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Full-Text Articles in Orthodontics and Orthodontology

Contents Of Vol. 31, No.1, April 2024, Yuniardini Septorini Wimardhani May 2024

Contents Of Vol. 31, No.1, April 2024, Yuniardini Septorini Wimardhani

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

This is the Cover and the Contents of the Vol. 31 No. 1 2024


Early Intervention Within Orthodontics: The Sociological Aspects, Trenton Hammond May 2024

Early Intervention Within Orthodontics: The Sociological Aspects, Trenton Hammond

Honors Theses

Orthodontic treatment is one of the final phases of dental treatment. Its use is to provide aesthetics in some cases, yet the quality-of-life aspect that it can provide is greatly underestimated. Orthodontic care can provide proper function of teeth, improve facial structure, avoid tooth decay/loss, and improve gum health (AAO, 2024). Within this research the overarching goal is to understand the sociological aspects of families looking to start orthodontic care, what the reasons behind starting or not starting are, and providing information to the public about orthodontics that may be misunderstood or might push people away from searching for orthodontic …


Effect Of Taper And Pitch On Nickle-Titanium File With Variable Cross Section To Its Cyclic Fatigue (In Silico Study), Yustika Chrysandra, Tunjung Nugraheni, Wignyo Hadriyanto Apr 2024

Effect Of Taper And Pitch On Nickle-Titanium File With Variable Cross Section To Its Cyclic Fatigue (In Silico Study), Yustika Chrysandra, Tunjung Nugraheni, Wignyo Hadriyanto

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

The geometric design of an endodontic file includes cross-sectional shape, taper, and pitch. NiTi endodontic files of OneCurve (MicroMega) are made of two variations of cross-sectional shape, that is, double-s shaped and triple helix. Various kinds of modifications were made to increase the resistance of the NiTi endodontic files from fracture. Cyclic fatigue is the most common factor that causes a fracture of the endodontic file. Objective: The purpose of this study was to obtain a NiTi endodontic file design that has the best cyclic resistance value based on its taper size and number of pitch. Methods: This …


Epidemiology Of Bruxism And Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (Tmd) In Iranian Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study, Parviz Amini, Maryam Sharifi, Reyhane Aftabi, Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam, Hamidreza Jahanimoghadam Apr 2024

Epidemiology Of Bruxism And Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (Tmd) In Iranian Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study, Parviz Amini, Maryam Sharifi, Reyhane Aftabi, Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam, Hamidreza Jahanimoghadam

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Objective: The prevalence of bruxism in the literature has been reported differently. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of bruxism in patients aged 25–40 who were referred to Kerman Dental School. Methods: This analytical descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 320 patients referred to the Department of Oral Medicine of Kerman Dentistry Faculty in the age range of 25 to 40 years old. The prevalence of bruxism as well as TMJ disorders were evaluated. Data were collected in a questionnaire and entered into SPSS version 24. Analyzing was done by a chi-square test at …


Quality Of Life In Orthodontics, Claudia Eisenhuth, Gabriel Eisenhuth, Connor Schwartz, Amir Mohajeri, Man Hung, Tiffany Nelson, Ryann Glenn Feb 2024

Quality Of Life In Orthodontics, Claudia Eisenhuth, Gabriel Eisenhuth, Connor Schwartz, Amir Mohajeri, Man Hung, Tiffany Nelson, Ryann Glenn

Annual Research Symposium

Orthodontic treatment goes beyond mere cosmetic enhancement; it significantly impacts various aspects of an individual's quality of life. Beyond the physical benefits of improved oral function and prevention of dental issues, orthodontics also yields profound psychological benefits. Aligned teeth enhance self-confidence, reduce social anxiety, and contribute to better relationships and professional opportunities. Moreover, addressing dental concerns through orthodontic treatment reduces psychological distress and promotes overall happiness and satisfaction. Real-life case studies vividly illustrate the transformative effects of orthodontic interventions, emphasizing the importance of considering quality of life outcomes in dental care.


Successful Orthodontic Treatment Of Bimaxillary Protrusion Case With An Ankylosed Incisor—A Case Report And Decision-Making Process, Shu-Cheng Lin, Szu-Ching Lee, Yi-Ching Ho, Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Tzu-Ying Wu Feb 2024

Successful Orthodontic Treatment Of Bimaxillary Protrusion Case With An Ankylosed Incisor—A Case Report And Decision-Making Process, Shu-Cheng Lin, Szu-Ching Lee, Yi-Ching Ho, Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Tzu-Ying Wu

