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All Articles in Developmental Neuroscience

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Mechanisms And Targeting Of Neurodevelopmental Regulator Rest In Medulloblastoma Dissemination, Keri Callegari 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Mechanisms And Targeting Of Neurodevelopmental Regulator Rest In Medulloblastoma Dissemination, Keri Callegari

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Molecular subgrouping of medulloblastoma (MB) has produced four subgroups: wingless (WNT), sonic hedgehog (SHH), group 3, and group 4. While patients with WNT tumors have the best prognosis, patients with SHH tumors have a more variable prognosis concurrent with metastatic disease. This subset of SHH patients have elevated levels of the neurogenic regulator, RE1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST). To understand the role of REST in MB, we utilized a novel transgenic mouse model wherein REST expression can be conditionally elevated during postnatal development in the cells of origin of SHH MB, cerebellar granule neural progenitors (GNPs). While these mice did ...


The Ush2a Gene: An Analysis Of Ultrasonic Vocalizations In A Mouse Model Of Usher Syndrome Type 2, Kiana R. Akhundzadeh 2018 University of Connecticut

The Ush2a Gene: An Analysis Of Ultrasonic Vocalizations In A Mouse Model Of Usher Syndrome Type 2, Kiana R. Akhundzadeh

Honors Scholar Theses

Usher syndrome type 2 is a complex autosomal recessive genetic disorder that is characterized by moderate to severe congenital sensorineural hearing loss, the onset of retinitis pigmentosa in the second decade of life, and in some cases, vestibular dysfunction. Mutations in the USH2A gene account for 85% of cases of type 2. The USH2A gene is responsible for encoding the protein usherin, which has an important role in the development and function of inner ear hair cells and retinal photoreceptors. Until recently, it has been believed that carriers of the USH2A mutation were phenotype free. However, recent data has suggested ...


Compensatory Responses To Notch Signaling Perturbation In Polyploid Vertebrates, Xenopus Laevis And Xenopus Borealis, During Embryonic Development, Mark Pownall 2018 William & Mary

Compensatory Responses To Notch Signaling Perturbation In Polyploid Vertebrates, Xenopus Laevis And Xenopus Borealis, During Embryonic Development, Mark Pownall

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Embryonic development is a robust process during which embryos must respond and compensate for changes in order to achieve consistent patterning; however, there are still questions about the limits and mechanisms of this robustness. Using tetraploid Xenopus laevis as a model, we have previously shown that embryos respond to perturbations of the highly-conserved Notch signaling pathway in a compensatory manner. We have now demonstrated that this response involves changes in the proliferative status of neural progenitors and differentiated neurons over time. Subsequent RNA-seq analysis of Notch perturbed X. laevis embryos revealed that homeologs (duplicated genes originating from whole-genome duplication) respond ...


Examining The Appropriate Recovery Interval Following Maximal Exertion For Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Testing (Cnt), Samantha Mohler 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining The Appropriate Recovery Interval Following Maximal Exertion For Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Testing (Cnt), Samantha Mohler

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Computerized neurocognitive testing is part of the recommended multi-faceted approach to SRC assessment. Prior research has suggested that maximal exertion negatively effects CNT test scores. Purpose: To identify the appropriate timing of the administration of CNT following maximal exertion in healthy college-aged students. Study Design: Random cross-over, repeated measures design. Methods: Participants will be administered CNT on four different visits, with at least one week between administrations. A VO2 max treadmill test will be performed before CNT administration during three of the four trials. Following the VO2 max test, participants will rest for <2 minutes (immediate), 10-minutes, or 20-minutes before taking CNT. The fourth trial, without maximal exertion preceding CNT administration, will serve as the control. All trials will be randomly-counterbalanced to negate practice effects. RESULTS: There was a significant within-subjects effect for prescribed post-exertion recovery intervals on total symptom scores (Wilks λ = .62, F [3, 23] = 4.64, p = .01, η2= .38). Total symptom scores were significantly higher at the immediate (p < .002), 10-minutes (p = .018), and 20-minutes (p = .011) post-exertion recovery intervals compared to baseline. Additionally, a significantly positive within-subjects effect for prescribed post exertion recovery was observed for processing speed (p=.009, Wilks λ = .60, F [3, 27] = 5.9, η2 = .396). No significant effect was observed for visual memory (p = .07), verbal memory (p = .06), or reaction time (p = .40). CONCLUSION: Baseline symptom scores were negatively influenced processing speed was enhanced by maximal exertion. These changes continue to be elevated 20 minutes post-exertion. Moreover, cognitive performance was not significantly impaired following maximal exercise. To obtain more accurate baseline symptom scores, and allow processing speed composites to return to normal, sports medicine professionals should wait at least 20 minutes following maximal exertion before administering CNT.


Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Impairs Performance In An Object-Place-Paired-Associate Task, Lilliana May Sanchez 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Impairs Performance In An Object-Place-Paired-Associate Task, Lilliana May Sanchez

Psychology ETDs

Memory impairments, including spatial and object processing, are often observed in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Much attention has been directed towards the hippocampus, which displays significant alterations after moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). In the present study, we tested a moderate PAE rat model in an object-place-paired-associate (OPPA) task, previously shown to require hippocampal processing. The OPPA task was composed of training rats to discriminate between an identical pair of objects presented in 180° opposite arms of a radial arm maze. Animals were given a total of 10 trials per day over 14 consecutive days of training and ...


Effects Of Neonatal Handling On Play And Anxiety In F344 And Lewis Rats, Stephen M. Siviy 2018 Gettysburg College

Effects Of Neonatal Handling On Play And Anxiety In F344 And Lewis Rats, Stephen M. Siviy

Psychology Faculty Publications

Play is an important part of normal childhood development and seen in many mammals, including rats. To better understand the interplay between genotype and postnatal experiences, the effects of neonatal handling on play were assessed in Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Handled litters experienced brief periods of separation during the first two postnatal weeks. F344 rats were less likely to direct nape contacts toward an untreated Sprague–Dawley (SD) partner and less likely to rotate to a supine position in response to a nape contact. When compared to rats from control litters, handled LEW, and F344 rats were ...


The Role Of The Chorda Tympani Nerve In The Structural Development Of Brainstem Neurons, Louis Martin 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

The Role Of The Chorda Tympani Nerve In The Structural Development Of Brainstem Neurons, Louis Martin

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The brain changes substantially throughout development. In the taste system, brainstem neurons undergo dramatic structural alterations after birth. Most notably, these cells’ dendrites, branch-like projections that that receive sensory input, grow 3-4 times longer by adulthood. It is not clear whether incoming signals about taste are necessary for these structural changes to occur. We have consistently found that when the chorda tympani taste nerve (CT) is cut at an early age in rats, it does not regenerate. With this manipulation, we can permanently limit the amount of taste information that reaches the brain. To determine the role of taste input ...


A Cre-Inducible Dux4 Transgenic Mouse Model For Investigating Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy, Takako I. Jones, Peter L. Jones 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Cre-Inducible Dux4 Transgenic Mouse Model For Investigating Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy, Takako I. Jones, Peter L. Jones

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The Double homeobox 4 (DUX4) gene is an important regulator of early human development and its aberrant expression is causal for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The DUX4-full length (DUX4-fl) mRNA splice isoform encodes a transcriptional activator; however, DUX4 and its unique DNA binding preferences are specific to old-world primates. Regardless, the somatic cytotoxicity caused by DUX4 expression is conserved when expressed in cells and animals ranging from fly to mouse. Thus, viable animal models based on DUX4-fl expression have been difficult to generate due in large part to overt developmental toxicity of low DUX4-fl expression from leaky transgenes. We have ...


Social Influences On Songbird Behavior: From Song Learning To Motion Coordination, Iva Ljubičić 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Social Influences On Songbird Behavior: From Song Learning To Motion Coordination, Iva Ljubičić

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Social animals learn during development how to integrate successfully into their group. How do social interactions combine to maintain group cohesion? We first review how social environments can influence the development of vocal learners, such as songbirds and humans (Chapter 1). To bypass the complexity of natural social interactions and gain experimental control, we developed Virtual Social Environments, surrounding the bird with videos of manipulated playbacks. This way we were able to design sensory and social scenarios and test how social zebra finches adjust their behavior (Chapters 2 & 3). A serious challenge is that the color output of a video ...


Biological Signatures Of Emotion Regulation In Children, Sarah Myruski 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Biological Signatures Of Emotion Regulation In Children, Sarah Myruski

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Emotion regulation (ER) is a key predictor of positive adjustment throughout the lifespan. Despite decades of research on discrete ER strategy use, ER may be more appropriately measured in terms of the breadth of emotional range, or the degree to which one can flexibly modulate emotional responses. Yet little is known about ER flexibility in childhood. Also, given the crucial role of caregiver support in children’s emotional lives, ER may be most accurately measured in developmentally appropriate and ecologically valid social contexts. Further, few developmental studies have capitalized on the growing evidence base surrounding biological signatures of ER. This ...


