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Pediatric Neurotropic Infection Alters Synaptic Development In The Developing Brain, Anuoluwapo Grace Fadare, Yashika S. Kamte, Manish N. Chandwani, Lauren A. O'Donnell 2024 Rowan University

Pediatric Neurotropic Infection Alters Synaptic Development In The Developing Brain, Anuoluwapo Grace Fadare, Yashika S. Kamte, Manish N. Chandwani, Lauren A. O'Donnell

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Many neurotropic viruses cause more significant pathology in younger hosts as their brains are still developing. This experiment asked how central nervous system (CNS) viral-infections affect the development of synapses in the pediatric brain during infection and post-infection. Synaptogenesis is at its peak in pediatric mice (10 days old) and we hypothesized that a neurotropic infection could disrupt synaptic proteins. We used a transgenic mouse model where measles virus (MV) infects only mature neurons, leading us to question whether synapses were impacted. We examined synaptic markers in the cerebellum and hippocampus in MV-infected and uninfected mice 9 days and 90 …


The Impact Of Traumatic Brain Injury On Noradrenergic Innervation Of The Prefrontal Cortex, Jil P. Modi, Christopher P. Knapp, Rachel L. Navarra 2024 Rowan University

The Impact Of Traumatic Brain Injury On Noradrenergic Innervation Of The Prefrontal Cortex, Jil P. Modi, Christopher P. Knapp, Rachel L. Navarra

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common cause of death and disability in the United States, and it can occur due to varied reasons including motor vehicle accidents, gunshot wounds, and falls. Following TBIs, patients are often left with lifelong disabilities and cognitive problems that can lead to increased risk-taking behaviors. The main goal of my research was to understand the neural mechanisms that drive increased risk-taking behaviors due to TBIs. The specific areas of the brain I was interested in looking at were the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and/or anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of the prefrontal …


Effect Of Dosage On Severity Of Dysphagia In A Toxicological Rat Model Of Parkinson's Disease, Shivam Patel, Taylor Good, Nicholas Zanghi, Francois Gould 2024 Rowan University

Effect Of Dosage On Severity Of Dysphagia In A Toxicological Rat Model Of Parkinson's Disease, Shivam Patel, Taylor Good, Nicholas Zanghi, Francois Gould

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a prevalent and devastating neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressively worsening motor symptoms affecting locomotor and oropharyngeal function. There is limited research in animal models on swallowing dysfunction in PD. To examine how neurodegeneration in PD produces progressive impairment in the oropharyngeal and locomotor processes, rotenone, a type II mitochondrial inhibitor, was injected into Lewis rat models to reproduce a parkinsonian phenotype. We hypothesized that the animal models injected with the rotenone will exhibit both oropharyngeal dysfunction and locomotor deficiency with an increased deficit that correlates with prolonged treatment. We utilized 18 rats receiving either 2.75 mg/kg …


A Preliminary Report On The Role Of Lipoxin A4 In Reinstating The Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity In A Rodent Model Of Acute Inflammation With Impaired Cerebrovasculature, Minjal Patel, Shruti Varshney, Ananya Nethikunta, George G. Godsey, Mary C. Kosciuk, Ana Rodriguez, Bernd Spur, Kingsley Yin, Randel L. Swanson, Venkat Venkataraman, Robert G. Nagele, Nimish Acharya 2024 Rowan University

A Preliminary Report On The Role Of Lipoxin A4 In Reinstating The Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity In A Rodent Model Of Acute Inflammation With Impaired Cerebrovasculature, Minjal Patel, Shruti Varshney, Ananya Nethikunta, George G. Godsey, Mary C. Kosciuk, Ana Rodriguez, Bernd Spur, Kingsley Yin, Randel L. Swanson, Venkat Venkataraman, Robert G. Nagele, Nimish Acharya

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Background: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is responsible for maintaining brain homeostasis and ultimately proper neuronal function. Disruption of the BBB, leading to increased BBB permeability, has been reported in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Lipoxins (LXs) are a class of arachidonate-derived eicosanoids, which are a class of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs). SPMs are known to inhibit immune response through inhibition of cellular infiltration, downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and upregulation of anti-inflammatory mediators. Hence, LXs are recognized as “breaking signals” in the inflammatory process. One form of LXs, Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) …


