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Locating Mutagen-Sensitivity Gene Mus109 In The Drosophila Melanogaster Genome Using Deficiency Mapping, Chandani Mitchell 2022 Winthrop University

Locating Mutagen-Sensitivity Gene Mus109 In The Drosophila Melanogaster Genome Using Deficiency Mapping, Chandani Mitchell

The Winthrop McNair Research Bulletin

The complex processes involved in repairing damaged DNA are still being elucidated. Some genes that are known to have roles in the DNA repair process have been identified, such as the mutagen-sensitivity genes, or mus genes, in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the precise genomic location of some mus genes is still unknown, including mus109. It is known that mutations in mus109 cause chromosomal aberrations resulting in larval death, and previous research has mapped mus109 to a region of the X chromosome consisting of over 520,000 nucleotides and 41 genes. Therefore, this study aimed to locate mus109 using deficiency mapping. The mus109D2 …


Activity Of The Lactate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor Oxamic Acid Against The Fermentative Bacterium Streptococcus Mitis/Oralis: Bactericidal Effects And Prevention Of Daptomycin Resistance In Vitro And In An Ex Vivo Model, Razieh Kebriaei, Arnold S. Bayer, Christian K. Lapitan, Michael J. Rybak, Greg A. Somerville, Nagendra N. Mishra 2022 Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

Activity Of The Lactate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor Oxamic Acid Against The Fermentative Bacterium Streptococcus Mitis/Oralis: Bactericidal Effects And Prevention Of Daptomycin Resistance In Vitro And In An Ex Vivo Model, Razieh Kebriaei, Arnold S. Bayer, Christian K. Lapitan, Michael J. Rybak, Greg A. Somerville, Nagendra N. Mishra

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Streptococcus mitis/oralis is a fermentative bacterium that relies on lactate dehydrogenase to balance its redox poise and keep glycolysis active. Metabolomic analysis of an in vitro– derived daptomycin-resistant (DAP-R) S. mitis/oralis strain (351-D10) revealed differences in glucose catabolism relative to its DAP-susceptible (DAP-S) parental strain, 351. Metabolic changes associated with the transition to this DAP-R phenotype suggested that inhibiting glycolysis could alter DAP susceptibility. In addition, the strong reliance of S. mitis/oralis on glycolysis for energy and biosynthetic intermediates suggested that inhibiting glycolysis would adversely affect growth and biomass accumulation. To test these hypotheses, we used the lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor …


Ngly1 Deficiency Affects Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis And Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mice, Amy Batten 2022 University of North Florida

Ngly1 Deficiency Affects Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis And Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mice, Amy Batten

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Individuals affected by NGLY1 Deficiency cannot properly deglycosylate and recycle certain proteins. Even though less than 100 people worldwide have been diagnosed with this rare autosomal recessive condition, thousands are affected by similar glycosylation disorders. Common phenotypic manifestations of NGLY1 Deficiency include severe neural and intellectual delay, impaired muscle and liver function, and seizures that may become intractable. Very little is currently known about the various mechanisms through which NGLY1 deficiency affects the body and this has led to a lack of viable treatment options for those afflicted. This experiment uses a loss-of-function (LOF) mouse model of NGLY1 Deficiency homologous …


Mutant C. Elegans P53 Together With Gain-Of-Function Glp-1/Notch Decreases Uvc-Damage-Induced Germline Cell Death But Increases Parp Inhibitor-Induced Germline Cell Death, Jorge Canar, Prima Manandhar-Sasaki, Jill Bargonetti 2022 CUNY Hunter College

Mutant C. Elegans P53 Together With Gain-Of-Function Glp-1/Notch Decreases Uvc-Damage-Induced Germline Cell Death But Increases Parp Inhibitor-Induced Germline Cell Death, Jorge Canar, Prima Manandhar-Sasaki, Jill Bargonetti

Publications and Research

The TP53 gene is mutated in over 50% of human cancers, and the C. elegans p53-1 (cep-1) gene encodes the ortholog CEP-1. CEP-1 is activated by ultraviolet type C (UVC)-induced DNA damage and activates genes that induce germline apoptosis. UVC treatment of gain-of-function glp-1(ar202gf)/Notch tumorous animals reduces germline stem cell numbers (and overall tumor size), while UVC treatment of double-mutant cep-1/p53(gk138);glp-1/Notch(ar202gf) increases DNA damage adducts and stem cell tumor volume. We compared UVC-induced mitotic stem cell death and animal lifespans for the two different C. elegans tumorous strains. C. elegans stem cell compartment death has never been observed, and we …


Art And Illustration Resource For Cell And Molecular Biology: What We Know & How We Found Out, Gerald Bergtrom 2022 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Art And Illustration Resource For Cell And Molecular Biology: What We Know & How We Found Out, Gerald Bergtrom

