Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell and Developmental Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 7402

Full-Text Articles in Cell and Developmental Biology

Investigating Optimal Laboratory Growth Conditions Of Gracilibacillus Halotolerans In Media Supplemented With Salt, Isaac Young Feb 2024

Investigating Optimal Laboratory Growth Conditions Of Gracilibacillus Halotolerans In Media Supplemented With Salt, Isaac Young

Annual Research Symposium

As interest continues to grow in the field of persister cells and their morphology, there arises an ever-evolving desire to further understand specific strains of bacteria that exemplify the qualities of seemingly anomalous survival regardless of anti-bacterial treatment. In the case of the Gracilibacillus halotolerans, a halotolerant extremophile extracted from the Great Salt Lake with known persistent characteristics, uncovering its optimal growth conditions was essential for future investigations. Identifying the optimal salinity for the growth of G. halotolerans will allow us to standardize our growth methods, uncover several mechanisms of saline tolerance, and add to future investigations of persistence with …


The Transmission Of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Kunjal Patel, Aleesha Thomas Feb 2024

The Transmission Of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Kunjal Patel, Aleesha Thomas

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The existence of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OPSCC) has recently been found to have correlations with the Human Papillomavirus. HPV-associated OPSCC exhibits a unique method of infection and transmission and has made this branch an emerging disease in the recent decade. This systematic review of the literature was conducted to further explore research into Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Cancer (OPSCC). Commonly referred to as “throat cancer”, this growth originates in the oropharynx. Symptoms of this condition include sore throat, lumps in the neck, and difficulty with swallowing. OPSCC has many variants but has shown a strong association with Human Papillomavirus (HPV), …


Targeting Strategies To Optimize The Therapeutic Potential Of Gold Compounds Against Her2-Positive Breast Cancers, Afruja Ahad Feb 2024

Targeting Strategies To Optimize The Therapeutic Potential Of Gold Compounds Against Her2-Positive Breast Cancers, Afruja Ahad

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The overexpression of HER2 accounts for 20-30% of breast cancer tumors and not only serves as a marker for poor predictive clinical outcomes but also as a target for treatment. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) combine the selectivity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs to provide targeted treatment without toxicity to normal tissue. Most of the ADCs currently in the clinic for cancer chemotherapy are based on complex organic molecules. In contrast, the conjugation of metallodrugs to mAbs has been overlooked when there is enormous potential in this area with the resurgence of metal-based drugs as prospective cancer …


Methamphetamine-Induced Dna Double-Stranded Breaks: The Impact Of The Dopamine Transporter And Insights Into The Mechanisms Of Dna Damage In Mouse Neuro 2a Cells, Lizette Couto Feb 2024

Methamphetamine-Induced Dna Double-Stranded Breaks: The Impact Of The Dopamine Transporter And Insights Into The Mechanisms Of Dna Damage In Mouse Neuro 2a Cells, Lizette Couto

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Methamphetamine (METH) abuse remains a global health concern, with emerging evidence highlighting its genotoxic potential. In the central nervous system METH enters dopaminergic cells primarily through the dopamine transporter (DAT), which controls the dynamics of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission by driving the reuptake of extracellular DA into the presynaptic neuronal cell. Additional effects of METH on the storage of DA in synaptic vesicles lead to the dysregulated cytosolic accumulation of DA. Previous studies have shown that after METH disrupts intracellular vesicular stores of DA, the excess DA in the cytosol is rapidly oxidized. This generates an abundance of reactive oxygen species …


College Of Natural Sciences 2023 Year-End Publication, College Of Natural Sciences Feb 2024

College Of Natural Sciences 2023 Year-End Publication, College Of Natural Sciences

