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Constructing An In Vitro 3d Model Of The Human Placenta, Michael Zheng 2022 Western University

Constructing An In Vitro 3d Model Of The Human Placenta, Michael Zheng

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The placenta is critical for nurturing fetal growth and development, with dysregulated placentation associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The main fetal and maternal placental components consist of trophoblasts and modified endometrial stromal cells known as decidual cells, respectively. Since investigating in vivo placentas in humans through non-invasive methods is challenging, comprehensive in vitro placental models are needed for in-depth studies. However, in vitro 3D placental models that adequately represent and combine fetal and maternal components have been lacking. In this study, we achieved valuable progress in developing an in vitro 3D placental model inclusive of fetal and maternal constituents. We …


Producing And Measuring Oscillatory Shear In A Novel Microfluidic Chip, Sanaz Lordfard, Daniel Lorusso, Tamie L. Poepping, Hristo N Nikolov, Kayla Soon, Stephen Sims, Jeffrey Dixon, David Holdsworth 2022 Western University

Producing And Measuring Oscillatory Shear In A Novel Microfluidic Chip, Sanaz Lordfard, Daniel Lorusso, Tamie L. Poepping, Hristo N Nikolov, Kayla Soon, Stephen Sims, Jeffrey Dixon, David Holdsworth

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Purpose: To demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel microfluidic device mimicking oscillatory blood flow, allowing cell biologists to examine how endothelial cells respond to a range of oscillatory shear stress levels.

Methods: The microfluidic chip consists of a circular-shaped reservoir, leading to a rectangular channel that is examined under a microscope. The plunger is connected to a speaker system and oscilloscope, allowing the plunger to apply a range of frequencies (5-60Hz) and voltages (5-10 V, leading to a variety in oscillation amplitudes) to the reservoir region. 1.1 um fluorescent particles diluted in distilled water were used for tracking. Processing was …


Post-Transcriptional Control Of The Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition (Emt) In Ras-Driven Colorectal Cancers, Chaitra Rao 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Post-Transcriptional Control Of The Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition (Emt) In Ras-Driven Colorectal Cancers, Chaitra Rao

Theses & Dissertations

Colorectal cancer (CRC) originates from epithelial cells lining the colon or rectum of the gastrointestinal tract. Most cancer deaths result from a tumor spreading to distant organs; however epithelial cells do not normally migrate from their tissue of origin. To do so, epithelial cells undergo biochemical changes allowing them to acquire behavior similar to motile mesenchymal cells termed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis. Our study demonstrated that CRC cells require a molecular scaffold, Kinase Suppressor of Ras 1 (KSR1), and ERK to promote the EMT-like phenotype through the preferential translation of Epithelial Stromal Interaction …


Subtype-Selective Positive Modulation Of KCa2.3 Channels Increases Cilia Length, Young-Woo Nam, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Denisse Laren-Henriquez, Farideh Amirrad, Grace Yang, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Razan Orfali, Myles Downey, Keykavous Parang, Surya M. Nauli, Miao Zhang 2022 Chapman University

Subtype-Selective Positive Modulation Of KCa2.3 Channels Increases Cilia Length, Young-Woo Nam, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Denisse Laren-Henriquez, Farideh Amirrad, Grace Yang, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Razan Orfali, Myles Downey, Keykavous Parang, Surya M. Nauli, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (KCa2.x) channels are gated exclusively by intracellular Ca2+. The activation of KCa2.3 channels induces hyperpolarization, which augments Ca2+ signaling in endothelial cells. Cilia are specialized Ca2+ signaling compartments. Here, we identified compound 4 that potentiates human KCa2.3 channels selectively. The subtype selectivity of compound 4 for human KCa2.3 over rat KCa2.2a channels relies on an isoleucine residue in the HA/HB helices. Positive modulation of KCa2.3 channels by compound 4 increased flow-induced Ca2+ signaling and cilia length, while negative …


Visualizing Muscle Assembly And Function In C. Elegans, Michael B. Russell 2022 University of South Alabama

