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Cellular Mechanism Of Pentagalloyl Gucose-Mediated Prevention And Reversal Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Greg Halsey 2023 Clemson University

Cellular Mechanism Of Pentagalloyl Gucose-Mediated Prevention And Reversal Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Greg Halsey

All Dissertations

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been the 15th leading cause of death in persons older than 55 for the past ten years in several Western countries, with rupture resulting in an almost 100% mortality rate. AAA is a focal dilation of the aorta characterized by progressive loss of elastin and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), as well as persistent inflammatory response [1]. The only treatment for AAA is surgery; however, the mortality post-procedure is still 1-4%, with a 15-30% chance of morbidity [2].

Pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) treatment is effective in the reversal of AAA. While its stabilizing interactions with extracellular …


The Staying Power Of Asbestos Hazards: A Critical Environmental Justice Case Analysis, Emily Qian 2023 Vanderbilt University

The Staying Power Of Asbestos Hazards: A Critical Environmental Justice Case Analysis, Emily Qian

Sociology Between the Gaps: Forgotten and Neglected Topics

No abstract provided.


The 14-Day Rule For In Vitro Human Embryo Research Requires Adjustment: From A Comprehensive Perspective Of Science, Ethics And Policy Research, Xiao LU, Ming ZHAO, Huihui LIU, Tianqing LI, Tao TAN, Weizhi JI 2023 Institutes of Science and Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China School of Public Policy and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

The 14-Day Rule For In Vitro Human Embryo Research Requires Adjustment: From A Comprehensive Perspective Of Science, Ethics And Policy Research, Xiao Lu, Ming Zhao, Huihui Liu, Tianqing Li, Tao Tan, Weizhi Ji

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Since it was proposed, in vitro human embryo research had been following the 14-day rule, which limited in vitro research on human embryos within 14 days after fertilization. With the advancement in embryo culturing technology, this ethical rule has been greatly challenged. In 2021, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) recommended a conditional extension of the existing time limit in ISSCR Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation, hence the international scientific community has restarted the debate on the 14-day rule. This study systematically analyzed the historical background and controversies of the 14-day rule ethical regulation of …


Protein Trafficking In The Endoplasmic Reticulum Mediated By A Tpr-Containing Adapter Protein, Nathan P. Canniff 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Protein Trafficking In The Endoplasmic Reticulum Mediated By A Tpr-Containing Adapter Protein, Nathan P. Canniff

Doctoral Dissertations

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, multifunctional organelle that acts as the entrance into the secretory pathway, which accounts for the folding and maturation of approximately one third of the human proteome. It is the largest organelle in most cell types and is comprised of a single lumen and a contiguous membrane. The ER is responsible for a multitude of roles including protein translocation, folding, maturation, quality control, and glycosylation to name a few. These processes are buoyed by a large collection of chaperones and cochaperones, the largest subfamily of which is characterized by the presence of tetratricopeptide repeat …


Caulobacter Clpxp Adaptor Popa’S Domain Interactions In The Adaptor Hierarchy Of Ctra Degradation, Thomas P. Scudder 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Caulobacter Clpxp Adaptor Popa’S Domain Interactions In The Adaptor Hierarchy Of Ctra Degradation, Thomas P. Scudder

Masters Theses

The degradation and recycling of protein is a process essential for the maintenance and regulation of cellular function. More specifically, in Caulobacter crescentus, the ClpXP protease is responsible for driving progression through the cell cycle and protein quality control. This protease utilizes three known adaptors to selectively degrade proteins that initiate different stages of development. This thesis will elaborate on the specific binding interface on one of these adaptors, PopA, with another, RcdA, and focus in on specific residues on PopA and investigate their roles in adaptor binding and delivery of CtrA, the master regulator of Caulobacter. Finally, I …


Pcbp1 Regulates Lifr Through Fam3c To Maintain Breast Cancer Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Invasiveness, William S. Streitfeld 2023 Medical University of South Carolina

Pcbp1 Regulates Lifr Through Fam3c To Maintain Breast Cancer Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Invasiveness, William S. Streitfeld