College of Natural Sciences Newsletters and Reports

Page 1 Dean's Message
Page 3 Department Highlights
Page 4 One Day for State
Page 5 Noble Prize Winner Speaks on Campus
Page 6-7 Faculty Excellence
Page 8-9 Student Excellence
Page 10 Outreach Program
Page 10 Events and Traditions
Page 11 Connections Abroad
Page 12 Student Spotlight
Page 13 Alumni Spotlight
Page 14 First Ever Drone Day
Page 15 Grand Opening of POET Bioproducts Center
Page 16 Work Anniversaries


Ksp1 Is An Autophagic Receptor Protein For The Snx4-Assisted Autophagy Of Ssn2/Med13, Sara E Hanley, Stephen D Willis, Steven J Doyle, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper Feb 2024

Ksp1 Is An Autophagic Receptor Protein For The Snx4-Assisted Autophagy Of Ssn2/Med13, Sara E Hanley, Stephen D Willis, Steven J Doyle, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Ksp1 is a casein II-like kinase whose activity prevents aberrant macroautophagy/autophagy induction in nutrient-rich conditions in yeast. Here, we describe a kinase-independent role of Ksp1 as a novel autophagic receptor protein for Ssn2/Med13, a known cargo of Snx4-assisted autophagy of transcription factors. In this pathway, a subset of conserved transcriptional regulators, Ssn2/Med13, Rim15, and Msn2, are selectively targeted for vacuolar proteolysis following nitrogen starvation, assisted by the sorting nexin heterodimer Snx4-Atg20. Here we show that phagophores also engulf Ksp1 alongside its cargo for vacuolar proteolysis. Ksp1 directly associates with Atg8 following nitrogen starvation at the interface of an Atg8-family interacting …


Protein-Protein Interactions In Cell Cycle Proteins: An In Silico Investigation Of Two Important Players, Andriele Eichner Feb 2024

Protein-Protein Interactions In Cell Cycle Proteins: An In Silico Investigation Of Two Important Players, Andriele Eichner

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The examination of the cell cycle carries significant implications for the biology, health, and overall existence of all living things. These implications span from the development and growth of these organisms to the aging process and cancer, as well as the potential of stem cell therapies to repair diseases and injuries. Numerous proteins of the cell cycle are essential for cellular division and proliferation and are widely conserved over the course of evolution. In this work, we aimed to investigate the molecular processes of protein-protein interactions in cell cycle proteins, centering on two key players: Cdc6 in budding yeast and …


Oxidative Stress And Ion Channels In Neurodegenerative Diseases, Razan Orfali, Adnan Z. Alwatban, Rawan S. Orfali, Liz Lau, Noble Chea, Abdullah M. Alotaibi, Young-Woo Nam, Miao Zhang Jan 2024

Oxidative Stress And Ion Channels In Neurodegenerative Diseases, Razan Orfali, Adnan Z. Alwatban, Rawan S. Orfali, Liz Lau, Noble Chea, Abdullah M. Alotaibi, Young-Woo Nam, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Numerous neurodegenerative diseases result from altered ion channel function and mutations. The intracellular redox status can significantly alter the gating characteristics of ion channels. Abundant neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress have been documented, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, spinocerebellar ataxia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington’s disease. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species compounds trigger posttranslational alterations that target specific sites within the subunits responsible for channel assembly. These alterations include the adjustment of cysteine residues through redox reactions induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitration, and S-nitrosylation assisted by nitric oxide of tyrosine residues through peroxynitrite. Several ion channels have been directly …


Making The Connection: How Membrane Contact Sites Have Changed Our View Of Organelle Biology, G. Voeltz, E. Sawyer, G. Hajnóczky, W. Prinz Jan 2024

Making The Connection: How Membrane Contact Sites Have Changed Our View Of Organelle Biology, G. Voeltz, E. Sawyer, G. Hajnóczky, W. Prinz

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

The view of organelles and how they operate together has changed dramatically over the last two decades. The textbook view of organelles was that they operated largely independently and were connected by vesicular trafficking and the diffusion of signals through the cytoplasm. We now know that all organelles make functional close contacts with one another, often called membrane contact sites. The study of these sites has moved to center stage in cell biology as it has become clear that they play critical roles in healthy and developing cells and during cell stress and disease states. Contact sites have important roles …