Visualizing Muscle Assembly And Function In C. Elegans, Michael B. Russell

Theses and Dissertations

Myofibrils produce the forces that shorten muscles during contraction and are composed of proteins arranged in repeating contractile units (sarcomeres). These are composed of various proteins that self-organize into precise, alternating groups. The process of myofibril assembly is robust, flexible, and medically relevant. Various protein isoforms have evolved to modify the assembly process and generate a variety of muscle types with distinct physiologies and dynamics. To study myofibril assembly, I used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) which is an ideal model organism for this because it is transparent and has a variety of different muscle types that are responsible …


Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Known to cause gas gangrene, Hathewaya histolytica secretes two sister collagenases, collagenase G (Col G) and collagenase H (Col H), to degrade the triple helical structure of collagen to further infection in a host. Individual domains of Col H have been crystalized in previous studies, but methods in x-ray crystallization of full-length Col H have been unsuccessful. Using Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) data, atomistic modeling was used to generate multiple conformations of Col H while accounting for flexibility between domains. Full-length Col H was found to adopt a two-state conformational model exhibiting a majority compact and a minority elongated …


What I Talk About When I Talk About Integration Of Single-Cell Data, Yang Xu 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

What I Talk About When I Talk About Integration Of Single-Cell Data, Yang Xu

Doctoral Dissertations

Over the past decade, single-cell technologies evolved from profiling hundreds of cells to millions of cells, and emerged from a single modality of data to cover multiple views at single-cell resolution, including genome, epigenome, transcriptome, and so on. With advance of these single-cell technologies, the booming of multimodal single-cell data creates a valuable resource for us to understand cellular heterogeneity and molecular mechanism at a comprehensive level. However, the large-scale multimodal single-cell data also presents a huge computational challenge for insightful integrative analysis. Here, I will lay out problems in data integration that single-cell research community is interested in and …


Screening Tcf19 And Kif18b To Determine Co-Regulation With Mybl1 In Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patient Tissues, Tyra Sharda Ivory 2022 Texas Southern University

Screening Tcf19 And Kif18b To Determine Co-Regulation With Mybl1 In Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patient Tissues, Tyra Sharda Ivory

Theses (2016-Present)

The aggressive behavior in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is due to genetic signaling events, which call for the comprehensive analyses of genes differentially regulated in the cancers. Our laboratory previously found that MYBL1 was over-expressed in a fraction of the TNBC, compared to some luminal, and other breast cancer subtypes. The MYBL1 gene is a proto-oncogene that serves as a strong transcriptional activator. The gene is involved in signaling events related to cell cycle signaling, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, all which are differentially regulated in cancers. Because MYBL1 is a transcription regulator, involved in cancer-related mechanisms and differentially expressed in …


Non-Photic Mechanisms Of Entrainment In Bmal1 Deficient Conditions, Jamie Tran 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Non-Photic Mechanisms Of Entrainment In Bmal1 Deficient Conditions, Jamie Tran

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Maintaining our internal circadian (i.e. 24 -hour) clock is imperative to our daily biological and mental well-being. Large epidemiological studies have shown that disruptions of our circadian rhythms can lead to poor mental health, metabolic diseases, and various types of cancer. Various external cues that have become a part of the modern times such as electricity, shift -work, rapid travel across various time zones, easier access to nutritionally unbalanced food items, and various rigid social demands have deleterious effects on our internal clock, and generally reduce robustness of the circadian clock. The two following projects aim to examine two fundamental …


Determination Of The Functional Role Of Rab-Ggt In Physcomitrium Patens., Hyun Jin Jung 2022 University of Louisville

Determination Of The Functional Role Of Rab-Ggt In Physcomitrium Patens., Hyun Jin Jung

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protein prenylation, a common lipid post-translational modification, is required for growth and development in eukaryotes. Rab geranylgeranylation involves the addition of one or two 20-carbon geranylgeranyl moieties to Rab-GTPase target proteins, which regulate intracellular vesicle trafficking. The reaction is carried out by heterodimeric Rab geranylgeranyltransferase (Rab-GGT), which is composed of two associated α- and β-subunits, with the assistance of an additional protein called Rab escort protein (REP). Loss of function of the Rab-GGT α subunit RGTA1 has not been reported in any plant. While knockout of either of the two β subunits RGTB1 or RGTB2 results in …