Alpha 7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Expression In The Hippocampus Of Patients With Schizophrenia, Shruti Varshney, Ananya Nethikunta, Minjal Patel, Mary Kosciuk, Randel L. Swanson, Venkat Venkataraman, Robert Nagele, Eric Goldwaser, Nimish Acharya 2024 Rowan University

Alpha 7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Expression In The Hippocampus Of Patients With Schizophrenia, Shruti Varshney, Ananya Nethikunta, Minjal Patel, Mary Kosciuk, Randel L. Swanson, Venkat Venkataraman, Robert Nagele, Eric Goldwaser, Nimish Acharya

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Background: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a heterogenous psychiatric condition characterized by disruptions in cognition, social activity, affect, and perception often associated with a varied combination of positive and negative symptoms. The pathophysiology behind SZ remains poorly elucidated. Earlier reports have cited the importance of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR) in the hippocampus and the receptor’s association with auditory sensory gating and cognitive function. Specifically, variations in the expression and functionality of α7nAChR can be linked to auditory hallucinations experienced by patients with SZ and several therapies have been researched that target α7nAChRs. However, there are very few primary research …


Optimization Of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody For Immunohistochemistry Fluorescence Detection In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Madison Thurber 2024 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Optimization Of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody For Immunohistochemistry Fluorescence Detection In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Madison Thurber

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter produced through the catecholamine synthesis pathway that affects brain activity. Unregulated dopamine levels can lead to various diseases such as Parkinson’s Disease or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Optimization of an immunohistochemistry protocol will allow for the quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase antibody, which indirectly allows for dopamine quantification in dopaminergic regions within the brain. However, the antibody concentration to give the optimal signal-to-noise ratio in IHC varies across studies. Through this experiment, I determined the concentration of tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrH) antibody for immunohistochemistry that gave the best signal-to-background noise ratio within several known dopaminergic regions …


Isolation Of Aged Mouse Primary Microglia As A Model System For Alzheimer’S Disease Research, Michael Landis 2024 Ursinus College

Isolation Of Aged Mouse Primary Microglia As A Model System For Alzheimer’S Disease Research, Michael Landis

Biology Honors Papers

Microglia and their role as the immune cells of the central nervous system are an emerging area of interest within Alzheimer’s research, particularly as they have shown in a benevolent and malevolent cellular context. Models of Alzheimer’s disease are very light in studying microglia, so in this study a model of microglia isolated from aged mice is established in order to study the phagocytic activity and protein expression of microglia in response to Amyloid Beta. The cells were isolated from aged mice and cultured before being used to confirm cellular identity, as well as to measure phagocytic activity. This study …


Exploring Available Information On The Gut-Brain Axis And Alzheimer’S Disease For Clinicians Making Dietary Recommendations: A Scoping Review, Megan Gibson 2024 East Tennessee State University

Exploring Available Information On The Gut-Brain Axis And Alzheimer’S Disease For Clinicians Making Dietary Recommendations: A Scoping Review, Megan Gibson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Abstract: Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease that requires interprofessional collaboration. Pharmacological options are currently ineffective, increasing the need for preventative strategies to combat the rise of AD. Considerations of gut-targeted interventions have increased as a key component in the prevention of AD, based on the understanding that the state of the gut microbiome can impact cognitive function through the pathway known as the gut-brain axis.

Methods: This scoping review explored information on the gut-brain axis in persons with AD. A comprehensive search was conducted in November 2023. Forty reviews and 13 human studies were analyzed.

Results: There …


Role Of Proneurotrophin-P75ntr Signaling In A Mouse Model Of Depression, Kirsten Hodgson 2024 Utah State University

Role Of Proneurotrophin-P75ntr Signaling In A Mouse Model Of Depression, Kirsten Hodgson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Major depressive disorder, or depression, is among the leading causes of disability globally. Despite being a large public health challenge, depression remains difficult to treat as the underlying biology is still unknown and the currently available treatments are limited in effectiveness. This experiment was to test the efficacy of the drug LM11A-31, which works on the signaling pathway of proneurotrophin-p75NTR, a pathway that is not targeted by any currently used antidepressants. Male mice underwent a repeated forced swim, with all the mice receiving saline the first two days and then half the mice receiving saline and half receiving LM11A-31 before …