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

The treatment of ankylosed incisor is challenging for orthodontists, necessitating accurate diagnosis, well-considered treatment planning, and close collaboration among interdisciplinary teams to achieve favorable esthetic and periodontal outcomes. For ankylosed cases, accurate diagnosis depends on detailed clinical examination and 3D radiographic images. This case report described the treatment of a bimaxillary protrusive female with an ankylosed maxillary left central incisor. The decision regarding treatment was based on the severity of dental ankylosis and replacement root resorption. Each treatment plan comes with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. In this case, the decoronation treatment plan and prosthesis was implemented, resulting …


Orthodontic And Surgical Treatment Of A Patient With Cleidocranial Dysplasia Syndrome: Introducing A New Appliance For Traction Of Multiple Impacted Teeth, Sanaz Soheilifar, Sepideh Soheilifar, Sara Soheilifar, Navid Naghdi Feb 2024

Orthodontic And Surgical Treatment Of A Patient With Cleidocranial Dysplasia Syndrome: Introducing A New Appliance For Traction Of Multiple Impacted Teeth, Sanaz Soheilifar, Sepideh Soheilifar, Sara Soheilifar, Navid Naghdi

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

Cleidocranial Dysplasia (CCD) is a syndrome that causes skeletal growth disturbances. The impaction of many permanent teeth and several supernumerary teeth are among the dental problems of patients with this syndrome. This patient was a 14 y/o girl with CCD syndrome. She was skeletal Cl III with reverse overjet; many impacted teeth, and several supernumerary teeth. Orthodontic treatment was done in two stages. In the first stage, supernumerary anterior teeth were extracted, and the impacted teeth were exposed for traction. In the second stage, posterior supernumerary teeth were removed, and upper canines and posterior impacted teeth were exposed for forced …


A Coronectomy And Orthodontic Protraction Of An Impacted Lower Third Molar Compressed To The Inferior Alveolar Nerve: A Case Report, Johnson Hsin-Chung Cheng, Daniel De-Shing Chen, Bou-Yue Peng, Pei-Hsuan Chen Feb 2024

A Coronectomy And Orthodontic Protraction Of An Impacted Lower Third Molar Compressed To The Inferior Alveolar Nerve: A Case Report, Johnson Hsin-Chung Cheng, Daniel De-Shing Chen, Bou-Yue Peng, Pei-Hsuan Chen

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

Background: Neurological damage may occur during a third molar extraction procedure when the tooth root is near the mandibular canal. Although the incidence of this complication is low, a great range of variability has been reported in the literature. Several methods to reduce or eliminate this complication have been proposed, such as orthodontic-assisted extraction, extraction of the second molar, or an intentional odontectomy. Objective: The objective of this case report is to present a low risk extraction procedure: a coronectomy with forced eruption (COFE) to avoid potential neural damage when removal of lower wisdom tooth compressing inferior alveolar nerve in …


Non-Extraction Orthodontics In Severe Open Bite With Disc Plication Surgery Of The Temporomandibular Joint, Jessica Chia-Yi Wang, Meng-Yen Chen, Kuan-Yu Lin, Tung-Yiu Wong, Chen-Jung Chang Feb 2024

Non-Extraction Orthodontics In Severe Open Bite With Disc Plication Surgery Of The Temporomandibular Joint, Jessica Chia-Yi Wang, Meng-Yen Chen, Kuan-Yu Lin, Tung-Yiu Wong, Chen-Jung Chang

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

Open bite malocclusion is among the most challenging orthodontic deformities to correct. Among the etiological factors of anterior open-bite, degenerative change in temporomandibular joints (TMJs) is the most difficult condition to manage. The most appropriate treatment modality for TMJ disorder with disc displacement remains controversal. Disc repositioning surgery is a treatment option when conservative treatment has failed to resolve symptoms. We presented a patient had history of gradual bite opening associated with joint stiffness and clicking. She received occlusal splint therapy for more than 10 years, and the occlusion was stable for 1 year before orthodontic treatment was initiated. Based …


Correlation Of Symphyseal Angle And Various Skeletal Patterns In Skeletal Class I Malocclusion, Dipankar Shrestha, Jyoti Dhakal, Rabindra Man Shrestha, Asal Acharya, Utsav Gautam Feb 2024

Correlation Of Symphyseal Angle And Various Skeletal Patterns In Skeletal Class I Malocclusion, Dipankar Shrestha, Jyoti Dhakal, Rabindra Man Shrestha, Asal Acharya, Utsav Gautam

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

Introduction: Skeletal growth pattern is an important parameter used in orthodontics for diagnosis and treatment planning. Lateral cephalogram is commonly used to evaluate skeletal growth pattern. Orthopantamogram (OPG) can also be used to evaluate skeletal growth pattern with parameters like gonial angle and symphyseal angle (SA). This study deals with symphyseal angle and its correlation with skeletal growth patterns. Objective: To correlate symphyseal angle with different skeletal growth patterns in skeletal Class I sample. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional, observational study including 60 patients of age 15 - 49 years with skeletal Class I pattern selected from …


