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Neurocognitive Risk Factors And Current Intervention Strategies For Survivors Of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Abigail Taber 2020 Liberty University

Neurocognitive Risk Factors And Current Intervention Strategies For Survivors Of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Abigail Taber

Senior Honors Theses

The improved survival rate for pediatric cancer patients is one of the greatest triumphs of recent medicine, but the late effects faced by these survivors have been uncovered through this new population of survivors. Many survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) experience cognitive deficits in areas such as attention, memory, processing speed, and academic achievement following cancer treatment. Recent research has pointed to chemotherapeutic agents, host risk factors, and genetic predispositions as perpetrators of these deficits, although other factors are also under investigation. Consequently, the search for appropriate interventions for the amelioration of these deficits has dominated the literature ...


Amygdala And Neocortical Structural Volume Analysis In The Shank3b Mutant Mouse Model Of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Preet Sawhney 2020 University of Connecticut

Amygdala And Neocortical Structural Volume Analysis In The Shank3b Mutant Mouse Model Of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Preet Sawhney

Honors Scholar Theses

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by abnormal social behavior, deficits in communication, and motor stereotypy. The SHANK3 gene, responsible for the generation of a scaffolding protein that is integral for the development of synapses, has been identified as one of the primary candidate genes implicated in the disorder. Shank3B is the rodent homolog for this gene. Research has shown that when this gene is disrupted in rodent models (e.g., via knock-out (KO)), ASD-like behaviors result. These include deficits in social interaction, increased anxiety, and repetitive self-grooming. The current study aimed to identify a ...


Safe Sleep: Developmental Implications For Hospitalized Infants, Katherine Kohlsaat 2020 University of Rhode Island

Safe Sleep: Developmental Implications For Hospitalized Infants, Katherine Kohlsaat

Senior Honors Projects

The rate at which an infant develops both physically and cognitively is significant during sleep, as this is the time when the entire body can dedicate its efforts to this cause. Parents of healthy infants follow the guidelines set by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) relating to safe sleep, and since their introduction in 1992, the rate of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has decreased by 40% (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). However, if an infant has been hospitalized since birth due to necessary invasive procedures such as open-heart surgery, these protocols cannot be initially implemented. Common ...


Formation, Organization, And Synaptic Properties Of Circuits Between Thalamic Reticular Nucleus And Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus., Peter W. Campbell 2020 University of Louisville

Formation, Organization, And Synaptic Properties Of Circuits Between Thalamic Reticular Nucleus And Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus., Peter W. Campbell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is an interface between thalamus and cortex that regulates thalamocortical rhythms and modulates sensory processing. Thalamocortical axon collaterals provide feedforward excitatory input onto GABAergic TRN neurons, which in turn convey feedback inhibition to dorsal thalamus. Here we used the mouse visual system to study the organization, pattern of innervation and functional responses between TRN and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). We used genetically modified mice to target components of this feedback loop (feedforward: CRH-Cre; feedback: GAD65 or SST-Cre) and we created Math 5-/- strains to examine the impact of visual deaffrentation in these circuits ...


A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham 2020 William & Mary

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


The Role Of Histone Demethylases In Learning And Memory In The Mushroom Body Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Crystal Keung 2020 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of Histone Demethylases In Learning And Memory In The Mushroom Body Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Crystal Keung

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Intellectual disability (ID) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with many epigenetic regulators and chromatin modifying enzymes like histone lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and demethylases (KDMs). Here, I systematically investigate the role of 7 KDMs: Su(var)3-3, KDM2, Lid, CG2982, UTX, KDM4B, JHDM2, and 1 KMT: trr in the context of learning and memory using Drosophila melanogaster. Genetic knockdown of each gene in the mushroom body (MB) of flies are tested for short- and long-term memory impairment using courtship conditioning. Knockdown of 6 KDMs and trr resulted in memory loss. MB morphology was analyzed to determine potential cause of memory loss ...


