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Neural Indices Of Vowel Discrimination In Monolingual And Bilingual Infants And Children, Yan H. Yu, Carol Tessel, Henry Han, Luca Campanelli, Nancy Vidal, Jennifer Gerometta, Karen Garrido-Nag, Hia Datta, Valerie L. Shafer 2019 CUNY Graduate Center, St. John’s University

Neural Indices Of Vowel Discrimination In Monolingual And Bilingual Infants And Children, Yan H. Yu, Carol Tessel, Henry Han, Luca Campanelli, Nancy Vidal, Jennifer Gerometta, Karen Garrido-Nag, Hia Datta, Valerie L. Shafer

Publications and Research

Objectives: To examine maturation of neural discriminative responses to an English vowel contrast from infancy to 4 years of age and to determine how biological factors (age and sex) and an experiential factor (amount of Spanish versus English input) modulate neural discrimination of speech.

Design: Event-related potential (ERP) mismatch responses (MMRs) were used as indices of discrimination of the American English vowels [ε] versus [I] in infants and children between 3 months and 47 months of age. A total of 168 longitudinal and cross-sectional data sets were collected from 98 children (Bilingual Spanish–English: 47 male and 31 female sessions ...


Circadian Rhythmicity And Neurodevelopment Of Disco And Grim Mutations In Drosophila Melanogaster, John Patrick Story 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Circadian Rhythmicity And Neurodevelopment Of Disco And Grim Mutations In Drosophila Melanogaster, John Patrick Story

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The death gene grim and its pathway for apoptosis has been studied extensively in Drosophila Melanogaster. The effects of grim mutations on circadian neurodevelopment and locomotor assays have yet to be investigated. Mutations in the gene disconnected (disco) has been shown to disrupt the normal development of the circadian circuitry, specifically the small ventro-lateral neurons (s-LNv’s). Which has shown to severely decrease rhythmicity during free-running periods. Alternatively, we have observed an increase in rhythmicity during free-running periods in grim mutations. Our goal is to investigate the neurodevelopment of the circadian circuitry and their associated locomotor activities in these Drosophila ...


Cloning And Characterizing Nrf2-Antioxidant Pathway Gene Expression During Embryonic Neurogenesis In Xenopus Laevis., Nana Yaa Amoh 2019 William & Mary

Cloning And Characterizing Nrf2-Antioxidant Pathway Gene Expression During Embryonic Neurogenesis In Xenopus Laevis., Nana Yaa Amoh

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Embryonic development is a complex process in which a single cell gives rise to a whole organism. This process happens through the commitment, growth, and death of cells. Throughout this process, the embryo shows an incredible ability to recover from many perturbations. This ability to adapt and recover, also known as plasticity, is dependent on the proper orchestration of many cellular processes. One of these major important processes is the maintenance of oxidative stress through the transcription of antioxidant genes. Previous studies in our lab showed that physical perturbations to the developing nervous system of Xenopus laevis embryos resulted in ...


Forgotten Children & Bonds That Heal: The Critical Nature Of Attachment, August Ashbaker 2019 Lesley University

Forgotten Children & Bonds That Heal: The Critical Nature Of Attachment, August Ashbaker

Lesley University Community of Scholars Day

Human attachment is one of the most critical factors in proper neurological and physiological development. Attachment is built through the mutuality of emotional impact, as well as the regular reception of physical touch. Infants and children who have been deprived of these vital necessities through the lacking initiatives of their caregivers—through neglect—display visible signs of its physiological, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral impact. Research has found neglect to be the highest risk factor for permanent damage to brain development in comparison to other forms of complex trauma (i.e. chronic caregiver interpersonal trauma in childhood); it is also the ...


