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Deciphering The Firing Patterns Of Hippocampal Neurons During Sharp-Wave Ripples, Kourosh Maboudi Ashmankamachali 2022 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Deciphering The Firing Patterns Of Hippocampal Neurons During Sharp-Wave Ripples, Kourosh Maboudi Ashmankamachali

Theses and Dissertations

The hippocampus is essential for learning and memory. Neurons in the rat hippocampus selectively fire when the animal is at specific locations - place fields - within an environment. Place fields corresponding to such place cells tile the entire environment, forming a stable spatial map supporting navigation and planning. Remarkably, the same place cells reactivate together outside of their place fields and in coincidence with sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) - dominant electrical field oscillations (150-250 Hz) in the hippocampus. These offline SWR events frequently occur during quiet wake periods in the middle of exploration and the follow-up slow-wave sleep and are …


Multilingualism And Memory: Investigating Possible Differences In The Abilities Of Monolingual And Multilingual College Students, Clara E. Barned 2022 Bowling Green State University

Multilingualism And Memory: Investigating Possible Differences In The Abilities Of Monolingual And Multilingual College Students, Clara E. Barned

Honors Projects

This study investigated whether there is a difference in the memories of monolingual and multilingual undergraduate students using simple memorization tasks. There were 46 participants, 30 of which were monolingual (only knew one language) and 16 of which were multilingual (knew two or more languages). There was found to be no significant difference between the performance of the two groups, with the data generating a p-value of 0.557. This study further suggests related avenues of research and ways in which the study could be improved in the future.


Individual Differences In Lpp Amplitude And Theta Power Predict Cue-Induced Eating During A Cued Food Delivery Task, Kyla Gibney 2022 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Individual Differences In Lpp Amplitude And Theta Power Predict Cue-Induced Eating During A Cued Food Delivery Task, Kyla Gibney

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Due to individual differences in the brain’s reward system, some individuals are more vulnerable than others to maladaptive, reward-seeking behaviors, such as substance use or compulsive eating. A body of research has demonstrated that individuals who attribute higher levels of incentive salience to reward-associated cues than to pleasant images (termed “C>P group” throughout) are more vulnerable to compulsive eating than those who attribute higher incentive salience to pleasant images than reward- associated cues (P>C group). Meanwhile, a separate body of research has demonstrated that cognitive control also regulates eating by enabling top-down attentional control. This dissertation aims to …


Region Detection & Segmentation Of Nissl-Stained Rat Brain Tissue, Alexandro Arnal 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Region Detection & Segmentation Of Nissl-Stained Rat Brain Tissue, Alexandro Arnal

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

People who analyze images of biological tissue rely on the segmentation of structures as a preliminary step. In particular, laboratories studying the rat brain delineate brain regions to position scientific findings on a brain atlas to propose hypotheses about the rat brain and, ultimately, the human brain. Our work intersects with the preliminary step of delineating regions in images of brain tissue via computational methods.

We investigate pixel-wise classification or segmentation of brain regions using ten histological images of brain tissue sections stained for Nissl substance. We present a deep learning approach that uses the fully convolutional neural network, U-Net, …


Morphine-Induced Tolerance Is Reduced By The Consumption Of A Ketogenic Diet, But Not A High Fat/High Carbohydrate Diet, Nina Beltran 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Morphine-Induced Tolerance Is Reduced By The Consumption Of A Ketogenic Diet, But Not A High Fat/High Carbohydrate Diet, Nina Beltran

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Opioid drugs like morphine are used medicinally for pain relief, but also have abuse liability that can lead to opioid use disorder (OUD), which contributes to nearly 70% of drug overdose deaths in the United States. Another rising health concern is the global obesity epidemic, and new evidence suggests that obesity and OUD might converge to impact individuals. For example, high body mass index (BMI) is associated with greater reports of pain among women. Further, opioid overdose risk is increased among individuals diagnosed with obesity, suggesting a potential relationship that might convey enhanced vulnerability among some populations. Given the high …