Sedative And Neurotoxic Properties Of Brexanolone Compared To Midazolam In The Developing Rodent Brain, Jacob Huffman 2020 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Sedative And Neurotoxic Properties Of Brexanolone Compared To Midazolam In The Developing Rodent Brain, Jacob Huffman

Dissertations

The developing brain is susceptible to extensive neurotoxicity following exposure to sedative/anesthetic drugs (SADs). Every year hundreds of thousands of children around the world are exposed to SADs with no viable non-neurotoxic agents approved for clinical use. Allopregnanolone (AlloP) has well-established sedative effects in adults and neonates. AlloP and many SADs produce sedation/anesthesia through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors, which is one of two principal mechanisms behind SAD-induced neurotoxicity. Evidence suggests AlloP has the unique capacity to regulate key apoptotic factors in adults and is widely involved with critical stages of neurodevelopment, indicating this neurosteroid might serve ...


Innate Immunity In The C. Elegans Intestine Is Programmed By A Neuronal Regulator Of Awc Olfactory Neuron Development, Kyle J. Foster, Hilary K. Cheesman, Pengpeng Liu, Nicholas D. Peterson, Sarah M. Anderson, Read Pukkila-Worley 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Innate Immunity In The C. Elegans Intestine Is Programmed By A Neuronal Regulator Of Awc Olfactory Neuron Development, Kyle J. Foster, Hilary K. Cheesman, Pengpeng Liu, Nicholas D. Peterson, Sarah M. Anderson, Read Pukkila-Worley

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Olfactory neurons allow animals to discriminate nutritious food sources from potential pathogens. From a forward genetic screen, we uncovered a surprising requirement for the olfactory neuron gene olrn-1 in the regulation of intestinal epithelial immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans. During nematode development, olrn-1 is required to program the expression of odorant receptors in the AWC olfactory neuron pair. Here, we show that olrn-1 also functions in AWC neurons in the cell non-autonomous suppression of the canonical p38 MAPK PMK-1 immune pathway in the intestine. Low activity of OLRN-1, which activates the p38 MAPK signaling cassette in AWC neurons during larval development ...


Effect Of Reduced Neurogenesis On Microglial Activation, Amelia Smith 2020 Belmont University

Effect Of Reduced Neurogenesis On Microglial Activation, Amelia Smith

Honors Theses

The geriatric population of America has grown exponentially in the past century. Health degradations and expensive medical care are characteristic of this population with many of these costs due to age-related cognitive decline. It is essential to completely understand the mechanisms of normal and abnormal aging in the search for treatments for cognitive decline. A reduction of neurogenesis is a common factor in aging, but this reduction is even more drastic in individuals experiencing cognitive decline. It is unclear what effect reduced neurogenesis has on the extracellular environment, including glial cells. In particular, changes in microglial activation could be related ...


Pornography: Adolescent Brain Development & Addiction, William K. Canady 2020 Dublin City Schools

Pornography: Adolescent Brain Development & Addiction, William K. Canady

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

This presentation will explain the historical development of pornography. It will highlight three segments: 1- Porn’s impact on brain development of reward pathways, ultimately increasing the appetite for more porn. 2- Porn can be a false substitute for real intimacy, resulting in decreased sexual satisfaction with a real person and increased verbal and physical aggression. 3- Porn promotes sex trafficking, promotes multiple sex partners and reduced STD prevention.


Effects Of Novel Tool Use: Cortical And Functional Measures In Children Using A Prosthetic Simulator, Chris Copeland 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Effects Of Novel Tool Use: Cortical And Functional Measures In Children Using A Prosthetic Simulator, Chris Copeland

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

As of 2005, there were a total of 1.6 million people living with the loss of a limb, with this population projected to double to 3.6 million by 2050 [1]. While prostheses aim to enhance the function of these individuals, it is estimated that 45% of pediatric prosthetic users reject their prosthesis [2]. The literature which describes the neurological control mechanisms of prosthetic use is sparse and often low-powered due to an inadequate number of participants. However, prosthetic simulators may be a solution to chronically low-powered prosthetic-centric studies by serving as functional homologues, though this has yet to ...