Classification Of Colorectal Cancer Using Resnet And Efficientnet Models, Abhishek Ranjan, Priyanshu Srivastva, B Prabadevi, R Sivakumar, Rahul Soangra, Shamala K. Subramaniam Jan 2024

Classification Of Colorectal Cancer Using Resnet And Efficientnet Models, Abhishek Ranjan, Priyanshu Srivastva, B Prabadevi, R Sivakumar, Rahul Soangra, Shamala K. Subramaniam

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction:

Cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases from children to elderly adults. This will be deadly if not detected at an earlier stage of the cancerous cell formation, thereby increasing the mortality rate. One such cancer is colorectal cancer, caused due to abnormal growth in the rectum or colon. Early screening of colorectal cancer helps to identify these abnormal growth and can exterminate them before they turn into cancerous cells.

Aim:

Therefore, this study aims to develop a robust and efficient classification system for colorectal cancer through Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) on histological images.

Methods:

Despite challenges in …


A Cyclin D1 Intrinsically Disordered Domain Accesses Modified Histone Motifs To Govern Gene Transcription, Xuanmao Jiao, Gabriele Di Sante, Mathew Casimiro, Agnes Tantos, Anthony Ashton, Zhiping Li, Yen Quach, Dharmendra Bhargava, Agnese Di Rocco, Claudia Pupo, Marco Crosariol, Tamas Lazar, Peter Tompa, Chenguang Wang, Zuoren Yu, Zhao Zhang, Kawthar Aldaaysi, Ratna Vadlamudi, Monica Mann, Emmanuel Skordalakes, Andrew Kossenkov, Yanming Du, Richard Pestell Jan 2024

A Cyclin D1 Intrinsically Disordered Domain Accesses Modified Histone Motifs To Govern Gene Transcription, Xuanmao Jiao, Gabriele Di Sante, Mathew Casimiro, Agnes Tantos, Anthony Ashton, Zhiping Li, Yen Quach, Dharmendra Bhargava, Agnese Di Rocco, Claudia Pupo, Marco Crosariol, Tamas Lazar, Peter Tompa, Chenguang Wang, Zuoren Yu, Zhao Zhang, Kawthar Aldaaysi, Ratna Vadlamudi, Monica Mann, Emmanuel Skordalakes, Andrew Kossenkov, Yanming Du, Richard Pestell

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

The essential G1-cyclin, CCND1, is frequently overexpressed in cancer, contributing to tumorigenesis by driving cell-cycle progression. D-type cyclins are rate-limiting regulators of G1-S progression in mammalian cells via their ability to bind and activate CDK4 and CDK6. In addition, cyclin D1 conveys kinase-independent transcriptional functions of cyclin D1. Here we report that cyclin D1 associates with H2BS14 via an intrinsically disordered domain (IDD). The same region of cyclin D1 was necessary for the induction of aneuploidy, induction of the DNA damage response, cyclin D1-mediated recruitment into chromatin, and CIN gene transcription. In response to …


Tail-Tape-Fused Virion And Non-Virion Rna Polymerases Of A Thermophilic Virus With An Extremely Long Tail, Anastasiia Chaban, Leonid Minakhin, Ekaterina Goldobina, Brain Bae, Yue Hao, Sergei Borukhov, Leena Putzeys, Maarten Boon, Florian Kabinger, Rob Lavigne, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Satish K Nair, Shunsuke Tagami, Konstantin Severinov, Maria L Sokolova Jan 2024

Tail-Tape-Fused Virion And Non-Virion Rna Polymerases Of A Thermophilic Virus With An Extremely Long Tail, Anastasiia Chaban, Leonid Minakhin, Ekaterina Goldobina, Brain Bae, Yue Hao, Sergei Borukhov, Leena Putzeys, Maarten Boon, Florian Kabinger, Rob Lavigne, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Satish K Nair, Shunsuke Tagami, Konstantin Severinov, Maria L Sokolova

