a principal component of the BBB that provide the structural framework needed for the stringent transport of molecules into the brain. BMEC dysfunction permits the trafficking of neurotoxins from systemic circulation into the brain, which ultimately exacerbates BBB dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Studies have shown that BBB dysfunction is a key determinant of cognitive decline in sepsis. However, there are critical knowledge …


Neural Systems Underlying Rdoc Social Constructs: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis, Rosario Pintos Lobo, Katherine L. Bottenhorn, Michael C. Riedel, Afra I. Toma, Megan M. Hare, Donisha D. Smith, Alexandra C. Moor, Isis K. Cowan, Javier A. Valdes, Jessica E. Bartley, Taylor Salo, Emily R. Boeving, Brianna Pankey, Matthew T. Sutherland, Erica D. Musser, Angela R. Laird 2023 Old Dominion University

Neural Systems Underlying Rdoc Social Constructs: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis, Rosario Pintos Lobo, Katherine L. Bottenhorn, Michael C. Riedel, Afra I. Toma, Megan M. Hare, Donisha D. Smith, Alexandra C. Moor, Isis K. Cowan, Javier A. Valdes, Jessica E. Bartley, Taylor Salo, Emily R. Boeving, Brianna Pankey, Matthew T. Sutherland, Erica D. Musser, Angela R. Laird

Psychology Faculty Publications

Neuroscientists have sought to identify the underlying neural systems supporting social processing that allow interaction and communication, forming social relationships, and navigating the social world. Through the use of NIMH’s Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework, we evaluated consensus among studies that examined brain activity during social tasks to elucidate regions comprising the “social brain”. We examined convergence across tasks corresponding to the four RDoC social constructs, including Affiliation and Attachment, Social Communication, Perception and Understanding of Self, and Perception and Understanding of Others. We performed a series of coordinate-based meta-analyses using the activation likelihood estimate (ALE) method. Meta-analysis was performed …


Vapourized Cannabis Extract Administration Impairs Memory And Alters Neural Activity In Laboratory Rats, Megan Chladny 2023 Wilfrid Laurier University

Vapourized Cannabis Extract Administration Impairs Memory And Alters Neural Activity In Laboratory Rats, Megan Chladny

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Although people have smoked cannabis for millennia, administration of cannabis by heating the dried plant material or distilled extracts to a temperature just below the combustion point (i.e., vapourization or "vaping") has rapidly increased over the past few years (Javadi-Payder, Cole, and Taffe, 2018; Manwell, Charchoglyan, Brewer, Matthews, Heipel, and Mallet, 2014). Conversely, most of the cannabinoid research using rodent models has used parenteral routes of administration to examine the effects of purified cannabis extracts such as ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), making it difficult to directly compare laboratory research to human drug use. Building on previous studies showing that THC …


Nicotiana Glauca Graham (Solanaceae) Bioactivity And Toxic Effects On Mortality, Feeding Behavior And Pupation Choice Of Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Abir Bouzar, Sarra Habbachi, Ibtissem Samai, Makarem Rahat, Nour El Imene Boublata, Saadane Fatma Zohra, Wafa Habbachi, Benhissen Saliha, Abdelkrim Tahraoui 2022 Applied Neuroendocrinology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Badji Mokhtar Annaba 23000,Algeria.

Nicotiana Glauca Graham (Solanaceae) Bioactivity And Toxic Effects On Mortality, Feeding Behavior And Pupation Choice Of Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Abir Bouzar, Sarra Habbachi, Ibtissem Samai, Makarem Rahat, Nour El Imene Boublata, Saadane Fatma Zohra, Wafa Habbachi, Benhissen Saliha, Abdelkrim Tahraoui

Journal of Bioresource Management

Nicotiana glauca is a medicinal plant used by traditional healers as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anti-inflammatory medicines. The leaves of N. glauca are very rich in indolic alkaloids which give it a larvicidal power which allows us to use it as a bio-insecticide.In the present study we were perfomed in the direct (mortality) and indirect (food attractiveness and pupation) toxic effects of the aqueous extract of N. glauca on the mortality and feeding behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The treatment was administered to 2nd instar larvae (L2) and the mortality rate was monitored for 15 days. Similarly we …