Complement Targets Newborn Retinal Ganglion Cells For Phagocytic Elimination By Microglia, Sarah R. Anderson, Jianmin Zhang, Michael R. Steele, Cesar O. Romero, Amanda G. Kautzman, Dorothy P. Schafer, Monica L. Vetter 2019 University of Utah

Complement Targets Newborn Retinal Ganglion Cells For Phagocytic Elimination By Microglia, Sarah R. Anderson, Jianmin Zhang, Michael R. Steele, Cesar O. Romero, Amanda G. Kautzman, Dorothy P. Schafer, Monica L. Vetter

Neurobiology Publications

Microglia play important roles in shaping the developing CNS, and at early stages they have been proposed to regulate progenitor proliferation, differentiation, and neuronal survival. However, these studies reveal contradictory outcomes, highlighting the complexity of these cell-cell interactions. Here, we investigate microglia function during embryonic mouse retina development, where only microglia, progenitors, and neurons are present. In both sexes, we determine that microglia primarily interact with retinal neurons and find that depletion of microglia via conditional KO of the Csf1 receptor results in increased density of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Pharmacological inhibition of microglia also results in an increase in ...


How North American Parents Can Support The Holistic Development Of Their Teenage Children, Teresa Tong 2019 Fuller Theological Seminary

How North American Parents Can Support The Holistic Development Of Their Teenage Children, Teresa Tong

Doctor of Ministry Projects

The purpose of this project is to analyze the current context of North American parents and their teenagers so as to recommend ways they can support the holistic development (body, mind, and soul) of their children. Although many factors contribute to the outcome, balanced nurturing can give them a better chance of enjoying a healthier adulthood later in life. Children need support and guidance from multiple sectors, especially parents, in their holistic development.

This paper is divided into three parts. Part One focuses on analyzing the environment and challenges faced by today’s young people and their parents in North ...


Understanding The Role Of Prdm12b In Zebrafish Development, Ozge Yildiz 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Understanding The Role Of Prdm12b In Zebrafish Development, Ozge Yildiz

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Function of the adult nervous system relies on the appropriate establishment of neural circuits during embryogenesis. In vertebrates, the neurons that make up motor circuits form in distinct domains along the dorsoventral (DV) axis of the neural tube. Each domain is characterized by a unique combination of transcription factors (TFs) that promote a specific fate, while repressing the fates of adjacent domains. The prdm12 TF is required for the expression of eng1b and the generation of V1 interneurons in the p1 domain, but the details of its function remain unclear.

We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology to generate the ...


Zebrafish Prdm12b Acts Independently Of Nkx6.1 Repression To Promote Eng1b Expression In The Neural Tube P1 Domain, Ozge Yildiz, Gerald B. Downes, Charles G. Sagerstrom 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Zebrafish Prdm12b Acts Independently Of Nkx6.1 Repression To Promote Eng1b Expression In The Neural Tube P1 Domain, Ozge Yildiz, Gerald B. Downes, Charles G. Sagerstrom

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: Functioning of the adult nervous system depends on the establishment of neural circuits during embryogenesis. In vertebrates, neurons that make up motor circuits form in distinct domains along the dorsoventral axis of the neural tube. Each domain is characterized by a unique combination of transcription factors (TFs) that promote a specific fate, while repressing fates of adjacent domains. The prdm12 TF is required for the expression of eng1b and the generation of V1 interneurons in the p1 domain, but the details of its function remain unclear.

METHODS: We used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate the first germline mutants for prdm12 ...


The Integration Of Multiple Sources Of Sonic Hedgehog In The Spinal Cord Contribute To The Production Of First-Born Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Which Become Critical For Synapse Remodeling In Response To Adult Motor Neuron Injury, Lev Starikov 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Integration Of Multiple Sources Of Sonic Hedgehog In The Spinal Cord Contribute To The Production Of First-Born Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Which Become Critical For Synapse Remodeling In Response To Adult Motor Neuron Injury, Lev Starikov

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) arise sequentially first from a ventral and then from a dorsal precursor domain during spinal cord development. Whether the sequential production of OPCs is of physiological significance has not been examined. Here I show that interrupting Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling originating from nascent ventricular zone derivatives (VZD), motor neurons and the lateral floor plate, almost completely blocks ventral but not dorsal oligodendrogenesis without noticeably affecting early tissue patterning and embryonic development. In the absence of ventral OPCs, dorsal OPCs increase proliferation and populate the entire spinal cord with increased density. In these mutant mice, dOPCs take ...


