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Articles 1 - 30 of 438

Full-Text Articles in Developmental Neuroscience

The Role Of Placental Genes On Intellectual Disability And Developmental Delay, Maedot A. Yidenk Jun 2021

The Role Of Placental Genes On Intellectual Disability And Developmental Delay, Maedot A. Yidenk

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The complex interaction between gene expressions and environmental factors plays a key role in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including neurodevelopmental disorders (Lenroot & Giedd, 2008). This study aimed to evaluate first, the magnitude of association between placental gene Methyl-CpG Binding Protein 2 (MeCP2) and intellectual disability (ID) in the offspring and second, the synergy between placental gene Forkhead box protein 1(FOXP1) and developmental delay (DD) in the offspring. We focused on assessing two specific paradigms, i) placental gene expressions of MeCP2 among children that have ID vs. children without ID; and ii) placental gene expression of FOXP1 among children that have DD vs. children without DD. We measured the presence and severity of ID using Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) derived from the Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence IV (WPPSI-IV) as well as the presence and severity of DD using a composite score from Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Bayley-III) and examined gene expressions of MeCP2 and FOXP1 in the placenta. Previous studies found concrete evidence that both MeCP2 and FOXP1 are implicated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as ID and DD (Chahrour et al., 2008; Meerschaut et al., 2017). We proposed to test whether hyper expressions of those two genes (MeCP2 and FOXP1) in placenta will be associated with children that have higher intellectual and developmental scores. We further examined the influence of prenatal stress, as measured ...


Using Fnirs To Identify Brain Regions Involved In Emotional Face Processing In Infants At High Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Christian Martinez Jun 2021

Using Fnirs To Identify Brain Regions Involved In Emotional Face Processing In Infants At High Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Christian Martinez

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Faces provide an abundance of salient information, and within a few hours of being born, infants already show preferential attention to faces and face-like stimuli. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder consisting of social communication and interaction difficulties, and individuals with ASD show differences in the behavioral and neural processing of faces. Prospective studies with infants at high risk for ASD (HRA; by virtue of an older sibling with ASD) have begun to look at whether responses to faces could be an early marker of later ASD. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), the current study measured oxygenated hemoglobin ...


Targeting Ampa Receptor Modulation During Early Life Adversity: A Mediator For Threat Associated Memories, Roseanna M. Zanca Jun 2021

Targeting Ampa Receptor Modulation During Early Life Adversity: A Mediator For Threat Associated Memories, Roseanna M. Zanca

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Early life adversity (ELA) is the exposure to a single or to multiple traumatic events before the age of 18 that go beyond the child’s coping. These adverse events are often exacerbated during adolescence particularly when cognitive performance is compromised. Adolescents who experienced ELA may show symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while not vividly recalling the early life trauma. These individuals show atypical connectivity between prefrontal-amygdala and hippocampus, all of which is associated with an increased risk of experiencing a traumatic event again later in life. While clinical research has increasingly stressed the importance in addressing the long-lasting ...


Npy Expression Of Low-Birth Weight Offspring In Nutrient-Restricted Utero, Janine Levandowski, Holly Young Apr 2021

Npy Expression Of Low-Birth Weight Offspring In Nutrient-Restricted Utero, Janine Levandowski, Holly Young

Senior Scholars Day

No abstract provided.


355— Topographical Individualized Neuromarkers In The Analysis Of The Brain Functioning Of Social-Emotional Development, Maya Pellitteri, Daniella Leone, Emma Piwko, Michael Schulz, Sarina Singh, Bradley Taber-Thomas Apr 2021

355— Topographical Individualized Neuromarkers In The Analysis Of The Brain Functioning Of Social-Emotional Development, Maya Pellitteri, Daniella Leone, Emma Piwko, Michael Schulz, Sarina Singh, Bradley Taber-Thomas

GREAT Day

Topographical Individualized Neuromarkers (TIN) are spatially arranged patterns of brain function used to develop novel brain markers of social-emotional functioning and development. The current study focuses on developing markers of risk for psychological problems in children. We are expanding on previous research that indicates the brains of shy children differ from the brains of non-shy children, where shy children present with a topographical pattern of brain function that may be considered an internally hypervigilant neuromarker (Taber-Thomas et al., 2016). Using the online software, Neurosynth, we will extend our research into neuromarkers for other disorders using publicly available data. This program ...


Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady Mar 2021

Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

This presentation will explain the historical development of pornography. It will highlight four segments: 1- Porn’s impact on brain development of reward pathways, ultimately increasing the appetite for more porn. 2- Porn can be a false substitute for real intimacy, resulting in decreased sexual satisfaction with a real person and increased verbal and physical aggression. 3- Porn promotes sex trafficking, promotes multiple sex partners and reduced STD prevention. 4- A review of interventions available to assist clients in navigating a lifestyle away from pornography.


Neuronal Post-Developmentally Acting Sax-7s/L1cam Can Function As Cleaved Fragments To Maintain Neuronal Architecture In C. Elegans [Preprint], Virginie E. Desse, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Paola N. Perrat, Claire Y. Benard Jan 2021

Neuronal Post-Developmentally Acting Sax-7s/L1cam Can Function As Cleaved Fragments To Maintain Neuronal Architecture In C. Elegans [Preprint], Virginie E. Desse, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Paola N. Perrat, Claire Y. Benard

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Whereas remarkable advances have uncovered mechanisms that drive nervous system assembly, the processes responsible for the lifelong maintenance of nervous system architecture remain poorly understood. Subsequent to its establishment during embryogenesis, neuronal architecture is maintained throughout life in the face of the animal’s growth, maturation processes, the addition of new neurons, body movements, and aging. The C. elegans protein SAX-7, homologous to the vertebrate L1 protein family, is required for maintaining the organization of neuronal ganglia and fascicles after their successful initial embryonic development. To dissect the function of sax-7 in neuronal maintenance, we generated a null allele and ...


A Pathogenic Ufsp2 Variant In An Autosomal Recessive Form Of Pediatric Neurodevelopmental Anomalies And Epilepsy, Min Ni, Bushra Afroze, Chao Xing, Chunxiao Pan, Yanqiu Shao, Ling Cai, Brandi L. Cantarel, Jimin Pei, Nick V. Grishin, Stacy Hewson Jan 2021

A Pathogenic Ufsp2 Variant In An Autosomal Recessive Form Of Pediatric Neurodevelopmental Anomalies And Epilepsy, Min Ni, Bushra Afroze, Chao Xing, Chunxiao Pan, Yanqiu Shao, Ling Cai, Brandi L. Cantarel, Jimin Pei, Nick V. Grishin, Stacy Hewson

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Purpose: Neurodevelopmental disabilities are common and genetically heterogeneous. We identified a homozygous variant in the gene encoding UFM1-specific peptidase 2 (UFSP2), which participates in the UFMylation pathway of protein modification. UFSP2 variants are implicated in autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias, but not neurodevelopmental disorders. Homozygosity for the variant occurred in eight children from four South Asian families with neurodevelopmental delay and epilepsy. We describe the clinical consequences of this variant and its effect on UFMylation.
Methods: Exome sequencing was used to detect potentially pathogenic variants and identify shared regions of homozygosity. Immunoblotting assessed protein expression and post-translational modifications in patient-derived fibroblasts ...


Htt Is A Repressor Of Abl Activity Required For App-Induced Axonal Growth, Claire Marquilly, Germain U. Busto, Brittany S. Leger, Ana Boulanger, Edward Giniger, James A. Walker, Lee G. Fradkin, Jean-Maurice Dura Jan 2021

Htt Is A Repressor Of Abl Activity Required For App-Induced Axonal Growth, Claire Marquilly, Germain U. Busto, Brittany S. Leger, Ana Boulanger, Edward Giniger, James A. Walker, Lee G. Fradkin, Jean-Maurice Dura

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Huntington's disease is a progressive autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine tract at the N-terminus of a large cytoplasmic protein. The Drosophila huntingtin (htt) gene is widely expressed during all developmental stages from embryos to adults. However, Drosophila htt mutant individuals are viable with no obvious developmental defects. We asked if such defects could be detected in htt mutants in a background that had been genetically sensitized to reveal cryptic developmental functions. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is linked to Alzheimer's disease. Appl is the Drosophila APP ortholog and Appl signaling modulates axon outgrowth ...