Cell and Molecular Biology 5e: What We Know and How We Found Out - All Versions

This Art & Illustration Resource contains the figures (photographs, illustrations etc.) in the 5th edition Cell and Molecular Biology; What We Know AND How We Found Out (all versions). The images are high-resolution JPG files, sufficient for projection in large size classrooms, and thus useful for creating or supplementing PowerPoint or similar presentations to support classroom, online teaching and learning, and/or to support in-class or homework assignments. Just download and extract the zipped folder to access the chapter-by-chapter numbered figure files. The images are also Open Access (either public domain, CC-licensed, or equivalent). The Chapter-by-Chapter folders come with a …


Glutathione And Glutaredoxin In Redox Regulation And Cell Signaling Of The Lens, Marjorie F. Lou 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln,University of Nebraska Medical Center, University of North Texas Health Science Center

Glutathione And Glutaredoxin In Redox Regulation And Cell Signaling Of The Lens, Marjorie F. Lou

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The ocular lens has a very high content of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the enzymes that can recycle its oxidized form, glutathione disulfide (GSSG), for further use. It can be synthesized in the lens and, in part, transported from the neighboring anterior aqueous humor and posterior vitreous body. GSH is known to protect the thiols of the structural lens crystallin proteins from oxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) so the lens can maintain its transparency for proper visual function. Age-related lens opacity or senile cataract is the major visual impairment in the general population, and its cause is closely …


Leaf Phenology And Freeze Tolerance Of The Invasive Tree Pyrus Calleryana (Roseaceae) And Potential Native Competitors, Margaret E. Maloney, Abby Hay, Eric B. Borth, Ryan W. McEwan 2022 University of Dayton

Leaf Phenology And Freeze Tolerance Of The Invasive Tree Pyrus Calleryana (Roseaceae) And Potential Native Competitors, Margaret E. Maloney, Abby Hay, Eric B. Borth, Ryan W. Mcewan

Biology Faculty Publications

Pyrus calleryana is one of the most problematic invasive species in the eastern United States. The mechanisms that enable Py. calleryana to establish and outcompete native plants are not fully understood but likely include a profile of advantageous traits. Extended leaf phenology is a characteristic noted in many woody invasive plants. Leaf phenology of Py. calleryana and two native woody species, Populus deltoides and Platanus occidentalis, was observed in natural areas near Dayton, OH from December 2019 to November 2020. A frost event in May also gave us the serendipitous opportunity to assess frost tolerance of these species. We …


A Review On Serum, Genetic And Mirna Associated Biomarkers For The Early Diagnosis Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (Hcc)), Ambreen Kanwal, Asima Tayyeb 2022 School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

A Review On Serum, Genetic And Mirna Associated Biomarkers For The Early Diagnosis Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (Hcc)), Ambreen Kanwal, Asima Tayyeb

Journal of Bioresource Management

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most devastating complication of liver cirrhosis and diagnosis in earlier stages could be useful in curative interventions. The main aim of this review was to analyze current diagnostic biomarkers which are available for the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For this purpose, we searched different web databases including Medline/Pubmed. We found multiple significant serum biomarkers for imperative diagnosis including α- Fetoprotein, Des- γ -carboxyprothrombin (DCP), Osteopontin (OPN), Glypican-3 (GPC3), Golgi protein-73 (GP73), Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), Annexin A2 (ANXA2) and Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) but all of these represent low sensitivity and low …


Recent Emergence Of Bovine Coronavirus Variants With Mutations In The Hemagglutinin-Esterase Receptor Binding Domain In U.S. Cattle, Aspen M. Workman, Tara G. McDaneld, Gregory P. Harhay, Subha Das, John Dustin Loy, Benjamin M. Hause 2022 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Recent Emergence Of Bovine Coronavirus Variants With Mutations In The Hemagglutinin-Esterase Receptor Binding Domain In U.S. Cattle, Aspen M. Workman, Tara G. Mcdaneld, Gregory P. Harhay, Subha Das, John Dustin Loy, Benjamin M. Hause

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) has spilled over to many species, including humans, where the host range variant coronavirus OC43 is endemic. The balance of the opposing activities of the surface spike (S) and hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoproteins controls BCoV avidity, which is critical for interspecies transmission and host adaptation. Here, 78 genomes were sequenced directly from clinical samples collected between 2013 and 2022 from cattle in 12 states, primarily in the Midwestern U.S. Relatively little genetic diversity was observed, with genomes having >98% nucleotide identity. Eleven isolates collected between 2020 and 2022 from four states (Nebraska, Colorado, California, and Wisconsin) contained a …