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Thermus thermophilus bacteriophage P23-45 encodes a giant 5,002-residue tail tape measure protein (TMP) that defines the length of its extraordinarily long tail. Here, we show that the N-terminal portion of P23-45 TMP is an unusual RNA polymerase (RNAP) homologous to cellular RNAPs. The TMP-fused virion RNAP transcribes pre-early phage genes, including a gene that encodes another, non-virion RNAP, that transcribes early and some middle phage genes. We report the crystal structures of both P23-45 RNAPs. The non-virion RNAP has a crab-claw-like architecture. By contrast, the virion RNAP adopts a unique flat structure without a clamp. Structure and sequence comparisons of …


Estrogen Receptor (Er) Alpha Regulatory Mechanisms And Therapeutic Strategies In Er+ Breast Cancer, Bianca A. Romo Jan 2024

Estrogen Receptor (Er) Alpha Regulatory Mechanisms And Therapeutic Strategies In Er+ Breast Cancer, Bianca A. Romo

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Breast cancer is among the most frequently diagnosed cancers in the U.S. and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortalities, second to lung cancer. Estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ER+) breast cancer accounts for 2/3 of diagnosed cases. Patients diagnosed with this subtype of breast cancer typically undergo endocrine therapy that aims to mitigate the growth-promoting effects of estrogen/ER. While therapies are effective, 1/3 of patients will experience recurrence. To begin addressing this drug-resistant patient population, we investigated potential drug targets involved in response to treatment.

Coregulators have been implicated in the regulation of ER transcriptional activity and subsequently affecting …


Machine Learning As A Tool For Early Detection: A Focus On Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer Across Socioeconomic Spectrums, Hadiza Galadima, Rexford Anson-Dwamena, Ashley Johnson, Ghalib Bello, Georges Adunlin, James Blando Jan 2024

Machine Learning As A Tool For Early Detection: A Focus On Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer Across Socioeconomic Spectrums, Hadiza Galadima, Rexford Anson-Dwamena, Ashley Johnson, Ghalib Bello, Georges Adunlin, James Blando

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of various machine learning (ML) algorithms in predicting late-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnoses against the backdrop of socio-economic and regional healthcare disparities. Methods: An innovative theoretical framework was developed to integrate individual- and census tract-level social determinants of health (SDOH) with sociodemographic factors. A comparative analysis of the ML models was conducted using key performance metrics such as AUC-ROC to evaluate their predictive accuracy. Spatio-temporal analysis was used to identify disparities in late-stage CRC diagnosis probabilities. Results: Gradient boosting emerged as the superior model, with the top predictors for late-stage CRC diagnosis being anatomic site, …


Functional Analyses Of The Polycomb-Group Genes In Sea Lamprey Embryos Undergoing Programmed Dna Loss, Cody Saraceno Jan 2024

Functional Analyses Of The Polycomb-Group Genes In Sea Lamprey Embryos Undergoing Programmed Dna Loss, Cody Saraceno

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

During early embryonic development, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) undergoes programmatic elimination of DNA from somatic progenitor cells in a process termed programmed genome rearrangement (PGR). Eliminated DNA eventually becomes condensed into micronuclei, which are then physically degraded and permanently lost from the cell. Previous studies indicated that many of the genes eliminated during PGR have mammalian homologs that are bound by polycomb repressive complex (PRC) in embryonic stem cells. To test whether PRC components play a role in the faithful elimination of germline-specific sequences, we used a combination of CRISPR/Cas9 and lightsheet microscopy to investigate the impact …


Fused In Sarcoma Regulates Glutamate Signaling And Oxidative Stress Response, Chiong-Hee Wong, Abu Rahat, Howard C Chang Jan 2024

