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A Novel Switch-Like Function Of Delta-Catenin In Dendrite Development, Ryan Baumert 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

A Novel Switch-Like Function Of Delta-Catenin In Dendrite Development, Ryan Baumert

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The formation of neuronal networks in the brain is tightly regulated, and dependent on the morphology of dendrites, the branch-like signal-receiving structures extending from neurons. Disruptions in dendrite development, or dendritogenesis, can lead to the atypical neuronal connectivity associated with multiple neurodevelopmental diseases. My research addresses molecular processes that underlie dendritogenesis via analysis of a pair of novel interactions involving the protein delta-catenin.

In neurons, delta-catenin localizes to dendrites and synapses, where it functions in their development and maintenance. Structurally, delta-catenin possesses a central Armadillo domain and a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. This motif associates with PDZ domain-containing proteins, and is ...


#44 - Effects Of Chemical Vagotomy On The Neonatal Mouse Paraventricular Nucleus Of The Hypothalamus, Aviva Gars, Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Benoit Chassaing, Nancy Forger 2019 Georgia State University

#44 - Effects Of Chemical Vagotomy On The Neonatal Mouse Paraventricular Nucleus Of The Hypothalamus, Aviva Gars, Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Benoit Chassaing, Nancy Forger

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Birth is marked by a dramatic transition from the sterile womb to a world full of microorganisms that colonize every body surface. We previously found that this colonization exerts rapid effects on brain development, as in mice born in the absence of microbes had increased cell death in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), an effect not seen 12 h prior to expected delivery. The gut microbiota influences the development of many body systems, and communicates bi-directionally with the brain. We hypothesize that the microbiota exerts effects on neuronal cell death via the vagus nerve, which connects the gut ...


In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber 2019 The University of Western Ontario

In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In recent years both philosophers and scientists have asked whether or not our current kinds of mental disorder—e.g., schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder—are natural kinds; and, moreover, whether or not the search for natural kinds of mental disorder is a realistic desideratum for psychiatry. In this dissertation I clarify the sense in which a kind can be said to be “natural” or “real” and argue that, despite a few notable exceptions, kinds of mental disorder cannot be considered natural kinds. Furthermore, I contend that psychopathological phenomena do not cluster together into kinds in the way that paradigmatic natural ...


The Physiology Of Social-Emotional Learning: Integrating Biomarkers Of Self-Regulation Into The Assessment And Implementation Of Programs, Martin E. Blank 2019 University of Pennsylvania

The Physiology Of Social-Emotional Learning: Integrating Biomarkers Of Self-Regulation Into The Assessment And Implementation Of Programs, Martin E. Blank

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

In the last two decades, formalized social-emotional learning (SEL) programs in schools have proliferated in response to a staggering increase in mental, social, and emotional challenges for youth. SEL programs differ in their theoretical foundations, though there are commonalities among them. Self-regulation (SR) surfaces as an important pillar. Researchers have relied mostly on self-reporting and teacher questionnaires to measure the effectiveness of these programs to improve SR and other aspects of youth well-being, without explicitly considering the physiological effects of these interventions on the biomarkers of youth. By addressing this gap, program researchers, developers, and educators can reach their stated ...


Micrornas Are Necessary For Bmp-7-Induced Dendritic Growth In Cultured Rat Sympathetic Neurons, Vidya Chandrasekaran 2019 Saint Mary's College of California

Micrornas Are Necessary For Bmp-7-Induced Dendritic Growth In Cultured Rat Sympathetic Neurons, Vidya Chandrasekaran

Vidya Chandrasekaran

Neuronal connectivity is dependent on size and shape of the dendritic arbor. However, mechanisms controlling dendritic arborization, especially in the peripheral nervous system, are not completely understood. Previous studies have shown that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important initiators of dendritic growth in peripheral neurons. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that post-transcriptional regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is necessary for BMP-7-induced dendritic growth in these neurons. To examine the role of miRNAs in BMP-7-induced dendritic growth, microarray analyses was used to profile miRNA expression in cultured sympathetic neurons from the superior cervical ganglia of embryonic day 21 rat ...