Molecular Analysis Of Cone Photoreceptor Genesis From A Specific Retinal Progenitor Population, Diego F. Buenaventura 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Molecular Analysis Of Cone Photoreceptor Genesis From A Specific Retinal Progenitor Population, Diego F. Buenaventura

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

There are two types of photosensitive cells of the retina that contribute to image formation: Cone photoreceptors that mediate color discrimination and rods that provide photosensitivity in low-light conditions. Given the importance of cones in high acuity and color vision, deficiencies in this cell type that result from ailments such as retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration can lead to a debilitating loss of vision. Currently, one of the most pressing goals in the field of retinal development is the elucidation of the gene regulatory networks (GRN) involved in inducing an undifferentiated cell into becoming a functional cone photoreceptor.

Recently, an ...


Nell2 Regulates The Contralateral-Versus-Ipsilateral Visual Projection As A Domain-Specific Positional Cue, Chizu Nakamoto, Elaine Durward, Masato Horie, Masaru Nakamoto 2019 Valparaiso University

Nell2 Regulates The Contralateral-Versus-Ipsilateral Visual Projection As A Domain-Specific Positional Cue, Chizu Nakamoto, Elaine Durward, Masato Horie, Masaru Nakamoto

Biology Faculty Publications

In mammals with binocular vision, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons from each eye project to eye-specific domains in the contralateral and ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), underpinning disparity-based stereopsis. Although domain-specific axon guidance cues that discriminate contralateral and ipsilateral RGC axons have long been postulated as a key mechanism for development of the eye-specific retinogeniculate projection, the molecular nature of such cues has remained elusive. Here, we show that the extracellular glycoprotein Nell2 (neural epidermal growth factor-like-like 2) is expressed in the dorsomedial region of the dLGN, which ipsilateral RGC axons terminate in and contralateral axons avoid. In Nell2 ...


Glial Cell Expansion And Intercellular Signaling In The Developing Medial Nucleus Of The Trapezoid Body (Mntb), Ashley N. Brandebura 2019 West Virginia University

Glial Cell Expansion And Intercellular Signaling In The Developing Medial Nucleus Of The Trapezoid Body (Mntb), Ashley N. Brandebura

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Neural circuit formation is a complex process involving coordinated communication between neurons, glia and vascular-associated cells (VACs). Each cell type is responsible for a unique transcriptional and translational contribution to tissue maturation. Deciphering the intercellular signaling patterns which guide neural circuit formation during normal development is thus an essential step in understanding which components of neural circuit formation go awry in neurodevelopmental disorders. The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), located in the auditory brainstem, was used as a model system to study the dynamics of neural circuit formation because it contains a mostly homogeneous population of postsynaptic neurons ...


M1 Melanopsin Ganglion Cells In The ​Mus Musculus​ Retina Are Similar In Shape And Size, Geoffrey K. Sarpong 2019 University of Akron

M1 Melanopsin Ganglion Cells In The ​Mus Musculus​ Retina Are Similar In Shape And Size, Geoffrey K. Sarpong

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

An M1 melanopsin retinal ganglion cell (mRGC) is a subtype of the five melanopsin ganglion cells. The M1-type mRGC is distributed on the dorsal retina of a mouse and has an extensively overlapping dendritic network in both the sublamina a (OFF) and sublamina b (ON) layers of the inner plexiform layer. In the dorsal retina, the M1-type mRGCs are distinct and asymmetric.

The aim of this study was to examine the morphological similarity (shape and size) of M1-type mRGCs. The study traced 20 neurons in the first four months of a glaucoma retina of a DBA mouse, made measurements of ...


Characterizing The Cellular Nature Of The Physical Interactions Necessary For Collective Neuron Migration, Rebecca Vareed 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterizing The Cellular Nature Of The Physical Interactions Necessary For Collective Neuron Migration, Rebecca Vareed

Theses and Dissertations

Neuronal migration is an essential process in the development of the nervous system. Neurons are born in one location and migrate sizable distances to their final location. In many other developmental processes, cells migrate as collectives, where the migration of one cell influences the migration of another cell; this process has yet to be shown in the developing central nervous system. Using the conserved tangential migration of facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs), I aim to determine the nature of the collective migration in the developing nervous system. Here, two models of FBMN collective migration are tested: the “Pioneer” model, where following ...