Fused In Sarcoma Regulates Glutamate Signaling And Oxidative Stress Response, Chiong-Hee Wong, Abu Rahat, Howard C Chang

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Mutations in fused in sarcoma (fust-1) are linked to ALS. However, how these ALS causative mutations alter physiological processes and lead to the onset of ALS remains largely unknown. By obtaining humanized fust-1 ALS mutations via CRISPR-CAS9, we generated a C. elegans ALS model. Homozygous fust-1 ALS mutant and fust-1 deletion animals are viable in C. elegans. This allows us to better characterize the molecular mechanisms of fust-1-dependent responses. We found FUST-1 plays a role in regulating superoxide dismutase, glutamate signaling, and oxidative stress. FUST-1 suppresses SOD-1 and VGLUT/EAT-4 in the nervous system. FUST-1 also regulates synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptor …


Assessing Lipid Composition Of Cell Membrane In Escherichia Coli Under Aerobic And Anaerobic Conditions, Isabelle Johnson Jan 2024

Assessing Lipid Composition Of Cell Membrane In Escherichia Coli Under Aerobic And Anaerobic Conditions, Isabelle Johnson

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

Escherichia coli is a highly studied model organism that is tightly tied to the mammalian gastrointestinal system. This microorganism has the capability to be a beneficial gut microbe or a life-threatening pathogen. In this study, the lipid membrane of Escherichia coli was investigated using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to observe the change in its composition in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Evidence of desaturation was discovered in the spectra, though more investigation is needed to understand the metabolic processes and drives that result in this change. Elucidation of these pathways in the future could result in …


Synergistic Effects Of Nanosecond Pulsed Plasma And Electric Field On Inactivation Of Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro, Edwin A. Oshin, Zobia Minhas, Ruben M. L. Colunga Biancatelli, John D. Catravas, Richard Heller, Siqi Guo, Chunqi Jiang Jan 2024

Synergistic Effects Of Nanosecond Pulsed Plasma And Electric Field On Inactivation Of Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro, Edwin A. Oshin, Zobia Minhas, Ruben M. L. Colunga Biancatelli, John D. Catravas, Richard Heller, Siqi Guo, Chunqi Jiang

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond pulsed atmospheric pressure plasma jets (ns-APPJs) produce reactive plasma species, including charged particles and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), which can induce oxidative stress in biological cells. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) has also been found to cause permeabilization of cell membranes and induce apoptosis or cell death. Combining the treatment of ns-APPJ and nsPEF may enhance the effectiveness of cancer cell inactivation with only moderate doses of both treatments. Employing ns-APPJ powered by 9 kV, 200 ns pulses at 2 kHz and 60-nsPEF of 50 kV/cm at 1 Hz, the synergistic effects on pancreatic cancer cells (Pan02) …


Evidence Of Direct Interaction Between Cisplatin And The Caspase-Cleaved Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 Tumor Suppressor, Krishna K. Raut, Samjhana Pandey, Gyanendra Kharel, Steven M. Pascal Jan 2024

Evidence Of Direct Interaction Between Cisplatin And The Caspase-Cleaved Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 Tumor Suppressor, Krishna K. Raut, Samjhana Pandey, Gyanendra Kharel, Steven M. Pascal

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) tumor suppressor protein has gained attention as a potential therapeutic target owing to its unique ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells, sensitize them to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and mitigate drug resistance. It has recently been reported that Par-4 interacts synergistically with cisplatin, a widely used anticancer drug. However, the mechanistic details underlying this relationship remain elusive. In this investigation, we employed an array of biophysical techniques, including circular dichroism spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, to characterize the interaction between the active caspase-cleaved Par-4 (cl-Par-4) fragment and cisplatin. Additionally, elemental analysis was …


The Inaugural Mbio Junior Editorial Board—Lessons Learned And The Path Forward Toward Improving The Peer Review Process, Cynthia Ayefoumi Adinortey, Stephen K. Dolan, Sarah Doore, Rebeccah Lijek, Diana Priscila Pires, Wenqi Yu, Elizabeth B. Draganova, Lennart Schada Von Borzyskowski Jan 2024