Role Of A 19s Proteasome Subunit- Psmd10(Gankyrin) In Neurogenesis Of Human Neuronal Progenitor Cells, Indrajit Sahu, Padma P. Nanaware, Minal Mane, Saim Wasi Mulla, Soumen Roy, Prasanna Venkatraman 2019 Technion - Israel Institute of Technology

Role Of A 19s Proteasome Subunit- Psmd10(Gankyrin) In Neurogenesis Of Human Neuronal Progenitor Cells, Indrajit Sahu, Padma P. Nanaware, Minal Mane, Saim Wasi Mulla, Soumen Roy, Prasanna Venkatraman

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

PSMD10(Gankyrin), a proteasome assembly chaperone, is a widely known oncoprotein which aspects many hall mark properties of cancer. However, except proteasome assembly chaperon function its role in normal cell function remains unknown. To address this issue, we induced PSMD10(Gankyrin) overexpression in HEK293 cells and the resultant large-scale changes in gene expression profile were analyzed. We constituted networks from microarray data of these differentially expressed genes and carried out extensive topological analyses. The overrecurring yet consistent theme that appeared throughout analysis using varied network metrics is that all genes and interactions identified as important would be involved in neurogenesis ...


Integrins Have Cell-Type-Specific Roles In The Development Of Motor Neuron Connectivity, Devyn Oliver, Emily Norman, Heather Bates, Rachel Avard, Monika Rettler, Claire Y. Benard, Michael M. Francis, Michele L. Lemons 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Integrins Have Cell-Type-Specific Roles In The Development Of Motor Neuron Connectivity, Devyn Oliver, Emily Norman, Heather Bates, Rachel Avard, Monika Rettler, Claire Y. Benard, Michael M. Francis, Michele L. Lemons

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Formation of the nervous system requires a complex series of events including proper extension and guidance of neuronal axons and dendrites. Here we investigate the requirement for integrins, a class of transmembrane cell adhesion receptors, in regulating these processes across classes of C. elegans motor neurons. We show alpha integrin/ina-1 is expressed by both GABAergic and cholinergic motor neurons. Despite this, our analysis of hypomorphic ina-1(gm144) mutants indicates preferential involvement of alpha integrin/ina-1 in GABAergic commissural development, without obvious involvement in cholinergic commissural development. The defects in GABAergic commissures of ina-1(gm144) mutants included both premature termination ...


The Association Of Late-Life Depression, Cognitive Functioning, And Sleep Disorder In Aging, Jessica B. Aronis 2019 University of Maine

The Association Of Late-Life Depression, Cognitive Functioning, And Sleep Disorder In Aging, Jessica B. Aronis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The continuing growth in the demographic of aging individuals in the United States creates concern for diseases of aging that are chronic, notably unipolar depressive disorders. The high rates of depression in the aging population are a concern because of the strong association between late-life depression and cognitive impairment. Poor cognitive functioning is a hallmark of aging related neurological disorders, the most prevalent being Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Sleep disorder is a core symptom of depression, and is definitively associated with the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the prodrome of AD. MCI is also characterized by similar types of ...


Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Of Infantile Hydrocephalus: An Fmri Case Study, Ikhlas Ahmed Hashi 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Of Infantile Hydrocephalus: An Fmri Case Study, Ikhlas Ahmed Hashi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ventricle dilatation caused by infantile hydrocephalus may result in extensive damage of the posterior cortex (parietal and occipital lobes). We hypothesize that pathological changes in the development of the posterior cortex can be linked to non-verbal learning disabilities in children with previous infantile hydrocephalus. This case study will investigate the neurodevelopmental outcomes of 3 treated hydrocephalus patients, when compared to a group of healthy control children (n = 12). Within the hydrocephalus group, patients displayed differences in non-verbal test performance as well as parietal brain activation during an fMRI number comparison task. We associated these differences with clinical variables such as ...


Modeling Down Syndrome Neurodevelopment With Dosage Compensation, Jan T. Czerminski 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Modeling Down Syndrome Neurodevelopment With Dosage Compensation, Jan T. Czerminski

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Due to their underlying genetic complexity, chromosomal disorders such as Down syndrome (DS), which is caused by trisomy 21, have long been understudied and continue to lack effective treatments. With over 200 genes on the extra chromosome, even the specific cell pathologies and pathways impacted in DS are not known, and it has not been considered a viable target for the burgeoning field of gene therapy. Recently, our lab demonstrated that the natural mechanism of dosage compensation can be harnessed to silence the trisomic chromosome in pluripotent cells. Using an inducible XIST transgene allows us to study the effects of ...