Towards Understanding The Function Of An Ets-Like Gene In Nematostella Vectensis: Generation Of A Knockout Mutant Line And A Transgenic Reporter Line, Emily Bullock 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Towards Understanding The Function Of An Ets-Like Gene In Nematostella Vectensis: Generation Of A Knockout Mutant Line And A Transgenic Reporter Line, Emily Bullock

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Due to their unique phylogenic position as sister to Bilateria, Cnidaria are often credited with the utility of allowing for reconstruction of ancestral biology based on characteristics shared with bilaterians and other animals. This factor makes investigation into the nervous systems of cnidarians critical in understanding early neural evolution. Wamides, a class of neuropeptides, have been shown to play a regulatory role in life cycle transitions across many different species. The cnidarian specific Wamide neuropeptide, GLWamide, has previously been identified to play an accelerator role in the metamorphic timing of a specific species of sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. However, …


Biophysical Model Of Retraction Motor Neurons And Their Modification By Operant Conditioning, Maria Rasheed 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

Biophysical Model Of Retraction Motor Neurons And Their Modification By Operant Conditioning, Maria Rasheed

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Operant conditioning (OC) is a form of associative learning in which an animal modifies its behavior based on the consequences that follow that behavior. Despite its ubiquity, the underlying mechanisms of OC are poorly understood. Insights into the mechanisms of OC can be obtained by studying Aplysia feeding behavior as it can be modified by OC. This behavior is mediated by a central pattern generator (CPG) network in the buccal ganglia that contains a relatively small number of neurons. This CPG generates rhythmic motor patterns (BMPs) that move food into the gut by closing a tongue-like structure (i.e., radula) during …


Evaluating Environmental Enrichment As A Preventative Treatment In A Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Ainsley Craddock 2024 William & Mary

Evaluating Environmental Enrichment As A Preventative Treatment In A Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Ainsley Craddock

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to several cognitive deficits, including impairments in spatial memory (Alzheimer’s Association, “What is Alzheimer’s Disease?,” 2024). This is thought to occur due to atrophy in the hippocampus and cholinergic system (Ferreira-Vieira et al., 2016). Acetylcholine receptor antagonists, such as scopolamine, can mimic the effects of AD by decreasing acetylcholine activity at muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus. Scopolamine is an antiemetic that is FDA approved to treat certain kinds of nausea, but it has become a popular pharmacological model for studying the cognitive impairments associated with AD (Bajo et al., 2015). …


P300 Event-Related Potential Responses To Self-Relevant Stimuli, Jordan Razzak 2024 East Tennessee State University

P300 Event-Related Potential Responses To Self-Relevant Stimuli, Jordan Razzak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Previous literature has suggested an apparent P300 sensitivity to self-relevant stimuli. To further explore this relationship, we asked participants to submit 10 photos, each of a particular category (e.g. footwear, plants), to be used as either targets or distractors in a given condition of an oddball task. Furthermore, we attempted to see whether the effect of self-relevance on the P300 could be induced in a participant by allowing them to study a set of unique photos which would then be used as targets. Our analysis suggested that P300 amplitude elicited in response to self-relevant stimuli used as targets was statistically …


Perinatal Buprenorphine Effects On Offspring Growth, Opioid Withdrawal, And Brain Morphology In Rats, Parker Barnes 2024 East Tennessee State University

Perinatal Buprenorphine Effects On Offspring Growth, Opioid Withdrawal, And Brain Morphology In Rats, Parker Barnes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Opioid use disorder (OUD) impacts 5.6 million people in the US. Buprenorphine (BUP) is a commonly prescribed opioid medication used to treat OUD, including in pregnant women. However, opioid use during pregnancy is associated with poorer infant outcomes including reduced fetal growth, neurodevelopmental deficits, and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). Recent clinical data suggests that providing mothers with a lower dose of BUP may result in fewer negative outcomes in infants. Here, a preclinical rodent model of low-dose perinatal BUP exposure was used to study offspring health outcomes in the neonate, juvenile, and adolescent offspring. Dams were given clinically relevant …


Molecular Mechanisms Of Opioid Use Disorder In Human Brain Models, Emily Mendez 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

Molecular Mechanisms Of Opioid Use Disorder In Human Brain Models, Emily Mendez

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a national and global public health crisis with no end in sight. While studies from animal models hint at widespread epigenetic and transcriptomic alterations of opioid drugs, the molecular consequences of long-term exposure to opioid drugs in human brain is still unclear, and human-centered translational models are necessary to discern the human cell type-specific effects of OUD.