The Inaugural Mbio Junior Editorial Board—Lessons Learned And The Path Forward Toward Improving The Peer Review Process, Cynthia Ayefoumi Adinortey, Stephen K. Dolan, Sarah Doore, Rebeccah Lijek, Diana Priscila Pires, Wenqi Yu, Elizabeth B. Draganova, Lennart Schada Von Borzyskowski

Molecular Biosciences Faculty Publications

The inaugural Junior Editorial Board (JEB) of mBio consisted of 64 early-career researchers active from 2022 to 2023. The goal of the JEB was to train early-career researchers in the art of peer review under the guidance of experienced editors. JEB members gained hands-on experience in peer review by participating in modules detailing the publishing process through the lenses of the journal, editor, and reviewer. Ultimately, JEB members applied this new knowledge by reviewing mBio manuscripts. Here, we summarize the background, the mission, and the achievements of the first mBio JEB. We also include possible trajectories for the future editions …


Why Should Early-Career Scientists Publish In Society Journals, Stephen K. Dolan, Lori D. Banks, Wenqi Yu Jan 2024

Why Should Early-Career Scientists Publish In Society Journals, Stephen K. Dolan, Lori D. Banks, Wenqi Yu

Molecular Biosciences Faculty Publications

In this editorial, written by early-career scientists, we advocate for the invaluable role of society journals in our scientific community. By choosing to support these journals as authors, peer reviewers, and as editors, we can reinforce our academic growth and benefit from their re-investment back into the scientific ecosystem. Considering the numerous clear merits of this system for future generations of microbiologists and more broadly, society, we argue that early-career researchers should publish our high-quality research in society journals to shape the future of science and scientific publishing landscape.


Desmoglein-2 As A Cancer Modulator: Friend Or Foe?, Kay Myo Min, Charlie Ffrench, Barbara Mcclure, Michael Ortiz, Emma Dorward, Michael Samuel, Lisa Ebert, Mỹ Mahoney, Claudine Bonder Dec 2023

Desmoglein-2 As A Cancer Modulator: Friend Or Foe?, Kay Myo Min, Charlie Ffrench, Barbara Mcclure, Michael Ortiz, Emma Dorward, Michael Samuel, Lisa Ebert, Mỹ Mahoney, Claudine Bonder

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Desmoglein-2 (DSG2) is a calcium-binding single pass transmembrane glycoprotein and a member of the large cadherin family. Until recently, DSG2 was thought to only function as a cell adhesion protein embedded within desmosome junctions designed to enable cells to better tolerate mechanical stress. However, additional roles for DSG2 outside of desmosomes are continuing to emerge, particularly in cancer. Herein, we review the current literature on DSG2 in cancer and detail its impact on biological functions such as cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, invasion, intracellular signaling, extracellular vesicle release and vasculogenic mimicry. An increased understanding of the diverse repertoire of the biological …


27-Hydroxycholesterol And Dna Damage Repair: Implication In Prostate Cancer, Gloria Cecilia Galvan, Nadine Friedrich, Sanjay Das, James Daniels, Sara Pollan, Shweta Dambal, Ryusuke Suzuki, Sergio Sanders, Sungyong You, Hisashi Tanaka, Yeon-Joo Lee, Wei Yuan, Johann De Bono, Irina Vasilevskaya, Karen Knudsen, Michael Freeman, Stephen Freedland Dec 2023

27-Hydroxycholesterol And Dna Damage Repair: Implication In Prostate Cancer, Gloria Cecilia Galvan, Nadine Friedrich, Sanjay Das, James Daniels, Sara Pollan, Shweta Dambal, Ryusuke Suzuki, Sergio Sanders, Sungyong You, Hisashi Tanaka, Yeon-Joo Lee, Wei Yuan, Johann De Bono, Irina Vasilevskaya, Karen Knudsen, Michael Freeman, Stephen Freedland

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

INTRODUCTION: We previously reported that cholesterol homeostasis in prostate cancer (PC) is regulated by 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) and that CYP27A1, the enzyme that converts cholesterol to 27HC, is frequently lost in PCs. We observed that restoring the CYP27A1/27HC axis inhibited PC growth. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of 27HC-mediated anti-PC effects.