Neonatal Stimulation Of Pkc Epsilon Signaling Normalizes Fragile X-Associated Deficits In Pvn Oxytocin Expression And Later-Life Social And Anxiety Behavior, Alexandra E. Marsillo 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Neonatal Stimulation Of Pkc Epsilon Signaling Normalizes Fragile X-Associated Deficits In Pvn Oxytocin Expression And Later-Life Social And Anxiety Behavior, Alexandra E. Marsillo

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is an inherited developmental disorder characterized by disturbances in emotional and social behavior. Our studies have revealed suppressed hippocampal PKCε expression in Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice, the leading model of FXS. To compensate for this deficiency, we stimulated PKCε in neonatal KO mice by administering a selective PKCε activator, dicyclopropyl-linoleic acid (DCP-LA), and studied its effect on ventral hippocampal neurons and a proximal target of the ventral hippocampus, the hypothalamus, which regulates social and emotional behavior. We observed that at postnatal day 18 (P18), vehicle-treated KO mice displayed increased surface localization of the 3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA ...


Chromatin Organizer Ctcf In Brain Development And Behaviour, Adrienne Elbert 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Chromatin Organizer Ctcf In Brain Development And Behaviour, Adrienne Elbert

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chromatin architecture is an important regulator of gene expression, which dictates development. Mutations in one copy of the CTCF chromatin organizer gene cause intellectual disability and autism. Polymorphisms in CTCF have also been associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, a condition that overlaps in biological etiology with autism and intellectual disability. In this thesis, we sought to understand the role of CTCF in neurodevelopment using brain-specific conditional knockout and heterozygote mouse models. Using the Ctcf-null animals, we identify a cell-autonomous role for CTCF in regulating cortical interneuron development in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) through the transcriptional control of ...


The Ingredients Of Healthy Brain And Child Development, Pat Levitt, Kathie L. Eagleson 2018 Simms/Mann Chair in Developmental Neurogenetics, Institute for the Developing Mind, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Provost Professor of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Senior Fellow, Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University and Co-Scientific Director of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child.

The Ingredients Of Healthy Brain And Child Development, Pat Levitt, Kathie L. Eagleson

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

This article by Pat Levitt and Kathie L. Eagleson explains critical developmental stages in early childhood and adolescent brain development. Levitt and Eagleson start by dispelling certain misconceptions about early brain development and then examining the interaction between biological events, social and emotional development, and the role played by early childhood experiences in healthy brain development. Finally, the article discusses the importance of intervention programs on healthy brain development and positive child, adolescent, and adult outcomes.


The Developing Brain: New Directions In Science, Policy, And Law, Susan Frelich Appleton, Deanna M. Barch, Anneliese M. Schaefer 2018 Lemma Barkeloo & Phoebe Couzins Professor of Law, Washington University in St. Louis.

The Developing Brain: New Directions In Science, Policy, And Law, Susan Frelich Appleton, Deanna M. Barch, Anneliese M. Schaefer

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Associations Of Lifestyle And Vascular Risk Factors With Alzheimer's Brain Biomarker Changes During Middle Age: A 3 Year Longitudinal Study In The Broader New York City Area, Michelle J. Walters, Joanna Sterling, Crystal Quinn, Christine Ganzer, Ricardo S. Osorio, Randolph D. Andrews, Dawn C. Matthews, Shankar Vallabhajosula, Mony J. de Leon, Richard S. Isaacson, Lisa Mosconi 2018 Weill Cornell Medical College

Associations Of Lifestyle And Vascular Risk Factors With Alzheimer's Brain Biomarker Changes During Middle Age: A 3 Year Longitudinal Study In The Broader New York City Area, Michelle J. Walters, Joanna Sterling, Crystal Quinn, Christine Ganzer, Ricardo S. Osorio, Randolph D. Andrews, Dawn C. Matthews, Shankar Vallabhajosula, Mony J. De Leon, Richard S. Isaacson, Lisa Mosconi

Publications and Research

Objective To investigate the associations between lifestyle and vascular risk factors and changes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers (beta-amyloid load via 11C-PiB PET, glucose metabolism via 18F-FDG PET and neurodegeneration via structural MRI) and global cognition in middle-aged asymptomatic participants at risk for AD.

Design Prospective, longitudinal.