The Inevitability Of Collision: Creating Empathy Through Fiction, Danielle Beckman Jan 2021

The Inevitability Of Collision: Creating Empathy Through Fiction, Danielle Beckman

Student Publications

While the stigma for mental illnesses has greatly declined in the last decade, there is still a disconnect between individuals without neurological illnesses and those with neurological illnesses, especially those that cause individuals to lose contact with reality. The goal of this interdisciplinary paper is to create empathy for these individuals, specifically people with schizophrenia, Alzheimer disease, and post-traumatic amnesia. Through a collection of four stories told from the perspective of these unreliable narrators, I used fiction writing techniques from the field of cognitive literary studies such as gapping and defamiliarization to create more empathy in the reader. In reading ...


Protocadherin-19 Expression And Function In Vertebrate Brain Review, Makana Mcguire Jan 2021

Protocadherin-19 Expression And Function In Vertebrate Brain Review, Makana Mcguire

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

For this project, a systematic review will be conducted on published studies on protocadherin-19 expression and function in vertebrate central nervous system development in the last 10 years. Protocadherin-19 (pcdh19) is a member of the cadherin superfamily. Cadherins are calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules show to play important roles in vertebrate tissue development including the formation of the central nervous system. Understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the function of pcdh19 will help aid in understanding disease(s) caused by malfunction of this molecule, and lead to potential strategies for treatment. Data will be collected via online search of databases. The ...


Neurocounseling And The Counseling Profession: Integrating Neuroscience Into The Practice Of Counseling, Sherri Clark Dec 2020

Neurocounseling And The Counseling Profession: Integrating Neuroscience Into The Practice Of Counseling, Sherri Clark

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

Neurocounseling integrates Neuroscience into mental health counseling by using psychoeducation, teaching, and illustrations as well as other forms of therapy (CBT, Interpersonal Psychotherapy, Narrative Therapy, etc.) to assist clients in understanding the neurological basis of many mental and behavioral health concerns. Clients can benefit from Neurocounseling as they gain a more comprehensive understanding of the central nervous system and brain function in connection to the body, cognition, mood, and behaviors, also known as the mind and body connection. Neuroplasticity and neurogenesis allow us to understand the brain’s amazing capability to grow and change. Understanding neuroscience allows for more integrated ...


Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms Of Adverse Trauma Outcomes In Emerging Adulthood, Olena Kleshchova Sep 2020

Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms Of Adverse Trauma Outcomes In Emerging Adulthood, Olena Kleshchova

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Exposure to traumatic stress and adversity during the formative years of development can have adverse effects on mental health, neuroendocrine stress system function, and the brain, that persist into adulthood. One candidate mechanism that might confer vulnerability to enduring adverse outcomes of early life trauma is disruption of normal brain maturation. As the brain matures, functional interactions among brain regions change until the functional brain architecture (i.e., the functional connectome) reaches a mature state in adulthood. Given that different neural circuits have distinct developmental trajectories and sensitive periods, traumatic stress at a given point in development might have ...