METHODS: We employed in vitro models and human transcriptomics data to investigate 27HC mechanism of action in PC. LNCaP (AR+) and DU145 (AR-) cells were treated with 27HC or vehicle. Transcriptome profiling was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip™ microarray system. Differential expression was determined, and gene set enrichment …


Needle Biopsy Accelerates Pro-Metastatic Changes And Systemic Dissemination In Breast Cancer: Implications For Mortality By Surgery Delay, Hiroyasu Kameyama, Priya Dondapati, Reese Simmons, Macall Leslie, John Langenheim, Yunguang Sun, Misung Yi, Aubrey Rottschaefer, Rashmi Pathak, Shreya Nuguri, Kar-Ming Fung, Shirng-Wern Tsaih, Inna Chervoneva, Hallgeir Rui, Takemi Tanaka Dec 2023

Needle Biopsy Accelerates Pro-Metastatic Changes And Systemic Dissemination In Breast Cancer: Implications For Mortality By Surgery Delay, Hiroyasu Kameyama, Priya Dondapati, Reese Simmons, Macall Leslie, John Langenheim, Yunguang Sun, Misung Yi, Aubrey Rottschaefer, Rashmi Pathak, Shreya Nuguri, Kar-Ming Fung, Shirng-Wern Tsaih, Inna Chervoneva, Hallgeir Rui, Takemi Tanaka

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

ncreased breast cancer (BC) mortality risk posed by delayed surgical resection of tumor after diagnosis is a growing concern, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Our cohort analyses of early-stage BC patients reveal the emergence of a significantly rising mortality risk when the biopsy-to-surgery interval was extended beyond 53 days. Additionally, histology of post-biopsy tumors shows prolonged retention of a metastasis-permissive wound stroma dominated by M2-like macrophages capable of promoting cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis. We show that needle biopsy promotes systemic dissemination of cancer cells through a mechanism of sustained activation of the COX-2/PGE2/EP2 feedforward loop, …


Melittin: A Natural Component Of Honeybee Venom As A Potential Anti-Cancer Therapy, Niamh Donnellan, Anne M. Friel Dec 2023

Melittin: A Natural Component Of Honeybee Venom As A Potential Anti-Cancer Therapy, Niamh Donnellan, Anne M. Friel

SURE Journal: Science Undergraduate Research Experience Journal

Cancer is a major cause of death worldwide and while chemotherapy is the main approach there are many negative associations in current treatment procedures. These include lack of selectivity, side effects and drug resistance. The hallmarks of cancer are a fundamental concept which aids the development of new means to treat human cancers through the understanding of the acquisition of these hallmarks from cells.

Melittin is a major peptide component of bee venom which has shown to be efficacious as an anticancer agent in preclinical and animal models. Melittin has many biological functions including pore formation in the phospholipid bilayer …


Nucleus Accumbens Core Single Cell Ensembles Bidirectionally Respond To Experienced Versus Observed Aversive Events, Oyku Dinckol, Noah Harris Wenger, Jennifer E Zachry, Munir Gunes Kutlu Dec 2023

Nucleus Accumbens Core Single Cell Ensembles Bidirectionally Respond To Experienced Versus Observed Aversive Events, Oyku Dinckol, Noah Harris Wenger, Jennifer E Zachry, Munir Gunes Kutlu