Setting The study was conducted at New York University Langone/Weill Cornell Medical Centres in New York City.

Participants Seventy cognitively normal participants from multiple community sources, aged 30–60 years with lifestyle measures (diet, intellectual activity and physical activity), vascular risk measures and two imaging biomarkers visits over at ...


Maturation In Auditory Event-Related Potentials Explains Variation In Language Ability In Children., Elaine Yuen Ling Kwok, Marc F Joanisse, Lisa Archibald, Margot E. Stothers, Heather M Brown, Janis Oram Cardy 2018 Health and Rehabilitation Science, Western University

Maturation In Auditory Event-Related Potentials Explains Variation In Language Ability In Children., Elaine Yuen Ling Kwok, Marc F Joanisse, Lisa Archibald, Margot E. Stothers, Heather M Brown, Janis Oram Cardy

Health and Rehabilitation Sciences Publications

Processing of auditory information in the cortex continues to develop into later childhood and adolescence. Recent research has indicated that intraclass correlation (ICC) is the best method for capturing maturation in auditory event-related potentials (AEPs) of school-age children. However, the sensitivity of the ICC approach in discerning AEP changes in children has not been consistently demonstrated and positive results have not been replicated. We attempted this replication and further explored whether AEP maturation estimated using the ICC approach predicts cognitive and linguistic abilities in addition to chronological age. We measured AEPs in response to simple tones in groups of 7- ...


A Role Of Early Life Stress On Subsequent Brain And Behavioral Development, Damien A. Fair, Alice M. Graham, Brian Mills 2018 Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University

A Role Of Early Life Stress On Subsequent Brain And Behavioral Development, Damien A. Fair, Alice M. Graham, Brian Mills

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

The prevalence of pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders has risen dramatically during the past two decades. A study surveying the years 1997-2008 verified that one in six children have a developmental disability – a number on the rise. Along similar lines, studies show higher incidents of criminal activity, substance use disorders, and the emergence of psychopathologies in early adolescence and young adulthood, which are particularly sensitive periods of brain and behavioral maturation. While developmental trajectories that may lead to adverse outcomes in youth are the result of a mix of genetics and environmental exposure, it is becoming clearer that they do not start ...


The Rhetoric Of Science Education And Technology, Iwasan D. Kejawa 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Rhetoric Of Science Education And Technology, Iwasan D. Kejawa

CSE Journal Articles

Nearly thousands of science experiments are performed both on humans and animals every year in the United States (Gregory, 1999). Does Science enormously play a role in the well-beings of individual in the society? Research has found that science education is through motivation and satisfying the needs of humans. The scientific world is part of an elongated human development. This can be substantiated with the use and evolution of TECHNOLOGY and SCIENCE (Minton, 2004). Education of the entities that comprise the need to achieve the goal of TECHNOLOGY and SCIENCE which are important issues of today. Research has shown that ...


Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Overexpression Mediates Hippocampal Remodeling And Plasticity Following Tbi, Erica Latrice Littlejohn 2018 University of Kentucky

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Overexpression Mediates Hippocampal Remodeling And Plasticity Following Tbi, Erica Latrice Littlejohn

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Every year over 2.5 million traumatic brain injuries (TBI) occur and are the leading cause of death and disability among adolescents. There are no approved treatments for TBI. Survivors suffer from persistent cognitive impairment due to posttraumatic tissue damage and disruption of neural networks which significantly detract from their quality of life. Posttraumatic cognitive impairment depends in part on the brain's limited ability to repair or replace damaged cells. Immature neurons in the hippocampus dentate gyrus, a brain region required for learning and memory, are particularly vulnerable to TBI. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) is a potential therapeutic for ...


Polarity And Competition In The Development Of The Calyx Of Held Terminal In The Medial Nucleus Of The Trapezoid Body In The Mouse, Paul Steven Holcomb 2018 West Virginia University

Polarity And Competition In The Development Of The Calyx Of Held Terminal In The Medial Nucleus Of The Trapezoid Body In The Mouse, Paul Steven Holcomb

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In the auditory brainstem, the connection between globular bushy cells of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus and principal cells (PCs) of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) is created by one of the largest nerve terminals in the central nervous system, the calyx of Held (CH). The characteristics of the CH:MNTB connection—a short developmental period (48-72 hours), accessibility for recording from pre- and postsynaptic components, and clear monoinnervated end point—make this system an ideal model system for studying nervous system development. Model systems undergo stereotyped stages of development, including exuberant overinnervation, competition between terminals, and a ...


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