Examining The Expression Patterns Of Desulfotalea Psychrophila Dsrab Operon And Pit At Subfreezing Temperatures And Different Concentrations Of Sulfate Salts As A Model For Mars And Icy Worlds Survival And Colonization, Sergio Luis Mosquera Mora 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining The Expression Patterns Of Desulfotalea Psychrophila Dsrab Operon And Pit At Subfreezing Temperatures And Different Concentrations Of Sulfate Salts As A Model For Mars And Icy Worlds Survival And Colonization, Sergio Luis Mosquera Mora

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since ancient times, Humanity has been fascinated with the idea of what lies beyond the borders of our planet. Fortunately, the combined efforts of many nations have made it possible to send unmanned spacecraft to orbit planets located close to Earth. These missions have the principal goal to collect data that could help us understand the basic environmental conditions that persist on those planets, or for evidence of past or present life. Equally important, landers and rovers have been successfully deployed to start the in-situ exploration of many planets of the Solar System. Among them, Mars has been extensively studied …


Sex Differences In Cancer Cachexia And A Novel Mitochondrial Target For Cancer-Induced Muscle Wasting, Seongkyun Lim 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Sex Differences In Cancer Cachexia And A Novel Mitochondrial Target For Cancer-Induced Muscle Wasting, Seongkyun Lim

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cancer cachexia (CC) is a devastating wasting syndrome characterized by marked weight loss including skeletal muscle atrophy that affects approximately 80% of cancer patients. Current therapeutic treatments including pharmacological and nutritional intervention are insufficient to prevent or reverse it. Prior studies demonstrated lower muscle mass, impaired muscle function, and mitochondrial health in the development of CC. Specifically, mitochondrial fusion protein, Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) which plays a significant role in skeletal muscle health, is suppressed in the development of CC. Furthermore, most pre-clinical CC studies were mainly focused on males although there are distinct phenotypical differences in skeletal muscle between …


Neonatal Islet-1+ Cardiovascular Progenitor Cell-Derived Exosomes And Their Functional Ability To Regulate Proliferation, Lourdes Ceja 2022 California State University, San Bernardino

Neonatal Islet-1+ Cardiovascular Progenitor Cell-Derived Exosomes And Their Functional Ability To Regulate Proliferation, Lourdes Ceja

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Heart failure affects many people around the world and can lead to disease progression and death. Consequently, new stem and exosome-based therapies are needed to address this major health issue and to provide therapeutic options that will improve outcomes for the increasing number of patients with heart disease. Stem cell-derived exosomes have captivated researchers’ attention over the past couple of years based on their functional role in cellular signaling which highlights the vital component of the secretome of stem and progenitor cells. Since neonates have significantly enhanced regenerative ability, we hypothesized that exosomes isolated from Islet-1+ expressing neonatal human cardiovascular …


Characterization Of The Wee1 Homologues And The Investigation Of Factors Promoting Cellular Enlargement In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Rodney J. Colón Reyes 2022 Clemson University

Characterization Of The Wee1 Homologues And The Investigation Of Factors Promoting Cellular Enlargement In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Rodney J. Colón Reyes

All Dissertations

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, infecting mainly immunocompromised individuals. As the main cause of cryptococcosis, it is responsible for over 180,000 deaths every year. As an environmental yeast, it has unique adaptations that allow it to proliferate in the human host. Among these adaptations its capacity to transition to an extreme phenotype known as Titan cells is of special interest to researchers. With sizes above 10 um and able to reach 70 um or more in cell size. This size is accompanied with a large vacuole, larger polysaccharide capsule, and an increased resistance to fluconazole (FLC). FLC is …


Engineering Of Ideal Systems For The Study And Direction Of Stem Cell Asymmetrical Division And Fate Determination, Martina Zamponi 2022 Old Dominion University

Engineering Of Ideal Systems For The Study And Direction Of Stem Cell Asymmetrical Division And Fate Determination, Martina Zamponi

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The cellular microenvironment varies significantly across tissues, and it is constituted by both resident cells and the macromolecules they are exposed to. Cues that the cells receive from the microenvironment, as well as the signaling transmitted to it, affect their physiology and behavior. This notion is valid in the context of stem cells, which are susceptible to biochemical and biomechanical signaling exchanged with the microenvironment, and which plays a fundamental role in establishing fate determination and cell differentiation events. The definition of the molecular mechanisms that drive stem cell asymmetrical division, and how these are modulated by microenvironmental signaling, is …