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

The poly(rC) binding protein 1 gene (PCBP1) encodes the heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNPE1), a nucleic acid-binding protein that plays a tumor-suppressive role in mammary epithelial cells by regulating phenotypic plasticity and cell fate. Following the loss of PCBP1 function, the FAM3C gene (encoding the Interleukin-like EMT inducer, or “ILEI” protein) and the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) gene are upregulated. Interaction between FAM3C and LIFR in the extracellular space induces phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3). Overexpression and/or hyperactivity of STAT3 has been detected in 40% of breast cancer cases and is associated with a …


Brown Anole (Anolis Sagrei) Hoxa5: Insights Into The Divergence Of Hoxa5 Gene Expression And Regulation Across Evolutionarily Divergent Gnathostome Vertebrates, Jennifer A. Lange, Amber L. Rittgers, Adam Davis 2023 University of North Georgia

Brown Anole (Anolis Sagrei) Hoxa5: Insights Into The Divergence Of Hoxa5 Gene Expression And Regulation Across Evolutionarily Divergent Gnathostome Vertebrates, Jennifer A. Lange, Amber L. Rittgers, Adam Davis

Georgia Journal of Science

Hox genes are evolutionarily conserved developmental regulatory genes that function, in part, to pattern the anterior-posterior (AP) axis of organs and organ systems during animal embryonic development. Hoxa5, specifically, is shown to be expressed in the spinal cord, somites, or transient compartments giving rise to the vertebrae and ribs, developing gut, lungs, and limbs of the mouse (Mus musculus). The cis-regulatory elements (CREs), or short DNA sequences, that direct Hoxa5 expression in these embryonic domains have been mapped and functionally tested in the mouse as well. Similar Hoxa5 expression patterns have been observed in chicken ( …


Enteroendocrine Cell Regulation Of The Gut-Brain Axis, Joshua Barton, Annie Londregan, Tyler Alexander, Ariana Entezari, Manuel Covarrubias, Scott Waldman 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Enteroendocrine Cell Regulation Of The Gut-Brain Axis, Joshua Barton, Annie Londregan, Tyler Alexander, Ariana Entezari, Manuel Covarrubias, Scott Waldman

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are an essential interface between the gut and brain that communicate signals about nutrients, pain, and even information from our microbiome. EECs are hormone-producing cells expressed throughout the gastrointestinal epithelium and have been leveraged by pharmaceuticals like semaglutide (Ozempic, Wegovy), terzepatide (Mounjaro), and retatrutide (Phase 2) for diabetes and weight control, and linaclotide (Linzess) to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and visceral pain. This review focuses on role of intestinal EECs to communicate signals from the gut lumen to the brain. Canonically, EECs communicate information about the intestinal environment through a variety of hormones, dividing EECs into …


Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Possess A Second Cilium That Arises From The Daughter Centriole, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Ankan Gupta, Francisco Nunez, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Amy Y. Pan, Surya M. Nauli, Ramani Ramchandran 2023 Medical College of Wisconsin

Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Possess A Second Cilium That Arises From The Daughter Centriole, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Ankan Gupta, Francisco Nunez, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Amy Y. Pan, Surya M. Nauli, Ramani Ramchandran

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia from the brain microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) are specialized cell-surface organelles involved in mediating sensory perception, cell signaling, and vascular stability. Immunofluorescence (IF) analysis of human primary brain microvascular ECs reveals two cilia per cell. To confirm the in vitro observation of the two-cilia phenotype in human primary brain ECs, ECs isolated from mouse brain were cultured and stained for cilium. Indeed, brain ECs from a ciliopathic mouse (polycystic kidney disease or Pkd2−/−) also possess more than one cilium. Primary cilium emerges from the mother centriole. Centriole analysis by IF suggests that in brain ECs, markers …


Intracellular Transport And Filament Organization In Neurons, Maria-Veronica Ciocanel 2023 Duke University

Intracellular Transport And Filament Organization In Neurons, Maria-Veronica Ciocanel

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Use Of A Hydrogel Material For In-Vitro Vascular Applications: A Promising Approach For Medical Device Characterization., Wisdom Shadrach 2023 Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Munster Technological University, Kerry, Ireland

Use Of A Hydrogel Material For In-Vitro Vascular Applications: A Promising Approach For Medical Device Characterization., Wisdom Shadrach