Investigation Of Zinc Chloride & Caffeine And Their Ects On Bone Homeostasis In A 3d Bone Model, Pooja Shah 2022 Seton Hall University

Investigation Of Zinc Chloride & Caffeine And Their Ects On Bone Homeostasis In A 3d Bone Model, Pooja Shah

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Approximately fourteen percent of the human body is composed of bone. The adult human skeleton is made of 206 bones, which make up the internal framework of the body. Osteoblast and Osteoclast cells are essential in maintaining the structure and function of bone, for bone homeostasis to occur. Previous data shows that caffeine can potentially have a negative effect on bone homeostasis. Whereas, ZnCl2 has been found to have a positive effect on bone homeostasis in controlled doses. Published data for treatments of caffeine and ZnCl2 are inadequate. The goal of this study was to determine the optimal …


Targeting Of The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway In Cancer Treatment, Andrew J. Hawes 2022 University of Louisville

Targeting Of The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway In Cancer Treatment, Andrew J. Hawes

The Cardinal Edge

The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a developmental pathway that is highly conserved evolutionarily. While typically only displaying high activity during embryogenesis, overactivation of the Hh pathway in adults has been linked to multiple forms of cancer including acute myeloid leukemia, myelofibrosis, basal-cell carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adrenal carcinoma, and triple negative breast cancer. The prevalence of Hh activation in many different cancers has made it a prime target for inhibition of these cancers through novel therapies. This literature review sought to assess the current state of cancer treatment through inhibition of Hh signaling. Most current clinical trials involving the pathway …


Determining The Roles Of The Oligomerization And C-Terminal Domains In Mutant P53 Gain-Of-Function Activities, George K. Annor 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Determining The Roles Of The Oligomerization And C-Terminal Domains In Mutant P53 Gain-Of-Function Activities, George K. Annor

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The tumor suppressor p53 (TP53) gene is often mutated in cancer, with missense mutations found in the central DNA binding domain, and less often in the oligomerization domain (OD) and C-terminal domain (CTD). The OD and CTD have been found to be critical for the tumor suppressor functionality of wild-type p53 (wtp53). Specific missense mutations in the DNA binding domain have been found to confer new gain-of-function (GOF) activities. Mutations that destabilize tetramer formation, or deletion of key lysine residues within the CTD, downregulate the ability of wtp53 to transactivate (increase the rate of transcription of) its target …


Gamma Protocadherin Synaptic Localization And Intracellular Trafficking Is Consistent With Distinct Adhesive And Anti-Adhesive Roles In Development, Nicole LaMassa 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Gamma Protocadherin Synaptic Localization And Intracellular Trafficking Is Consistent With Distinct Adhesive And Anti-Adhesive Roles In Development, Nicole Lamassa

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) constitute a family of cell adhesion molecules with approximately 60 Pcdh genes clustered in a 1 MB locus on chromosome 5q31 in humans. The Pcdh gene cluster is subdivided into α, β, and γ subclusters which encode related proteins. Individual neurons activate different subsets of Pcdh-α, Pcdh-β and Pcdh-γ genes by epigenetic mechanisms to generate distinct Pcdh adhesive units expressed by each neuron. This is thought to serve as a “surface barcode” for single-cell identity and synaptic recognition in the nervous system. The actual role for Pcdhs in neural development is still relatively unknown and different roles …


Clustered Protocadherins Ubiquitination And Phosphorylation Regulates Surface Expression, Albert Ptashnik 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Clustered Protocadherins Ubiquitination And Phosphorylation Regulates Surface Expression, Albert Ptashnik

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) are a family of 60 adhesion-like molecules forming a neural barcode. In vertebrate neurons, 60 Pcdhs are coded by a large gene cluster. Numerous axons in the cluster are coding for the different extracellular, transmembrane, variable portion of the cytoplasmic and constant cytoplasmic domains where their expression is controlled epigenetically. These proteins mediate interactions between axons, dendrites, and glial cells during neural development. Yet, Pcdhs are not strictly adhesion molecules. In the amacrine cells of the retina, Pcdhs promote avoidance of the same cell dendrites, where in the cortex Pcdhs promote interactions between dendrites and astrocytes. In …


Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Marks A Novel Population Of Adult Stem Cells In The Mouse Brain That Respond To Metabolic Interventions By Modulating Adult Brain Plasticity, Gabriel S. Jensen 2022 University of Maine

Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Marks A Novel Population Of Adult Stem Cells In The Mouse Brain That Respond To Metabolic Interventions By Modulating Adult Brain Plasticity, Gabriel S. Jensen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is expressed by quiescent adult stem cells (qASC) in numerous adult murine and human tissues but has never been explored in the adult brain. Here, these data demonstrate that TERT+ cells in the adult mouse brain represent a novel population of multipotent qASCs. TERT+ cells were localized to numerous classical neuro/gliogenic niches including the ventricular-subventricular zone, hypothalamus and olfactory bulb, as well as newly discovered regions of adult tissue plasticity such as the meninges and choroid plexus. TERT+ cells expressed neural stem cell markers such as Nestin and Sox2, but not markers of activated stem/progenitor cells, …


The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen KW Wong 2022 Western University

The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Clinical and preclinical studies indicate prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) pathologically affects fetal brain development and may increase vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood/anxiety disorders. In review research from our lab suggests that fetal exposure to Δ9-THC sex-selectively impairs mesocorticolimbic (MCL) circuit function. However, there is a distinct lack of focus on PCE models on the BLA. The BLA plays a central role within the MCL where it directly interacts with the VTA, PFC and HIPP. Importantly, our model exhibits significant VTA hyperdopaminergic activity, and sex-specific alterations to PFC/HIPP glutamate firing, alongside region- and sex-specific changes in dopamine (DA), …


Mechanisms And Roles Of Dynamic Actin Assembly Around Dysfunctional Mitochondria, Tak Shun Fung 2022 Dartmouth College

Mechanisms And Roles Of Dynamic Actin Assembly Around Dysfunctional Mitochondria, Tak Shun Fung

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Possessing the ability to efficiently generate ATP required to sustain cellular functions, mitochondria are often considered the ‘powerhouses of the cell’. However, our understanding of mitochondria in cell biology was further expanded when we recognized that communication between this unique organelle and the rest of the cell regulates cellular bioenergetics, metabolism and signaling processes such as mitophagy and apoptosis. Here, I investigate signaling between mitochondria and the actin cytoskeleton, and how this signaling regulates mitochondrial dynamics and cellular function. Specifically, I find that, upon mitochondrial dysfunction, actin polymerizes rapidly around the dysfunctional organelle, which we term ‘acute damage-induced actin’ (ADA). …


Establishing The Freestyle 293 Expression System As A Tool To Generate Recombinant Apolipoprotein E In Mammalian Cells, Michaela Cunningham 2022 Bridgewater State University

Establishing The Freestyle 293 Expression System As A Tool To Generate Recombinant Apolipoprotein E In Mammalian Cells, Michaela Cunningham

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating form of dementia with 5 million people suffering from the disease in the United States alone. Thus, there is a need to understand the cause of AD so that therapeutics can be developed to treat it. The greatest risk factor for AD is the APOE gene, which encodes the apolipoprotein Eprotein. Three predominant APOE alleles exist humans, which give rise to three isoforms, called apoE2, E3, and E4. Individuals with apoE4 are ten times more likely to develop AD. In contrast, the apoE2 isoform has a neuroprotective effect and is associated with a 2-fold …


Characterization Of Exosomes And Their Role In Cellular Migration In Chemosensitive And Chemoresistant Ovarian Cancer Cells, Courtney McEneaney 2022 Bridgewater State University

Characterization Of Exosomes And Their Role In Cellular Migration In Chemosensitive And Chemoresistant Ovarian Cancer Cells, Courtney Mceneaney

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Chemotherapy-resistant cells that remain after primary cancer treatment lead to recurrence and metastasis, resulting in a poor prognosis for patients. Chemoresistant cells were created by our collaborators using the human ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR8, by selection of cells that survived serial culture with cisplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic. The cisplatin-resistant cells (OVCAR8R) demonstrate a morphology unique from the original cisplatin-sensitive cells (OVCAR8) which could correlate with their difference in aggressiveness. My research goal is to isolate and characterize exosomes from the OVCAR8 and OVCAR8Rlines. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted from cells and contribute to the tumor microenvironment(TME). It has been …


The Role Of Increased Matrix Metalloproteinase (Mmp14) Expression On Apoptosis Sensitivity In Human Breast Cancer Cells, Roukayah Rifai 2022 Western University

The Role Of Increased Matrix Metalloproteinase (Mmp14) Expression On Apoptosis Sensitivity In Human Breast Cancer Cells, Roukayah Rifai

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A member of the matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP14) plays a crucial role in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, as it possesses characteristics that aid in cell proliferation and differentiation. MMP14 domains can bind to FIH-1, which is a protein that can prevent apoptosis in cells when attached to BAX in the mitochondria. This study will investigate the varying expressions of MMP14 on FIH-1 and BAX, and their effects on apoptotic sensitivity. Three cell lines with varying levels of MMP14 expression will be used: C3 (~11 fold), ΔCD (~100 fold), and C2 (~500 fold). With the overexpression of MM14 on the cell …


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