College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, July & August 2022, College Of Natural Sciences 2022 South Dakota State University

College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, July & August 2022, College Of Natural Sciences

College of Natural Sciences Newsletters and Reports

Volume 3, Issue 5

Page 1 Dean's Message
Page 2 Awards & Recognition
Page 3 Resources for Student Success
Page 4 Welcome to New Faculty & Staff
Page 5 Summer Activities in CNS
Page 9 Celebrating the lives of those who touched the College
Page 10 Media Coverage of CNS
Page 12 Open PRAIRIE Data
Page 13 Snaps from he start of the semester
Page 14 Science as Art Competition




The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The only curative option for patients is surgery, but over 80% of patients are not surgical candidates. Unfortunately, PDAC is resistant to the three remaining options. PDAC is characterized by a profoundly hypoxic and immunosuppressive stroma, which contributes to its therapeutic recalcitrance. Alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (αSMA+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal component, as well as mediators of stromal deposition. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) coordinate responses to hypoxia, yet, despite their known association to poor patient outcomes, their functions within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME) …


A Computational Model Of The Line-1 Retrotransposon Life Cycle And Visualization Of Metabolic Networks In 3-Dimensions., Michael D. Martin 2022 University of Louisville

A Computational Model Of The Line-1 Retrotransposon Life Cycle And Visualization Of Metabolic Networks In 3-Dimensions., Michael D. Martin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Computational modeling of metabolic reactions and cellular systems is evolving as a tool for quantitative prediction of metabolic parameters and reaction pathway analysis. In this work, the basics of computational cell biology are presented as well as a summary of physical processes within the cell, and the algorithmic methods used to find time dependent solutions. Protein-protein and enzyme-substrate interactions are mathematically represented via mass action kinetics to construct sets of linear differential equations that describe reaction rates and formation of protein complexes. Using mass action methods, examples of reaction networks and their solutions are presented within the Virtual Cell simulation …


Gaps In Patient Education On Safe Handling And Disposal Of Oral Chemotherapy Drugs: A Pilot Prospective Cohort Survey Study, Sun Yang, Priya Patel, Alexandra Corcoran, Eric Dobberpuhl, Samantha Isidro, Dustin Le, Analise Klassen, Jay Rho, David Tran, Richard Beuttler, Neda Noori Nassr, Katherine Gruenberg, Siu-Fun Wong 2022 Chapman University

Gaps In Patient Education On Safe Handling And Disposal Of Oral Chemotherapy Drugs: A Pilot Prospective Cohort Survey Study, Sun Yang, Priya Patel, Alexandra Corcoran, Eric Dobberpuhl, Samantha Isidro, Dustin Le, Analise Klassen, Jay Rho, David Tran, Richard Beuttler, Neda Noori Nassr, Katherine Gruenberg, Siu-Fun Wong

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Oral anticancer chemotherapy (OC) has been misperceived as being safer than intravenous chemotherapy, leading to its increased risk of improper handling and disposal. This survey study assessed the knowledge, practices and attitudes of pharmacists and patients regarding OC handling and disposal, gaps in knowledge and barriers to patient education. Methods

Surveys were developed based on literature review and pilot study validation results. Patients completed a 33-item paper or electronic survey whereas pharmacists completed a 38-item electronic survey. Descriptive statistics and Fisher’s exact test computed using the R Project were used for analyses. Results

Pharmacist group (16/25, 62.5%) and patient …


The Roles Of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Plasticity In Tumor Heterogeneity, Metastasis, And Patient Survival In Breast Cancer, Meredith Septer Brown 2022 Dartmouth College

The Roles Of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Plasticity In Tumor Heterogeneity, Metastasis, And Patient Survival In Breast Cancer, Meredith Septer Brown

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal transition, a critical cellular process in development, is frequently co-opted by solid tumors to promote invasion and metastasis. In particular, the hybrid or intermediate EMT state, possessing both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics, is associated with increased cancer stemness and plasticity. Similarly, intra-tumoral heterogeneity in solid tumors, in particular breast cancer, is associated with poor prognosis, tumor growth, proliferation, drug resistance, and metastasis. We sought to understand the link between the generation of intra-tumoral heterogeneity and the intermediate EMT state and their impact on tumor progression and patient prognosis. As part of my thesis work, I developed a model …


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