Relationship Of Maternal And Infant Cortisol Matrices With Later Infant Behavior And Temperament, Anastasia Perris 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Relationship Of Maternal And Infant Cortisol Matrices With Later Infant Behavior And Temperament, Anastasia Perris

Anastasia Perris

 Prenatal stress has been correlated with adverse developmental outcomes affecting infant cognition and behavior. Previous studies have shown that prenatal stress can lead to increased susceptibility to adult disease but few studies have looked at the physiological stress response system by measuring the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Cortisol, the output of the HPA axis can be secreted in many different matrices (saliva, blood, urine, feces and hair). Most studies that do, only look at one measure of hormone production instead of examining multiple matrices. Additionally these studies do not look at the relationship between matrices. Hair provides a ...


The Origins And Development Of Visual Categorization, Laura Cabral 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Origins And Development Of Visual Categorization, Laura Cabral

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Forming categories is a core part of human cognition, allowing us to make quickly make inferences about our environment. This thesis investigated some of the major theoretical interpretations surrounding the neural basis of visual category development. In adults, there are category-selective regions (e.g. in ventral temporal cortex) and networks (which include regions outside traditional visual regions—e.g. the amygdala) that support visual categorization. While there has been extensive behavioural work investigating visual categorization in infants, the neural sequence of development remains poorly understood. Based on behavioral experiments, one view holds that infants are initially using subcortical structures to ...


Investigation Of Even-Skipped, A Developmentally-Regulated Gene Controlling Neural Segmentation In Dragonflies, Kathryn Bangser 2019 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Investigation Of Even-Skipped, A Developmentally-Regulated Gene Controlling Neural Segmentation In Dragonflies, Kathryn Bangser

Honors Theses

A comprehensive understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying pattern formation and neurogenesis is necessary in order to trace the evolutionary history of insect embryogenesis.

One of the most important processes of embryogenesis is the organized pattern formation that allows for proper body segmentation and neural development. Proper segmentation, which relies on a series of specific gene expressions, is necessary for the development of an operational nervous system. Even-skipped (eve), one such regulatory gene, has been studied extensively in certain model organisms, and theories regarding the evolution of its functional role could be further elucidated by visualizing its expression in adult ...


Epigenetic Modifications In Alzheimer’S Neuropathology And Therapeutics, Michelle Esposito, Goldie Libby Sherr 2019 CUNY College of Staten Island

Epigenetic Modifications In Alzheimer’S Neuropathology And Therapeutics, Michelle Esposito, Goldie Libby Sherr

Publications and Research

Transcriptional activation is a highly synchronized process in eukaryotes that requires a series of cis- and trans-acting elements at promoter regions. Epigenetic modifications, such as chromatin remodeling, histone acetylation/deacetylation, and methylation, have frequently been studied with regard to transcriptional regulation/dysregulation. Recently however, it has been determined that implications in epigenetic modification seem to expand into various neurodegenerative disease mechanisms. Impaired learning and memory deterioration are cognitive dysfunctions often associated with a plethora of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. Through better understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying these dysfunctions, new epigenomic therapeutic targets, such as histone deacetylases, are ...


Investigating The Role Of Integrin Beta 3 In Dendritic Arborization In The Supragranular Developing Cerebral Cortex, Zachary Logan Holley 2019 James Madison University

Investigating The Role Of Integrin Beta 3 In Dendritic Arborization In The Supragranular Developing Cerebral Cortex, Zachary Logan Holley

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

Integrin subunits have been implicated in axonal and dendritic outgrowth. In particular, a strong positive association has been found between mutations in integrin beta 3 (Itgb3) and autism spectrum disorder, but little is known about neuronal Itgb3 function in vivo. Many forms of autism spectrum disorder are thought to arise from dysfunctional dendritic arborization and synaptic pruning. Global knockout of Itgb3 in mice leads to autistic-like behaviors. Itgb3-/- mice also have reduced callosal volume, a key neuroanatomical correlate of autism. Here, we test the hypothesis that Itgb3 is required for normal dendritic arborization in layer II/III pyramidal neurons of ...