Antagonistic Regulation Of Circadian Output And Synaptic Development By Jetlag And The Dyschronic-Slowpoke Complex, Angelique Lamaze, James E.C. Jepson, Oghenerukevwe Akpoghiran, Kyunghee Koh 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

Antagonistic Regulation Of Circadian Output And Synaptic Development By Jetlag And The Dyschronic-Slowpoke Complex, Angelique Lamaze, James E.C. Jepson, Oghenerukevwe Akpoghiran, Kyunghee Koh

Department of Neuroscience Faculty Papers

Circadian output genes act downstream of the clock to promote rhythmic changes in behavior and physiology, yet their molecular and cellular functions are not well understood. Here we characterize an interaction between regulators of circadian entrainment, output, and synaptic development in Drosophila that influences clock-driven anticipatory increases in morning and evening activity. We previously showed the JETLAG (JET) E3 ubiquitin ligase resets the clock upon light exposure, whereas the PDZ protein DYSCHRONIC (DYSC) regulates circadian locomotor output and synaptic development. Surprisingly, we find that JET and DYSC antagonistically regulate synaptic development at the larval neuromuscular junction, and reduced JET activity ...


Using An Internal Auditory Stimulus To Activate The Developing Primary Auditory Cortex: A Fetal Fmri Study, Estee Goldberg 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Using An Internal Auditory Stimulus To Activate The Developing Primary Auditory Cortex: A Fetal Fmri Study, Estee Goldberg

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Insight into the rapidly developing brain in utero is scarce. Fetal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique used to gain awareness into the developmental process. Previous auditory task-based fMRI studies employed an external sound stimulus directly on the maternal abdomen. However, there has since been recommendation to cease doing so. We sought to investigate a reliable paradigm to study the development of fetal brain networks and postulate that by using an internal stimulus, such as the mother singing, it would result in activation of the fetal primary auditory cortex. Volunteers carrying singleton fetuses with a gestational age of ...


Neurodevelopment Outcome Of Neonates Treated With Intraventricular Colistin For Ventriculitis Caused By Multiple Drug-Resistant Pathogens-A Case Series, Kashif Hussain, Muhammad Sohail Salat, Gul Ambreen, Javaid Iqbal 2020 Aga Khan University

Neurodevelopment Outcome Of Neonates Treated With Intraventricular Colistin For Ventriculitis Caused By Multiple Drug-Resistant Pathogens-A Case Series, Kashif Hussain, Muhammad Sohail Salat, Gul Ambreen, Javaid Iqbal

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: Multiple-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB)-associated neonatal ventriculitis is a life-threatening complication that needs timely diagnosis and effective treatment with broad-spectrum antimicrobials in critical-care settings. Inadequate penetration of antibiotics through the blood-brain barrier also demands an intraventricular (IVT) route of administration. This study reports mortality and neurodevelopmental sequelae of neonates till 18 months of age, who received IVT-colistin for treating MDR-GNB associated ventriculitis.
Methods: In a case series of seven neonates with ventriculitis due to MDR-GNB at NICU of Aga Khan University Hospital, Pakistan, between June 2015 and 2018, we reviewed IVT-colistin therapy in critically ill neonates. Treatment outcomes were ...


Tissue-Specific Regulation Of Pnmt By Intron Retention During Neural Development, Meeti Mehta 2020 University of Central Florida

Tissue-Specific Regulation Of Pnmt By Intron Retention During Neural Development, Meeti Mehta

Digital Repository: Showcase of Undergraduate Research Excellence

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Gestational Ozone Exposure On Privileged Placental And Brain Barrier Integrity, Alexander I. Hamm 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Effects Of Gestational Ozone Exposure On Privileged Placental And Brain Barrier Integrity, Alexander I. Hamm

Theses and Dissertations

Ambient outdoor ozone, a common of component of photochemical smog and urban air pollution, is linked to various neurological and vascular pathologies. Its immediate reaction with lung surfactant after inhalation results in complete reactivity of the gas, with no active ozone passing into circulation. This indicates the presence of secondary and tertiary mediators in ozone-related systemic pathologies after pulmonary insult. In vasculature, ozone exposure is associated with an acute hypertensive phenotype apparent at least 24 hours after dose, such as experienced on a hot summer afternoon in a large metropolitan area like Los Angeles or Mexico City. However, the effects ...