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Fear learning is a critical feature of survival skills among mammals. In rodents, fear learning manifests itself through direct experience of the aversive event or social transmission of aversive stimuli such as observing and acting on conspecifics' distress. The neuronal network underlying the social transmission of information largely overlaps with the brain regions that mediate behavioral responses to aversive and rewarding stimuli. In this study, we recorded single cell activity patterns of nucleus accumbens (NAc) core neurons using in vivo optical imaging of calcium transients via miniature scopes. This cutting-edge imaging methodology not only allows us to record activity patterns …


Deep Learning Image Analysis To Isolate And Characterize Different Stages Of S-Phase In Human Cells, Kevin A. Boyd, Rudranil Mitra, John Santerre, Christopher L. Sansam Dec 2023

Deep Learning Image Analysis To Isolate And Characterize Different Stages Of S-Phase In Human Cells, Kevin A. Boyd, Rudranil Mitra, John Santerre, Christopher L. Sansam

SMU Data Science Review

Abstract. This research used deep learning for image analysis by isolating and characterizing distinct DNA replication patterns in human cells. By leveraging high-resolution microscopy images of multiple cells stained with 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU), a replication marker, this analysis utilized Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to perform image segmentation and to provide robust and reliable classification results. First multiple cells in a field of focus were identified using a pretrained CNN called Cellpose. After identifying the location of each cell in the image a python script was created to crop out each cell into individual .tif files. After careful annotation, a CNN was …


Sufu In Shh Signalling Mediated Myogenesis, Suleyman Abdullah Dec 2023

Sufu In Shh Signalling Mediated Myogenesis, Suleyman Abdullah

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Myogenesis is defined as the formation of skeletal muscle tissue during embryonic development and involves a multitude of cellular signalling pathways. Among these include the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway which must be deactivated for differentiation into muscle cells to occur. However, less is known regarding the pathways operation during cell differentiation and whether Suppressor of Fused (SUFU), the protein inhibitor of Shh signalling, plays a role. To address this, mouse C2C12 myoblast cells were utilized as a model and differentiated into muscle cells to identify the presence of SUFU during this time. Experiments in qRT-PCR show a decrease in …


Pathogenicity Of Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus, Kaitlan A. Sullivan Dec 2023

Pathogenicity Of Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus, Kaitlan A. Sullivan

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

Acinetobacter is a genus of gram-negative bacteria that have been appearing frequently in hospitals contributing to infections in the blood, lungs, urinary tract, and other parts of the body. It infects patients with weakened immune systems that are placed on ventilators, after the use of catheters, or have any other open wounds produced by prolonged hospital stays. This genus of bacteria is problematic due to its high probability of becoming resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. Thus, we are determining the pathogenicity of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus using the organism Caenorhabditis elegans as a model.

We are testing …


Mitochondrial Gtp Metabolism Controls Reproductive Aging In C. Elegans, Yi-Tang Lee, Marzia Savini, Tao Chen, Yang, Jin, Qian Zhao, Lang Ding, Shihong Max Gao, Jessica N. Sowa, Jue D. Wang, Meng C. Wang Dec 2023

Mitochondrial Gtp Metabolism Controls Reproductive Aging In C. Elegans, Yi-Tang Lee, Marzia Savini, Tao Chen, Yang, Jin, Qian Zhao, Lang Ding, Shihong Max Gao, Jessica N. Sowa, Jue D. Wang, Meng C. Wang

Biology Faculty Publications

Healthy mitochondria are critical for reproduction. During aging, both reproductive fitness and mitochondrial homeostasis decline. Mitochondrial metabolism and dynamics are key factors in supporting mitochondrial homeostasis. However, how they are coupled to control reproductive health remains unclear. We report that mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) metabolism acts through mitochondrial dynamics factors to regulate reproductive aging. We discovered that germline-only inactivation of GTP-but not ATP-specific succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS) promotes reproductive longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. We further identified an age-associated increase in mitochondrial clustering surrounding oocyte nuclei, which is attenuated by GTP-specific SCS inactivation. Germline-only induction of mitochondrial fission factors sufficiently promotes mitochondrial dispersion …