Anatomical Analysis Of Olfactory Sensory Neuron Regeneration Via Glomerular Synaptic Activity Markers In Adult Mice, William Wamack 2022 East Tennessee State University

Anatomical Analysis Of Olfactory Sensory Neuron Regeneration Via Glomerular Synaptic Activity Markers In Adult Mice, William Wamack

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The olfactory system is a great model for studying regeneration due to the olfactory epithelium’s regenerative capability which makes it a potential a source of neural stem cells. The olfactory epithelium presents three types of cells: sustentacular cells which provide support and act as glial supporting cells; olfactory sensory neurons that are in charge of detecting odorant molecules in the air; and the stem cells that generated the aforementioned cell types. Olfactory sensory neurons are constantly dying and being replaced by new neurons originating from the stem cells that lie at the base of the olfactory epithelium. We have used …


Impact Of Adolescent Social Isolation On Adult, Binge-Like Ethanol Consumption And Plasma Corticosterone In High-Alcohol-Preferring Mice, Eva Cullins 2022 Purdue University

Impact Of Adolescent Social Isolation On Adult, Binge-Like Ethanol Consumption And Plasma Corticosterone In High-Alcohol-Preferring Mice, Eva Cullins

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Adolescent stress exposure increases the likelihood of alcohol misuse and alcohol use disorder (AUD) in adulthood; however, it is not clear how genetic and environmental factors interact to increase risk. This study examined how adolescent social isolation affects adult binge-like ethanol drinking and levels of the stress hormone corticosterone in male and female mice with a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol preference (HAP). Twenty-eight HAP mice were separated into group-housed (GH) and socially isolated (SI) conditions (n = 13, 13). Binge drinking was assessed using a drinking in the dark (DID) procedure. Blood samples were taken before DID and after …


The Express Sensorimotor Response Selects Visual Features Based On Instruction, David Youhanna Mekhaiel 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Express Sensorimotor Response Selects Visual Features Based On Instruction, David Youhanna Mekhaiel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In time-sensitive situations, orienting reflexes allow us to move rapidly in response to stimuli. The express sensorimotor response (ESR) is an orienting reflex presenting as a brief burst of muscle recruitment. Previous studies have identified commonalities between ESRs and express saccades, another orienting reflex.

In this study, we investigate if ESRs share in a characteristic of express saccades: preference for faces. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to reach toward one of two simultaneously appearing targets: a face and another image. Muscle activity in the pectoralis major muscle of the reaching arm was recorded using skin surface EMGs.

We …


Belonging Amidst Bias: Embracing Difference On The Path To Common Humanity, Alyssia Sheikh 2022 Lesley University

Belonging Amidst Bias: Embracing Difference On The Path To Common Humanity, Alyssia Sheikh

Mindfulness Studies Theses

The mindfulness community prioritizes self-awareness and common humanity, but is often entrapped by the idea that oneness is equivalent to sameness. This inclination for objectivity is rooted in the same neural propensities that facilitate bias; the brain is a subjective organ, however, and so neurologically speaking, bias is inevitable. This paper asks: Is striving for sameness separating us from interconnectedness? A human experience is a subjective, diverse, and variable one. The path to shared humanity and social justice co-occurs with increasing cultural humility through mindful awareness and acknowledging our subjective nature. Exploring our neurological tendency to make assumptions, we …


Dietary Regulation Of Silent Synapses In The Dorsolateral Striatum, Allison M. Meyers 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Dietary Regulation Of Silent Synapses In The Dorsolateral Striatum, Allison M. Meyers

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Obesity and drugs of abuse share overlapping neural circuits and behaviors. Cravings for drugs of abuse increase during abstinence, a phenomenon known as incubation. In obesity, increased craving is observed in individuals during dieting. Diets often fail, with return to- or increase above- original weight. The extent to which this reflects an incubation phenomenon has not been carefully examined. One mechanism underlying incubation is the reemergence of a developmental mechanism called silent synapses. Silent synapses are 'temporary' synapses that are important for remodeling brain circuits. They are prevalent during early development but largely disappear by adulthood. Drugs of abuse increase …