A Structural Examination Of The Connection Between The Amygdala And Nucleus Accumbens In Adolescents With Clinical Anxiety, Alyssa Griffith 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Structural Examination Of The Connection Between The Amygdala And Nucleus Accumbens In Adolescents With Clinical Anxiety, Alyssa Griffith

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The prominence of anxiety disorders in today’s general population is a major public health concern. Advancing research of the underlying pathophysiology of anxiety disorders can lead to the discovery of effective treatment interventions to treat the mental and physical symptoms of anxiety, and thus improve quality of life. This study aimed to examine two brain areas in the limbic and reward systems, the amygdala and Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc), and the structural white matter connection between them. This neural circuit assigns affective valence to environmental stimuli and motivates behavior to avoid potential harm. This study utilized diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) …


High Performing Athletes: Does Cannabis Use Enhance Performance?, Racine Ross 2022 Kenyon College

High Performing Athletes: Does Cannabis Use Enhance Performance?, Racine Ross

Scientific Kenyon: The Neuroscience Edition

No abstract provided.


Regulation Of Hedgehog And Wnt Signaling In Neural Differentiation Of P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells, Danielle Margaret Spice 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Regulation Of Hedgehog And Wnt Signaling In Neural Differentiation Of P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells, Danielle Margaret Spice

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt protein signaling pathways are essential in the differentiation of neurons and astrocytes. As there are many known and new players involved in regulating these pathways, the role of the regulators Suppressor of Fused (SUFU) and Never in Mitosis Kinase 2 (Nek2) have either not been previously reported or have not been thoroughly explored. To address this shortfall CRISPR gene editing was used to target SUFU and Nek2 in the mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cell model of neural differentiation. Hh and Wnt signaling were explored in normal P19 neural differentiation, which occurs in the presence of …


The Clinical Value Of Oculomotor Assessments Across The Continuum Of Concussion, Dillon Richards 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Clinical Value Of Oculomotor Assessments Across The Continuum Of Concussion, Dillon Richards

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Concussions are complex conditions that are difficult to manage medically. Variations in symptom presentation, intricate neurophysiological processes, and the availability of a variety of possible assessment tools may contribute to this complexity. Clinicians must use a broad approach, employing both subjective symptom assessment and objective assessments to confirm a diagnosis and/or monitor progression and recovery. Oculomotor function after concussion may be an important indicator of injury, given the interconnectedness of oculomotor function, vestibulo-ocular and visual systems, and even cognition. Oculomotor function may be assessed objectively or indirectly using patient-reported symptom checklists as part of subjective assessments. One way of objectively …


Impact Of Adolescent Social Isolation On Adult, Binge-Like Ethanol Consumption And Plasma Corticosterone In High-Alcohol-Preferring Mice, Eva Cullins 2022 Purdue University

Impact Of Adolescent Social Isolation On Adult, Binge-Like Ethanol Consumption And Plasma Corticosterone In High-Alcohol-Preferring Mice, Eva Cullins

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Adolescent stress exposure increases the likelihood of alcohol misuse and alcohol use disorder (AUD) in adulthood; however, it is not clear how genetic and environmental factors interact to increase risk. This study examined how adolescent social isolation affects adult binge-like ethanol drinking and levels of the stress hormone corticosterone in male and female mice with a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol preference (HAP). Twenty-eight HAP mice were separated into group-housed (GH) and socially isolated (SI) conditions (n = 13, 13). Binge drinking was assessed using a drinking in the dark (DID) procedure. Blood samples were taken before DID and after …


Chemosensory Receptors In Berghia Stephanieae: Bioinformatics And Localization, Kelsi L. Watkins 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Chemosensory Receptors In Berghia Stephanieae: Bioinformatics And Localization, Kelsi L. Watkins