Impact Of A Multimodal Exercise Program On Tibial Bone Health In Adolescents With Development Coordination Disorder: An Examination Of Feasibility And Potential Efficacy, Jocelyn L. Tan, Aris Siafarikas, Timo Rantalainen, Nicolas H. Hart, Fleur McIntyre, Beth Hands, Paola Chivers 2020 Edith Cowan University

Impact Of A Multimodal Exercise Program On Tibial Bone Health In Adolescents With Development Coordination Disorder: An Examination Of Feasibility And Potential Efficacy, Jocelyn L. Tan, Aris Siafarikas, Timo Rantalainen, Nicolas H. Hart, Fleur Mcintyre, Beth Hands, Paola Chivers

ECU Publications Post 2013

© 2020, International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions. All rights reserved. Objectives: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) compromises bone health purportedly due to lower levels of physical activity. The potential of an exercise intervention to improve bone health parameters in adolescents with DCD has not previously been studied. This study thus aimed to determine the impact of a multimodal exercise intervention on bone health in this population at-risk of secondary osteoporosis. Methods: Twenty-eight adolescents (17 male, 11 female) aged between 12-17 years (Mage =14.1) with DCD participated in a twice weekly, 13-week generalised multimodal exercise intervention. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography ...


Cis-Regulatory Analysis Of Onecut1 Expression In Fate-Restricted Retinal Progenitor Cells, Sruti Patoori, Nathalie Jean-Charles, Ariana Gopal, Sacha Sulaiman, Sneha Gopal, Brian Wang, Benjamin Souferi, Mark Emerson 2020 CUNY City College

Cis-Regulatory Analysis Of Onecut1 Expression In Fate-Restricted Retinal Progenitor Cells, Sruti Patoori, Nathalie Jean-Charles, Ariana Gopal, Sacha Sulaiman, Sneha Gopal, Brian Wang, Benjamin Souferi, Mark Emerson

Publications and Research

Background: The vertebrate retina consists of six major classes of neuronal cells. During development, these cells are generated from a pool of multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) that express the gene Vsx2. Fate-restricted RPCs have recently been identified, with limited mitotic potential and cell fate possibilities compared to multipotent RPCs. One population of fate-restricted RPCs, marked by activity of the regulatory element ThrbCRM1, gives rise to both cone photoreceptors and horizontal cells. These cells do not express Vsx2, but co-express the transcription factors (TFs) Onecut1 and Otx2, which bind to ThrbCRM1. The components of the gene regulatory networks that control ...


Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett 2020 University of Montana

Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The brain is organized as a complex network of specialized neurons that communicate via a combination of electrical and chemical signals. Our brains function to generate movement, control organ function, or direct complex behaviors; all of which requires the ability to regulate the flow of communication between circuits and networks. Work in this thesis addresses two areas of neuron communication: first, how does the release of more than one neurotransmitter from a single neuron impact behavior, and second, are matricellular proteins (MCPs) key contributors to synaptic transmission and neuron function? The conserved CCN family of MCPs have a unique mosaic ...


Cholesterol Biosynthesis In The Nervous System With An Emphasis On Desmosterolosis, Luke Allen 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Cholesterol Biosynthesis In The Nervous System With An Emphasis On Desmosterolosis, Luke Allen

Theses & Dissertations

Cholesterol biosynthesis is integral to proper neurodevelopment due to the reliance on de novo synthesis of cholesterol in the brain. Disruptions in this process have devastating outcomes for human life characterized by several phenotypic manifestations concomitant with developmental delay. The cholesterol biosynthesis disorder desmosterolosis is an extremely rare disorder with a severe clinical phenotype, however, the models used to study this disease are not well characterized. In addition to genetic disruptions in cholesterol biosynthesis, pharmacological perturbation is an understudied side effect of many commonly prescribed drugs. Here we present a characterization of the sterol profile of the mouse model of ...


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