A Polypharmacological Approach To Relapse Prevention In An Animal Model Of Heroin Addiction, Scott T. Ewing 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Polypharmacological Approach To Relapse Prevention In An Animal Model Of Heroin Addiction, Scott T. Ewing

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Chemical compounds that target dopamine (DA) D1 or D3 receptors have shown promise as potential interventions in animal models of cue-induced relapse. However, undesirable side effects or pharmacodynamic profiles have limited the advancement of new compounds in preclinical studies when administered as independent treatments. In this series of experiments, we explored the effects of co-administration of a D1-recepter partial agonist (SKF 77434) and a D3-receptor antagonist (NGB 2904) in heroin-seeking rats within a ‘conflict’ model of abstinence and cue-induced relapse. Rats were first trained to press a lever to self-administer heroin and drug delivery was paired contingently with cues (e.g., …


Investigation Of Neurotransmitter’S Knockdown Effect On Drosophila Melanogaster Female Aggression, Asil N. El Galad 2022 Western University

Investigation Of Neurotransmitter’S Knockdown Effect On Drosophila Melanogaster Female Aggression, Asil N. El Galad

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) is a popular model organism in neurobiology. While aggression has been studied heavily in male drosophila, there's minimal research on aggression in female drosophila. Neurotransmitters influencing aggressive behaviour in female D. melanogaster are poorly understood. Various neurotransmitters such as dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin influence aggression in D. melanogaster Further investigation of the role of neurotransmitters on aggression is thus important. The purpose of our experiment is to observe the effect of the knockdown of dopamine, octopamine and glutamate on aggression in female D. melanogaster.


The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen KW Wong 2022 Western University

The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Clinical and preclinical studies indicate prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) pathologically affects fetal brain development and may increase vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood/anxiety disorders. In review research from our lab suggests that fetal exposure to Δ9-THC sex-selectively impairs mesocorticolimbic (MCL) circuit function. However, there is a distinct lack of focus on PCE models on the BLA. The BLA plays a central role within the MCL where it directly interacts with the VTA, PFC and HIPP. Importantly, our model exhibits significant VTA hyperdopaminergic activity, and sex-specific alterations to PFC/HIPP glutamate firing, alongside region- and sex-specific changes in dopamine (DA), …


Genetic Determinants Of Primary Nociceptor Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster, Christine Hale 2022 University of Maine

Genetic Determinants Of Primary Nociceptor Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster, Christine Hale

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Abnormal pain affects ~50 million adults nationwide. With many of the current treatment options for chronic pain, such as opioid analgesics, carrying side effects such as the threat for addiction, research into safer and more effective options for chronic pain relief is crucial. Abnormal alterations in nociceptive sensitivity, which is the sensitivity of peripheral sensory neurons that detect noxious stimuli, can underlie, and perpetuate chronic pain. However, much is still unknown about the mechanism of how these abnormal alterations in sensitivity occur. To help elucidate genetic components controlling nociceptive sensitivity, the Drosophila melanogaster larval nociception model has been used …


Assessing The Impact Of Lipopolysaccharide On Learning And Memory In Rats, Anahat Luthra 2022 Western University

Assessing The Impact Of Lipopolysaccharide On Learning And Memory In Rats, Anahat Luthra

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) have a bi-direction relationship, modulating one another.4 Proinflammatory cytokines released from CNS immune cells have an impact on cognitive processes such as learning and memory.1 Liposaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, which is used to activate proinflammatory cytokine release has been found to impact learning and memory processes, such as in the anticipatory nausea paradigm (ANP).2 Anticipatory nausea and vomiting is that which may occur before a chemotherapy treatment session begins in a patient who has had chemotherapy before. It is caused by triggers like …


Stimulus Duration Alters Temporal Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Audiovisual Perception, Juwairiya F. Ahmad 2022 Western University

Stimulus Duration Alters Temporal Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Audiovisual Perception, Juwairiya F. Ahmad

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of stimulus duration on the perceived temporal order judgement in Long Evans rats.