Methylmercury Cytotoxicity On Developing Neuronal Lineages And Differences In Susceptibility Based On Media Type, Madeline Henley Aug 2020

Methylmercury Cytotoxicity On Developing Neuronal Lineages And Differences In Susceptibility Based On Media Type, Madeline Henley

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of Neuronal Differentiation And Activity In Human-Induced Pluripotent Neural Stem Cells, Allison Biddinger Aug 2020

Characterization Of Neuronal Differentiation And Activity In Human-Induced Pluripotent Neural Stem Cells, Allison Biddinger

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Her9/Hes4 Is Required For Retinal Photoreceptor Development, Maintenance, And Survival, Cagney E. Coomer, Stephen G. Wilson, Kayla F. Titialii-Torres, Jessica D. Bills, Laura A. Krueger, Rebecca A. Petersen, Evelyn M. Turnbaugh, Eden L. Janesch, Ann C. Morris Jul 2020

Her9/Hes4 Is Required For Retinal Photoreceptor Development, Maintenance, And Survival, Cagney E. Coomer, Stephen G. Wilson, Kayla F. Titialii-Torres, Jessica D. Bills, Laura A. Krueger, Rebecca A. Petersen, Evelyn M. Turnbaugh, Eden L. Janesch, Ann C. Morris

Biology Faculty Publications

The intrinsic and extrinsic factors that regulate vertebrate photoreceptor specification and differentiation are complex, and our understanding of all the players is far from complete. Her9, the zebrafish ortholog of human HES4, is a basic helix-loop-helix-orange transcriptional repressor that regulates neurogenesis in several developmental contexts. We have previously shown that her9 is upregulated during chronic rod photoreceptor degeneration and regeneration in adult zebrafish, but little is known about the role of her9 during retinal development. To better understand the function of Her9 in the retina, we generated zebrafish her9 CRISPR mutants. Her9 homozygous mutants displayed striking retinal phenotypes, including decreased ...


Gene Regulation And Cell Fate Choice In The Developing Vertebrate Retina, Sruti Patoori Jun 2020

Gene Regulation And Cell Fate Choice In The Developing Vertebrate Retina, Sruti Patoori

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The diverse neuronal cell types in the vertebrate retina all originate from multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). These undergo a series of molecular changes driven by developmental gene regulatory networks (GRNs) as they divide to generate RPCs which are more restricted in their potential fates. It is crucial to understand these GRNs and changes to gene expression in order to understand how cell identity is established during retinal development. In particular, the GRN that promotes the development of cone photoreceptors and horizontal cells is not well-defined. This work focuses on two approaches to further elucidate the components of this regulatory ...


Mental Associations And Music Therapy: Including The History Of Associationism And The Neurology Of Associations, Dianna Rose May 2020

Mental Associations And Music Therapy: Including The History Of Associationism And The Neurology Of Associations, Dianna Rose

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Associations are formed in our minds based upon three elements: sensory experience, emotions, and memories. These associations, unique to each individual, dictate thoughts, beliefs, behaviors, and actions. Some are necessary and supportive, while others can be maladaptive. Established associations can be changed, and new associations can be formed, to align with a client’s goals. The literature presents a strong history of associationism, as well as a body of research that demonstrates the neurological processes of how mental associations are formed. There are also studies showing how music activates the brain. However, there is a lack of research which draws ...


Sexually Dimorphic Alterations In Brain Morphology Of Astrocyte Conditional System Xc- Knockout Mice, Gabrielle Emily Samulewicz May 2020

Sexually Dimorphic Alterations In Brain Morphology Of Astrocyte Conditional System Xc- Knockout Mice, Gabrielle Emily Samulewicz

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Astrocytes play a vital role in orchestrating the precise brain wiring that occurs during development and are essential for maintaining homeostasis into adulthood. The cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xc-, in the central nervous system is especially abundant in astrocytes and itself is known to contribute importantly to the basal extracellular glutamate concentration as well as the intracellular and extracellular glutathione levels, either of which, if perturbed, could alter brain development and/or contribute to degeneration. Thus, to determine whether loss of astrocyte system xc- might alter brain morphology, I studied a conditional astrocyte system xc- knockout mouse (AcKO). Tissue was ...