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

In recent years, there has been significant interest in creating more advanced in-vitro cell culture vascular models to improve pre-clinical screening of medical therapies and devices, and the expanding research field of hydrogels as a culture biomaterial holds promise to meet this need. Hydrogels are now commonly employed in various biomedical areas such as ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiovascular applications, and this is due to their unique properties such as biocompatibility and ability to mimic extracellular matrix (ECM). There remains a need for hydrogels with good bio-compatibility index that can serve as robust 3D in-vitro vascular culture material suitable for …


Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda And Wt Α-Synuclein Induced Decreases In Neurite Growth In In Vitro Models Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda And Wt Α-Synuclein Induced Decreases In Neurite Growth In In Vitro Models Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron degeneration. This degeneration is partly driven by over expression of α-synuclein (α-syn) and development of α-syn aggregates known as Lewy bodies throughout the substantia nigra. As well as motor dysfunction, PD presents with several chronic gastrointestinal comorbidities, which cause a decline of gut microbial diversity and microbially derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Recent in vivo studies have shown SCFAs to be neuroprotective in various degenerative disease states, suggesting that SCFAs may protect against dopaminergic degeneration.

Methods

Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were used as a model of human …


Tak1 And Tbk1 Are Differentially Required By Gmp- And Lmpp-Like Leukemia Stem Cells, Austin P. Runde, Joseph Michael Cannova, Ryan Mack, Kanak Joshi, Mark Sellin, Allan Youmaran, Mattias Lenz, Rohit Thalla, Wei Wei, Peter Breslin S.J., Jiwang Zhang 2023 Loyola University Chicago

Tak1 And Tbk1 Are Differentially Required By Gmp- And Lmpp-Like Leukemia Stem Cells, Austin P. Runde, Joseph Michael Cannova, Ryan Mack, Kanak Joshi, Mark Sellin, Allan Youmaran, Mattias Lenz, Rohit Thalla, Wei Wei, Peter Breslin S.J., Jiwang Zhang

School of Medicine

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) encompasses a diverse group of cancers that originate in the blood-forming tissues of the bone marrow. Aside from the M3 subtype (PML-RARA+), AML carries a 5-year survival rate of 28% for patients 20+ years of age. AML is the most common cancer of the hematopoietic system and is slightly more common in biological males; the average age at diagnosis is 68 years. Standard frontline treatment for AML is a 2-phase regimen of intensive chemotherapy (CTx) employing daunorubicin and cytarabine. Despite 60-70% of patients achieving complete remission (CR), at least half of CR-achieving patients …


Using Hyperosmotic Shock To Study The Cell Wall Of Myxococcus Xanthus, Ian Sabol 2023 Harrisburg University of Science and Technology

Using Hyperosmotic Shock To Study The Cell Wall Of Myxococcus Xanthus, Ian Sabol

Harrisburg University Research Symposium: Highlighting Research, Innovation, & Creativity

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Growth Rate On Peptidoglycan Crosslink Density Of E. Coli Using Fluorescent Labeling, Morgan Olszewski 2023 Harrisburg University of Science and Technology

Effects Of Growth Rate On Peptidoglycan Crosslink Density Of E. Coli Using Fluorescent Labeling, Morgan Olszewski

Harrisburg University Research Symposium: Highlighting Research, Innovation, & Creativity

Peptidoglycan (PG) is a polymer composed of polysaccharides and crosslinked peptide chains found in bacterial cell walls. It helps to protect the cell from environmental stress and maintain cell morphology throughout its life cycle and further generations. The PG is made up of two sugars, N-acetyl muramic acid (NAM) and N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG). NAM and NAG are connected by glycosidic linkages to form repeated chains. The chains are formed in layers, which are interconnected via a polypeptide stem linked by a peptide bridge. During cell growth, continuous turnover of existing PG occurs by severing existing crosslinks, inserting new PG into …


Development Of Targeted Drug Delivery System To Improve Immunotherapy In Pancreatic Cancer, Poornima Devi Shaji, Ana Martinez Bulnes, Nirnoy Dan, Subhash C. Chauhan, Sheema Khan, Murali M. Yallapu 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Development Of Targeted Drug Delivery System To Improve Immunotherapy In Pancreatic Cancer, Poornima Devi Shaji, Ana Martinez Bulnes, Nirnoy Dan, Subhash C. Chauhan, Sheema Khan, Murali M. Yallapu