Impacts On Fast-Start Performance: How Do Group Size And Habitat Degradation Alter The Escape Behavior Of A Schooling Coral Reef Fish?, Monica D. Bacchus 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Impacts On Fast-Start Performance: How Do Group Size And Habitat Degradation Alter The Escape Behavior Of A Schooling Coral Reef Fish?, Monica D. Bacchus

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Escaping predation is essential for species survival, but prey must effectively match their response to the perceived threat imposed by a predator. Fish evaluate their surroundings using several sensory stimuli, including olfactory, visual, auditory, and mechanical cues. A range of taxa use the fast-start response to evade predators, including fishes, sharks, and larval amphibians. While the fast-start response (rapid bursts of swimming) is extensively studied in solitary fishes, the factors that mediate the collective escape response in schools of fish have historically been investigated far less. To address this knowledge gap, the collective escape behavior and individual escape performance of …


The Distinction Of Logical Decision According To The Model Of The Analysis Of Brain Signals (Eeg), Akeel Abdulkareem Al-Sakaa, Zaid H. Nasralla, Mohsin Hasan Hussein, Saif A. Abd, Hazim Alsaqaa, Kesra Nermend, Anna Borawska 2022 College of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Kerbala - Iraq

The Distinction Of Logical Decision According To The Model Of The Analysis Of Brain Signals (Eeg), Akeel Abdulkareem Al-Sakaa, Zaid H. Nasralla, Mohsin Hasan Hussein, Saif A. Abd, Hazim Alsaqaa, Kesra Nermend, Anna Borawska

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

Recently, brain signal patterns have been recruited by researchers in different life activities. Researchers have studied each life activity and how brain signal patterns appear. These patterns could then be generalised and used in different disciplines. In this paper, we study the brain state during decision making in a lottery experiment. An EEG device is used to capture brain signals during an experiment to extract the optimal state for logical decision making. After collecting data, extracting useful information and then processing it, the proposed method is able to identify rational decisions from irrational ones with a success rate of 67%.


Behavioral And Histological Inflammatory Analysis Of A Single, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury And Repeated Subconcussive Brain Injury Using A Rodent Model., Anna Marie Clay 2022 Mississippi State University

Behavioral And Histological Inflammatory Analysis Of A Single, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury And Repeated Subconcussive Brain Injury Using A Rodent Model., Anna Marie Clay

Theses and Dissertations

Subconcussive (SC) impacts have become a growing concern within the neuroscience community regarding the immediate and long-lasting effects of sports-related injuries. While a single low-level impact, i.e., a subconcussion, may not cause cerebral perturbations, it has been increasingly recognized that repeated SC exposure can induce deleterious effects. Therefore, determining the lower limits of systematic perturbation resulting from multiple SC impacts is of critical importance in expanding our understanding of cerebral vulnerability and recovery. Currently, there is a lack of correlation between a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and repeated SC impacts with respect to injury biomechanics. Moreover, the cumulative threshold …


Analysis Of The Distributed Representation Of Operant Memory In Aplysia, Renan Murillo Costa 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Analysis Of The Distributed Representation Of Operant Memory In Aplysia, Renan Murillo Costa

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Operant conditioning, a ubiquitous form of learning in which animals learn from the consequences of behavior, engages a high-dimensional neuronal population space spanning multiple brain regions. A complete characterization of an operant memory remains elusive. Some sites of plasticity participating in the engram underlying an example of operant memory in Aplysia have been previously uncovered. Three studies are described here that sought to draw closer to a thorough characterization of this memory. The first study used a computational model to examine the ways in which sites of plasticity (individually and in combination) contribute to memory expression. Each site of plasticity …


Non-Photic Mechanisms Of Entrainment In Bmal1 Deficient Conditions, Jamie Tran 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Non-Photic Mechanisms Of Entrainment In Bmal1 Deficient Conditions, Jamie Tran

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Maintaining our internal circadian (i.e. 24 -hour) clock is imperative to our daily biological and mental well-being. Large epidemiological studies have shown that disruptions of our circadian rhythms can lead to poor mental health, metabolic diseases, and various types of cancer. Various external cues that have become a part of the modern times such as electricity, shift -work, rapid travel across various time zones, easier access to nutritionally unbalanced food items, and various rigid social demands have deleterious effects on our internal clock, and generally reduce robustness of the circadian clock. The two following projects aim to examine two fundamental …


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