Neuroligin3 Splice Isoforms Shape Inhibitory Synaptic Function In The Mouse Hippocampus, Motokazu Uchigashima, Ming Leung, Takuya Watanabe, Amy Cheung, Timmy Le, Sabine Pallat, Alexandre Luis Marques Dinis, Masahiko Watanabe, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Kensuke Futai May 2020

Neuroligin3 Splice Isoforms Shape Inhibitory Synaptic Function In The Mouse Hippocampus, Motokazu Uchigashima, Ming Leung, Takuya Watanabe, Amy Cheung, Timmy Le, Sabine Pallat, Alexandre Luis Marques Dinis, Masahiko Watanabe, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Kensuke Futai

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Synapse formation is a dynamic process essential for the development and maturation of the neuronal circuitry in the brain. At the synaptic cleft, transsynaptic protein-protein interactions are major biological determinants of proper synapse efficacy. The balance of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission (E-I balance) stabilizes synaptic activity, and dysregulation of the E-I balance has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the E-I balance remain to be elucidated. Here, using single-cell transcriptomics, immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology approaches to murine CA1 pyramidal neurons obtained from organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, we investigate Neuroligin (Nlgn) genes that ...


Neurocognitive Risk Factors And Current Intervention Strategies For Survivors Of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Abigail Taber May 2020

Neurocognitive Risk Factors And Current Intervention Strategies For Survivors Of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Abigail Taber

Senior Honors Theses

The improved survival rate for pediatric cancer patients is one of the greatest triumphs of recent medicine, but the late effects faced by these survivors have been uncovered through this new population of survivors. Many survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) experience cognitive deficits in areas such as attention, memory, processing speed, and academic achievement following cancer treatment. Recent research has pointed to chemotherapeutic agents, host risk factors, and genetic predispositions as perpetrators of these deficits, although other factors are also under investigation. Consequently, the search for appropriate interventions for the amelioration of these deficits has dominated the literature ...


Amygdala And Neocortical Structural Volume Analysis In The Shank3b Mutant Mouse Model Of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Preet Sawhney May 2020

Amygdala And Neocortical Structural Volume Analysis In The Shank3b Mutant Mouse Model Of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Preet Sawhney

Honors Scholar Theses

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by abnormal social behavior, deficits in communication, and motor stereotypy. The SHANK3 gene, responsible for the generation of a scaffolding protein that is integral for the development of synapses, has been identified as one of the primary candidate genes implicated in the disorder. Shank3B is the rodent homolog for this gene. Research has shown that when this gene is disrupted in rodent models (e.g., via knock-out (KO)), ASD-like behaviors result. These include deficits in social interaction, increased anxiety, and repetitive self-grooming. The current study aimed to identify a ...


Safe Sleep: Developmental Implications For Hospitalized Infants, Katherine Kohlsaat May 2020

Safe Sleep: Developmental Implications For Hospitalized Infants, Katherine Kohlsaat

Senior Honors Projects

The rate at which an infant develops both physically and cognitively is significant during sleep, as this is the time when the entire body can dedicate its efforts to this cause. Parents of healthy infants follow the guidelines set by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) relating to safe sleep, and since their introduction in 1992, the rate of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has decreased by 40% (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). However, if an infant has been hospitalized since birth due to necessary invasive procedures such as open-heart surgery, these protocols cannot be initially implemented. Common ...


Formation, Organization, And Synaptic Properties Of Circuits Between Thalamic Reticular Nucleus And Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus., Peter W. Campbell May 2020

Formation, Organization, And Synaptic Properties Of Circuits Between Thalamic Reticular Nucleus And Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus., Peter W. Campbell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is an interface between thalamus and cortex that regulates thalamocortical rhythms and modulates sensory processing. Thalamocortical axon collaterals provide feedforward excitatory input onto GABAergic TRN neurons, which in turn convey feedback inhibition to dorsal thalamus. Here we used the mouse visual system to study the organization, pattern of innervation and functional responses between TRN and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). We used genetically modified mice to target components of this feedback loop (feedforward: CRH-Cre; feedback: GAD65 or SST-Cre) and we created Math 5-/- strains to examine the impact of visual deaffrentation in these circuits ...