Research Colloquium

Introduction: About 95% of tumor arises from epithelial cell lining ducts known to be pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, with less than 5-7% survival rate. Unfortunately, little progress has been seen in the outcomes of patients with PDAC as tumor develops high desmoplasia and chemo-resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as gemcitabine (Gem). Immunotherapy has shown promising results in other cancers but limited response in pancreatic cancer due to desmoplasia and fibrotic tumor microenvironment. A recently identified mucin, MUC13 is aberrantly expressed in pancreatic tumors but not in normal pancreas. Due to its high membrane expression, MUC13 may serve as an excellent target …


Molecular Event In Hrp Apoptosis, Laura Valdez 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Molecular Event In Hrp Apoptosis, Laura Valdez

Research Colloquium

Background: Human retinal pericytes (HRP) are contractile cells providing support for endothelial cells of capillaries, essential in the regulation of retinal vasculature. Early stages of DR are characterized by the loss of HRP, leading to angiogenesis. Our preliminary studies identified monocyte-derived macrophages secrete TGF-β1, inducing the expression and secretion of a TGFβ1-Induced, pro-apoptotic BIGH3 protein leading to apoptosis of HRP. Based on a preliminary study in renal cells (unpublished data), CTP with an RGD domain is released from BIGH3 by proteolysis leading to renal cell apoptosis. In the present study, we employed Western Blots to determine if a similar molecular …


Irbp In Diabetic Retinopathy – Cell Culture & Ophthalmic Pathology Studies, Laura Valdez 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Irbp In Diabetic Retinopathy – Cell Culture & Ophthalmic Pathology Studies, Laura Valdez

Research Colloquium

Background: Interphotoreceptor-Retinoid-Binding-Protein (IRBP) is restricted to the subretinal space by the external limiting membrane and RPE zonulae occludens. Its expression is reduced in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and increased expression is protective. Hypoxia decreases viable conelike photoreceptors (661W) but increased VEGF, suggesting a role of photoreceptors in proliferative DR (PDR) (Rodriguez et al, Arch Clin Exp. Ophthal 3:23,2021). Here, we investigated the effects of high glucose and VEGF on IRBP expression by 661W and rod-like Y79 cells and distribution of IRBP and albumin in human globes with PDR and NPDR.

Methods:  661W and Y79 cells were cultured in DMEM or RPMI …


Early Development Of C3ar1-Targeting Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells For The Treatment Of Glioblastoma Multiforme, Cameron Fraser 2023 California State University, San Bernardino

Early Development Of C3ar1-Targeting Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells For The Treatment Of Glioblastoma Multiforme, Cameron Fraser

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive type of glioma, demonstrating extremely low long-term survival despite modern therapies. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells have shown extreme levels of success in the treatment of B cell lymphomas through persistent anti-tumor activity. Prior research has demonstrated the therapeutic potential in targeting the C3a-C3aR1 pathway as it acts in an autocrine loop, maintaining the proliferation and survival of cancer stem cells within the tumor. Here, we reorient the treatment to target C3aR1 for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. In order to achieve this, Jurkat immortalized T cells will express various chimeric antigen receptor designs …


Using Crispr To Generate Integrated Ssa4-Gfp Reporter Strains, Emma Norman, Rebecca Adams 2023 Belmont University

Using Crispr To Generate Integrated Ssa4-Gfp Reporter Strains, Emma Norman, Rebecca Adams

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

Using CRISPR to Generate Integrated Ssa4-GFP Reporter Strains

Emma Norman, Rebecca Adams, PhD

Proteins play critical roles in numerous cellular processes. In order to synthesize these important molecules in eukaryotes, DNA is first transcribed into an intermediate molecule, mRNA, in the nucleus. The export of mRNA from its origin in the nucleus to the site of protein production, the cytoplasm, is an integral step in protein synthesis. When a cell is subjected to stress, such as heat shock, most mRNA export is halted, as export proteins are inactivated, and cellular machinery is redirected towards recovery. However, particular transcripts, including the …


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