Notch Inhibitors And The Bet Inhibitor Jq-1 Decrease The Growth Of Primary Tumor Cells Derived From A Novel Mouse Model Of C11orf95-Rela Induced Brain Tumor, Ericka Randazzo, Jesse Dunnack, Justin Fang, Joseph LoTurco PhD 2019 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Notch Inhibitors And The Bet Inhibitor Jq-1 Decrease The Growth Of Primary Tumor Cells Derived From A Novel Mouse Model Of C11orf95-Rela Induced Brain Tumor, Ericka Randazzo, Jesse Dunnack, Justin Fang, Joseph Loturco Phd

University Scholar Projects

Brain tumors are the most common childhood solid malignancy, and because of remarkable advances in treating many cancers outside of the brain, they have become the leading cause of cancer mortality in children. Ependymomas are a class of brain tumors which can be further subdivided into three groups based upon their location and genetic features. Of the three classes, supratentorial ependymomas are the only subgroup known to be marked by an oncogenic driver gene, which consists of a fusion mutation between the C11orf95 and RELA genes. C11orf95-RELA positive tumors are the most aggressive and lethal of ...


The Effects Of Two Novel Anti-Inflammatory Compounds On Prepulse Inhibition And Neural Microglia Cell Activation In A Rodent Model Of Schizophrenia, Heath W. Shelton 2019 East Tennessee State University

The Effects Of Two Novel Anti-Inflammatory Compounds On Prepulse Inhibition And Neural Microglia Cell Activation In A Rodent Model Of Schizophrenia, Heath W. Shelton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recent studies have shown elevated neuroinflammation in a large subset of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. A pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), has been directly linked to this neuroinflammation. This study examined the effects of two TNFα modulators (PD2024 and PD340) produced by our collaborators at P2D Bioscience, Inc., to alleviate auditory sensorimotor gating deficits and reduce microglial cell activation present in the polyinosinic:polycytidylic (Poly I:C) rodent model of schizophrenia. Auditory sensorimotor gating was assessed using prepulse inhibition and microglial activation was examined and quantified using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, respectively. Both PD2024 and PD340 alleviated auditory sensorimotor ...


The Impact Of Race And Affect On Infant Visual Attention To Faces, Emily Kathryn Grimes 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Impact Of Race And Affect On Infant Visual Attention To Faces, Emily Kathryn Grimes

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Defects In Fetal Mouth Movement And Pharyngeal Patterning Underlie Cleft Palate Caused By Retinoid Deficiency., Regina Friedl 2019 University of Louisville

Defects In Fetal Mouth Movement And Pharyngeal Patterning Underlie Cleft Palate Caused By Retinoid Deficiency., Regina Friedl

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cleft palate is a common birth defect. Etiologic mechanisms of palate cleft include defects in palate morphogenesis, mandibular growth, or spontaneous fetal mouth movement. Cleft palate linked to deficient fetal mouth movement has been demonstrated directly only in a single experimental model of loss of neurotransmission. Here, using retinoid deficient mouse embryos, we demonstrate directly for the first time that deficient fetal mouth movement and cleft palate occurs as a result of mis-patterned development of pharyngeal peripheral nerves and cartilages. Retinoid deficient embryos were generated by inactivation of retinol dehydrogenase 10 (Rdh10), which is critical for production of Retinoic Acid ...


The 5-Ht1a-R Knockout Mouse As A Model Of Later Life Anxiety Disorders: Implications For Sex Differences, Tatyana Budylin 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The 5-Ht1a-R Knockout Mouse As A Model Of Later Life Anxiety Disorders: Implications For Sex Differences, Tatyana Budylin

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Anxiety affects nearly twice as many women as it affects men across all cultures and economic groups. Importantly, girls have a higher chance of inheriting anxiety disorders than boys, and many anxiety disorders appear at a very young age. However, little is known about sex differences in brain and behavioral development and how they relate to anxiety in adulthood. Serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) mediated signaling has been implicated in depression and anxiety, however most studies that focus on the involvement of the 5-HT1A-R have been conducted in adults. Little is known about how the 5-HT1A ...


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