A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham May 2020

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


The Role Of Histone Demethylases In Learning And Memory In The Mushroom Body Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Crystal Keung Apr 2020

The Role Of Histone Demethylases In Learning And Memory In The Mushroom Body Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Crystal Keung

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Intellectual disability (ID) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with many epigenetic regulators and chromatin modifying enzymes like histone lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and demethylases (KDMs). Here, I systematically investigate the role of 7 KDMs: Su(var)3-3, KDM2, Lid, CG2982, UTX, KDM4B, JHDM2, and 1 KMT: trr in the context of learning and memory using Drosophila melanogaster. Genetic knockdown of each gene in the mushroom body (MB) of flies are tested for short- and long-term memory impairment using courtship conditioning. Knockdown of 6 KDMs and trr resulted in memory loss. MB morphology was analyzed to determine potential cause of memory loss ...


Sedative And Neurotoxic Properties Of Brexanolone Compared To Midazolam In The Developing Rodent Brain, Jacob Huffman Apr 2020

Sedative And Neurotoxic Properties Of Brexanolone Compared To Midazolam In The Developing Rodent Brain, Jacob Huffman

Dissertations

The developing brain is susceptible to extensive neurotoxicity following exposure to sedative/anesthetic drugs (SADs). Every year hundreds of thousands of children around the world are exposed to SADs with no viable non-neurotoxic agents approved for clinical use. Allopregnanolone (AlloP) has well-established sedative effects in adults and neonates. AlloP and many SADs produce sedation/anesthesia through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors, which is one of two principal mechanisms behind SAD-induced neurotoxicity. Evidence suggests AlloP has the unique capacity to regulate key apoptotic factors in adults and is widely involved with critical stages of neurodevelopment, indicating this neurosteroid might serve ...


Innate Immunity In The C. Elegans Intestine Is Programmed By A Neuronal Regulator Of Awc Olfactory Neuron Development, Kyle J. Foster, Hilary K. Cheesman, Pengpeng Liu, Nicholas D. Peterson, Sarah M. Anderson, Read Pukkila-Worley Apr 2020

Innate Immunity In The C. Elegans Intestine Is Programmed By A Neuronal Regulator Of Awc Olfactory Neuron Development, Kyle J. Foster, Hilary K. Cheesman, Pengpeng Liu, Nicholas D. Peterson, Sarah M. Anderson, Read Pukkila-Worley

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Olfactory neurons allow animals to discriminate nutritious food sources from potential pathogens. From a forward genetic screen, we uncovered a surprising requirement for the olfactory neuron gene olrn-1 in the regulation of intestinal epithelial immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans. During nematode development, olrn-1 is required to program the expression of odorant receptors in the AWC olfactory neuron pair. Here, we show that olrn-1 also functions in AWC neurons in the cell non-autonomous suppression of the canonical p38 MAPK PMK-1 immune pathway in the intestine. Low activity of OLRN-1, which activates the p38 MAPK signaling cassette in AWC neurons during larval development ...


Effect Of Reduced Neurogenesis On Microglial Activation, Amelia Smith Apr 2020

Effect Of Reduced Neurogenesis On Microglial Activation, Amelia Smith

Honors Theses

The geriatric population of America has grown exponentially in the past century. Health degradations and expensive medical care are characteristic of this population with many of these costs due to age-related cognitive decline. It is essential to completely understand the mechanisms of normal and abnormal aging in the search for treatments for cognitive decline. A reduction of neurogenesis is a common factor in aging, but this reduction is even more drastic in individuals experiencing cognitive decline. It is unclear what effect reduced neurogenesis has on the extracellular environment, including glial cells. In particular, changes in microglial activation could be related ...


Pornography: Adolescent Brain Development & Addiction, William K. Canady Mar 2020

Pornography: Adolescent Brain Development & Addiction, William K. Canady

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

This presentation will explain the historical development of pornography. It will highlight three segments: 1- Porn’s impact on brain development of reward pathways, ultimately increasing the appetite for more porn. 2- Porn can be a false substitute for real intimacy, resulting in decreased sexual satisfaction with a real person and increased verbal and physical aggression. 3- Porn promotes sex trafficking, promotes multiple sex partners and reduced STD prevention.