Masters Theses

Chemosensation is achieved through the binding of chemical signals to chemoreceptor proteins embedded in the membranes of sensory neurons. The molecular identity of these receptors, as well as the downstream processing of chemosensory signals, has been well studied in arthropods and vertebrates. However, very little is known about molluscan chemosensation. The identity of chemoreceptor proteins in the nudibranch mollusc Berghia stephanieae are unknown. Data from other protostome and molluscan studies suggest Berghia may use ionotropic receptors for some forms of chemoreception. This study used a bioinformatics approach to identify potential chemosensory ionotropic receptors in the transcriptome of Berghia. A …


The Effect Of Active Learning On Viewpoint Dependence For Novel Objects, Cassandra Wallace Bacher 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Active Learning On Viewpoint Dependence For Novel Objects, Cassandra Wallace Bacher

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Active learning of novel objects can facilitate subsequent object recognition and discrimination, but the reasons for its beneficial effects remain unclear. One potential explanation is that active learning enables the formation of a more detailed, realistic, or useful neural object representation than does passive learning. The current study addressed the question of whether active vs. passive learning of objects affects viewpoint discrimination. Participants learned novel wire-like objects either actively or passively and then completed a psychophysical task which they discriminated object orientation. This study did not find a significant difference in viewpoint discrimination between actively and passively learned object representations, …


Using Machine Learning To Identify Neural Mechanisms Underlying The Development Of Cognition In Children And Adolescents With Adhd, Brian Pho 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Using Machine Learning To Identify Neural Mechanisms Underlying The Development Of Cognition In Children And Adolescents With Adhd, Brian Pho

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Childhood and adolescence are marked by improvements to cognition and by the emergence of neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). What neural mechanisms are associated with cognitive development in ADHD? In this study, I applied machine learning models to functional connectivity profiles to identify patterns of network connectivity that predict various cognitive abilities in a group of participants ages 6 to 16 with ADHD. The models successfully predicted IQ, visual spatial, verbal comprehension, and fluid reasoning in children ages 6 to 11, but not adolescents. Furthermore, the models identified connections with the default mode, memory retrieval, and …


Three-Month Recovery From Common Negative Physical, Functional, And Psychosocial Effects Among Individuals Infected With Covid-19: A Single Observational Group Repeated Measure Study, Hussain I. Aslan, Scotty J. Butcher PhD, Darcy D. Marciniuk MD, Corey R. Tomczak PhD 2022 University of Saskatchewan

Three-Month Recovery From Common Negative Physical, Functional, And Psychosocial Effects Among Individuals Infected With Covid-19: A Single Observational Group Repeated Measure Study, Hussain I. Aslan, Scotty J. Butcher Phd, Darcy D. Marciniuk Md, Corey R. Tomczak Phd

NeuroSports

Purpose: We examined three-month recovery from common negative effects of COVID-19 infection on select physical, functional, and psychosocial parameters among infected individuals and their implications for rehabilitation programs. Methods: Twenty-one subjects participated in this study. Four standardized questionnaires were used to assess dyspnea, physical, and psychosocial variables in this study. The post-test survey was conducted 90 days following the pre-test survey. Wilcoxon-Signed Rank test and paired t-test were used to compare the variables data between pre- and post-testing time points. Results: Dyspnea scores decreased from (pre: 2 vs post:1, Z=-3.276, p=0.001, r=.50). Work performance scores increased from …


The Express Sensorimotor Response Selects Visual Features Based On Instruction, David Youhanna Mekhaiel 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Express Sensorimotor Response Selects Visual Features Based On Instruction, David Youhanna Mekhaiel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In time-sensitive situations, orienting reflexes allow us to move rapidly in response to stimuli. The express sensorimotor response (ESR) is an orienting reflex presenting as a brief burst of muscle recruitment. Previous studies have identified commonalities between ESRs and express saccades, another orienting reflex.

In this study, we investigate if ESRs share in a characteristic of express saccades: preference for faces. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to reach toward one of two simultaneously appearing targets: a face and another image. Muscle activity in the pectoralis major muscle of the reaching arm was recorded using skin surface EMGs.