A Developmental Study Of Apoptotic Markers And Histamine In Cephalopod Statocysts, Samantha Nicole Leef 2019 University of New Hampshire

A Developmental Study Of Apoptotic Markers And Histamine In Cephalopod Statocysts, Samantha Nicole Leef

Honors Theses and Capstones

Cephalopods can participate in complex navigation using landmarks that show context due to their statocysts. Statocysts are analogous to the vertebrate vestibular and auditory system encased in cartilage rather than bone making them more easily accessible. Age and anatomical dysfunctions are the reasons for many human vestibular malfunctions. Two of these sources are endolymph hydrops and aging. In the past, endolymph pressure changes were attributed to the ineffectual ion transport. Recent studies have illuminated the possibility of histamine receptors in the semicircular canal could be responsible for patients’ endolymph pressure changes rather than the previous belief that the pressure changes ...


Evidence-Based Probiotic Intervention For Behavioral And Social Deficits In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Allisen To 2019 Scripps College

Evidence-Based Probiotic Intervention For Behavioral And Social Deficits In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Allisen To

Scripps Senior Theses

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a heterogeneous neurological condition characterized by repetitive and restrictive behaviors and social communication deficits. ASD diagnoses are at a record high, at approximately 1 in 59 children according to the US Center for Disease Control. Currently, there are no available interventions that effectively treat the core symptoms of ASD. All pharmaceutical options address comorbid side effects of ASD but not core deficits and are particularly associated with negative side effects. Additionally, there are economic and geographic barriers that can prevent families of individuals with ASD from seeking or receiving effective interventions. Many of the ...


Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth And Synaptic Partner Selection In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M. Francis 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth And Synaptic Partner Selection In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M. Francis

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The development of the nervous system requires precise outgrowth, extension, and wiring of both axons and dendrites to generate properly functioning neural circuits. The molecular mechanisms that shape neurite development, in particular dendritic development, remain incompletely understood. Dendrites are often highly branched and coated with actin-filled, thorny protrusions, called dendritic spines, that allow for increased numbers of synaptic contacts with neighboring neurons. Disruptions in dendritic spine development have been implicated in many neurological disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Although the development of dendritic spines is vital for cognitive function, understanding the mechanisms driving their outgrowth and ...


Role Of Trkb-Signaling In Taste Development And Function., Jennifer Rios-Pilier 2018 University of Louisiville

Role Of Trkb-Signaling In Taste Development And Function., Jennifer Rios-Pilier

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the geniculate ganglion, taste neurons likely differentiate into subtypes during development, but very little is known about how these neurons are defined molecularly or how they differentiate. Embryonically, geniculate neuron development is regulated by the growth factor, brain ­derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Postnatally, BDNF becomes restricted to subpopulations of taste receptor cells with specific functions, primarily sour responding. I hypothesized that during development, the receptor for BDNF, tropomyosin kinase B receptor (TrkB), also becomes restricted to a neuronal subset. I used transgenic mouse models to label and quantify both geniculate sensory neurons (Phox2b+), and those expressing TrkB (GFP) across ...


Identification And Characterization Of Early Photoreceptor Cis-Regulatory Elements And Their Relation To Onecut1, Nathalie Jean-Charles, Diego F. Buenaventura, Mark M. Emerson 2018 CUNY City College

Identification And Characterization Of Early Photoreceptor Cis-Regulatory Elements And Their Relation To Onecut1, Nathalie Jean-Charles, Diego F. Buenaventura, Mark M. Emerson

Publications and Research

Background: Cone and rod photoreceptors are two of the primary cell types affected in human retinal disease. Potential strategies to combat these diseases are the use of gene therapy to rescue compromised photoreceptors or to generate new functional photoreceptors to replace those lost in the diseased retina. Cis-regulatory elements specific to cones, rods, or both types of photoreceptors are critical components of successful implementation of these two strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the cell type specificity and activity of cis-regulatory elements active in developing photoreceptors.

Methods: Cis-regulatory elements were introduced into the developing chicken ...


Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman 2018 DePaul University

Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Background: Dementia is the largest cause of dependency and disability in older adults, affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide with about 10 million new cases every year. Presently, there are no cures for dementia. Consequently, a growing body of evidence suggests that bilingualism may delay the onset of clinical dementia symptoms by several years.

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to summarize and analyze current evidence from studies that examined how bilingualism delays the onset of dementia. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that bilingualism may delay the dementia symptoms due to an increase in cognitive reserve, which refers to an ...


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