Using postmortem brain Brodmann area 9 (BA9) from the UTHealth Brain Collection for Research on Psychiatric Disorders, I identified angiogenic gene networks perturbed in the RNA and protein of OUD subjects, as well as downregulation of many neuron-correlated …


Towards Understanding And Improving Speech Processing, Sonia Yasmin 2024 Western University

Towards Understanding And Improving Speech Processing, Sonia Yasmin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation explores mechanisms for understanding and improving speech processing. First, I used EEG to investigate the acoustic and semantic processing of continuous naturalistic speech masked by multi-talker babble. I found that different features of the same speech signal are reflected in different aspects of the neural tracking response, which are themselves differentially affected by noise. These findings point to a complex relationship between speech intelligibility and neural speech encoding.

Next, I systematically reviewed the current advancements in speech enhancement technologies. I find that speech enhancement algorithms are limited in their generalizability to speech-noise (i.e., babble). I demonstrate that, for …


Cultivating Excellence: A Literature Review On Harnessing The Power Of The Gut Microbiome For Athletic Performance, Maya Katharine Dean 2024 Bowling Green State University

Cultivating Excellence: A Literature Review On Harnessing The Power Of The Gut Microbiome For Athletic Performance, Maya Katharine Dean

Honors Projects

The interplay between our gut microbiome and health is immense. This literature review analyzes the current research assessing the interplay between gut microbiome and athletic performance. Knowing how to improve gut microbial diversity via nutrition and supplementation can take athletic performance to the next level; namely improvements in immune, mental, and physical health.


The Anatomical Embodiment Of Morning Routines In The Reduction Of Anxiety: An Intervention, Natalie Wright 2024 Lesley University

The Anatomical Embodiment Of Morning Routines In The Reduction Of Anxiety: An Intervention, Natalie Wright

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The topic under investigation is whether physically embodying a morning routine that was designed through the lens of Laban Bartenieff Movement Analysis (LBMA) will reduce daily symptoms of individuals diagnosed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Since morning routines play a significant part in one’s preparation for the day, I created an individualized LBMA morning routine for a specific client to embody. In addition to the routine, the client documented the process of their anxiety levels on a weekly basis. This client was a white, female, 19-year-old, lesbian college student who was previously diagnosed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). The movement analysis …


Faa Medical Reform, Dana Rose 2024 Bowling Green State University

Faa Medical Reform, Dana Rose

Honors Projects

This project investigates the challenges and implications of obtaining medical certification for pilots with a history of childhood misdiagnoses, focusing on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Misdiagnoses in childhood can lead to significant obstacles in the aviation industry's medical certification process, posing unique hurdles for aspiring pilots. The study examines the current FAA guidelines and procedures for medical certification, particularly the evaluation requirements for individuals with ADHD. It also explores common challenges faced by pilots, the effects of childhood misdiagnoses on their eligibility, and the impact of the FAA's ADHD evaluation process.

Through interviews with Aviation Medical Examiners (AMEs), this project identifies …


Exposure To The Trier Social Stress Test Enhances Central Detail Memory, Reduces False Memory, And Results In Intrusive Memories That Last For Days, Mercedes L. Stanek, Kayla Boaz, Taylor D. Niese, Kristen E. Long, Matthew S. Risner, John G. Blasco, Koen N. Suzelis, Kelsey M. Siereveld, Boyd R. Rorabaugh, Phillip R. Zoladz 2024 Ohio Northern University

Exposure To The Trier Social Stress Test Enhances Central Detail Memory, Reduces False Memory, And Results In Intrusive Memories That Last For Days, Mercedes L. Stanek, Kayla Boaz, Taylor D. Niese, Kristen E. Long, Matthew S. Risner, John G. Blasco, Koen N. Suzelis, Kelsey M. Siereveld, Boyd R. Rorabaugh, Phillip R. Zoladz

ONU Student Research Colloquium

Recent work has used a modified version of the well-known laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), to study participant memory for a stressful experience. The paradigm is useful because, unlike most studies examining stress effects on memory, it allows investigators to measure what participants remember about the stressor, not unrelated information. It also presents an opportunity to model other stress-related symptoms, such as intrusive memories, but these have yet to be assessed with this paradigm. Intrusive memories have been notoriously difficult to measure in laboratory settings; most of this research involves participants watching arousing videos and subsequently reporting …


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