We …


The Impact Of Covid-19 Pandemic On Undergraduate Students’ Interest In The Stem Field, Zaheen Rashed, Yuchen Jiang, Zimo Ma, Pamela Propsom 2022 DePauw University

The Impact Of Covid-19 Pandemic On Undergraduate Students’ Interest In The Stem Field, Zaheen Rashed, Yuchen Jiang, Zimo Ma, Pamela Propsom

Annual Student Research Poster Session

The deadly consequences of COVID-19 have been well documented, as have the social, emotional, and cognitive effects. These sequelae extend to the educational system. Much less investigated have been the potential positive outcomes of the pandemic. Given that STEM education relies heavily on hands-on laboratory experiences, STEM students may have been especially impacted by pandemic-imposed remote instruction. We surveyed 392 students at one liberal arts college querying why they continue studying in STEM or leave the STEM disciplines. Because the literature indicates that people of color and those from lower socioeconomic groups were more negatively affected by COVID-19, we hypothesized …


Investigating Conflicts In Mind Wandering And Neural Oscillation Studies, Mahnoor Zahid, Robert West 2022 DePauw University

Investigating Conflicts In Mind Wandering And Neural Oscillation Studies, Mahnoor Zahid, Robert West

Annual Student Research Poster Session

When presented with a repetitive or an undemanding task, our mind tends to disengage from the external environment to focus on the inner trains of thought. This phenomenon, commonly known as "zoning out" is termed as Mind Wandering. Across various literature', this effect has been mainly studied under two states: while performing a low-demand task, or under a meditative state. Neural oscillations such as alpha, beta, delta and theta waves were studied to observe varying effects of mind wandering and to distinguish how and when a human mind goes into this state. It was hypothesized that one wave would prove …


Psychophysiological Effects Of Increasing Awareness Of Nondual Consciousness In Young Adults With Depression And Anxiety, Milena Braticevic 2022 California Institute of Integral Studies

Psychophysiological Effects Of Increasing Awareness Of Nondual Consciousness In Young Adults With Depression And Anxiety, Milena Braticevic

CONSCIOUSNESS: Ideas and Research for the Twenty-First Century

Young adults increasingly suffer from anxiety and depression during the time of transition into adulthood. This research study examined the effects of increasing awareness of nondual consciousness in young adults who were experiencing various levels of anxiety and depression. The methodology was mixed-method and included four 1-hour group-based sessions over 4 weeks. Increasing awareness of nondual consciousness through educational, experiential, and behavioural components resulted in reduction in the average depression score from 19.4 (borderline clinical depression) to 10 (normal), and reduction in the average anxiety score from 12.7 (moderate anxiety) to 6.9 (mild). Participants reported increased mental, emotional, physical, and …


Alzheimer's Disease, Dylan L. Weber 2022 Gettysburg College

Alzheimer's Disease, Dylan L. Weber

Student Publications

An overview of the background, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease.


Memory And Attention While Scuba Diving At Shallow And Deep Depths: An Open Water Study, Leanne Boucher, Joshua Feingold, Kelly Concannon, Stephanie Talavera, Jaime Tartar, W. Matthew Collins 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Memory And Attention While Scuba Diving At Shallow And Deep Depths: An Open Water Study, Leanne Boucher, Joshua Feingold, Kelly Concannon, Stephanie Talavera, Jaime Tartar, W. Matthew Collins

NeuroSports

SCUBA diving requires a high level of cognitive functioning, however, many divers anecdotally report poor memory and attentional skills while underwater. Few studies have documented cognitive deficits resulting from an open-water dive. Here, 23 divers completed both shallow (8 m) and deep (28 m) dives over two days in the open-water. The order of the dives was counterbalanced across participants. While at depth, they completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to assess anxiety levels, learned and were tested on a list of 36 words, and completed the trail making task (TMT) to assess executive functioning. They also gave saliva samples to …


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