Surface Modifications Of Orthodontic Bone Screws - A Novel Approach, Sai Kalyan Menta Dr, Ravi M. S Feb 2024

Surface Modifications Of Orthodontic Bone Screws - A Novel Approach, Sai Kalyan Menta Dr, Ravi M. S

Annual Research Symposium

Anchorage control plays a key role in the correction of malocclusion. With the advent of orthodontic bone screws, attaining absolute anchorage control has become hassle free. They have the advantages of low cost, simple surgical placement, and ease of removal; therefore, they are convenient in the treatment of various malocclusions. Although the clinical stability of bone screws is exceptionally high, stability of the bone screws is compromised by factors such as microbial contamination and morphological defects. To overcome this, surface modifications are introduced to enhance the stability of the bone screws.


Unlocking The Secrets Of Stem Cells In Orthodontics, Ravi M. S Feb 2024

Unlocking The Secrets Of Stem Cells In Orthodontics, Ravi M. S

Annual Research Symposium

Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) have immense potential for use in tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. These cells are influenced by mechanical forces, particularly in orthodontic applications. Understanding how mechanical stress modulates stem cell behavior is essential for optimizing therapeutic strategies.


Evaluation Of Oropharyngeal Airway Changes In Skeletal Class11 Patients Undergoing Twin Block Appliance Therapy, K Saidath Feb 2024

Evaluation Of Oropharyngeal Airway Changes In Skeletal Class11 Patients Undergoing Twin Block Appliance Therapy, K Saidath

Annual Research Symposium

The study investigated the changes in oropharyngeal airway dimensions in growing patients with retrognthic mandible and skeletal class 11 paterns, treated with twin block appliance.we evaluated skeletal changes post treatment and their relation to airway alterations


An Emg Study To Evaluate Chewing Efficiency And Maximum Voluntary Clenching (Mvc) For Different Malocclusion Groups Before And During Orthodontic Treatment, Vivek Reddy Feb 2024

An Emg Study To Evaluate Chewing Efficiency And Maximum Voluntary Clenching (Mvc) For Different Malocclusion Groups Before And During Orthodontic Treatment, Vivek Reddy

Annual Research Symposium

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of chewing and maximum voluntary clenching (MVC) of patients with different malocclusion types by measuring the EMG activity in the masseter and temporalis muscles before and during orthodontic treatment.


Changes In Stress Distribution Of Orthodontic Miniscrew And Surrounding Bone At Different Angles And Heights - Fem Study, Miranda Mathews Feb 2024

Changes In Stress Distribution Of Orthodontic Miniscrew And Surrounding Bone At Different Angles And Heights - Fem Study, Miranda Mathews

Annual Research Symposium

Miniscrews is introduced as absolute anchorage devices in orthodontic treatment. They are efficient in overcoming anchorage loss. The miniscrew implants can be placed at different heights and angles in the positions determined for various clinical requirements. In this study, we used these parameters for determining the changes in stress distribution on the supporting bone and the miniscrews itself using finite element analysis.The aim of this study is to determine changes in stress distribution on the supporting bone and miniscrew implant at different alveolar crestal heights in different angulations using Finite Element Analysis.


Assessment Of Condylar Volume Changes In Class Ii Division 2 Patients Treated With Proclination Of Maxillary Incisors, Overbite Reduction And Dentoalveolar Expansion Using Invisalign Clear Aligners, Hanie Morsi Feb 2024

Assessment Of Condylar Volume Changes In Class Ii Division 2 Patients Treated With Proclination Of Maxillary Incisors, Overbite Reduction And Dentoalveolar Expansion Using Invisalign Clear Aligners, Hanie Morsi

Annual Research Symposium

To assess the possible three-dimensional changes in condylar volume in Class II Division 2 growing patients following the use of Invisalign clear aligners to “unlock” the mandible. Unlocking the mandible was done through proclining the maxillary incisors, correcting the overbite, and expanding the maxillary arch.


Comparative Evaluation Of Bone Thickness In Infrazygomatic Crest Region For Optimal Insertion Of Bone Screws : A Cbct Study, Kavya Mp Feb 2024

Comparative Evaluation Of Bone Thickness In Infrazygomatic Crest Region For Optimal Insertion Of Bone Screws : A Cbct Study, Kavya Mp

Annual Research Symposium

Infrazygomatic crest (IZC) is a palpable bony ridge running between the alveolar ridge and the zygomatic process of maxilla. IZC bone dimension is an important factor in the safety and stability of bone screws. IZC thickness depends on the site of insertion, angulation and height from the occlusal plane. This study embarks on a comprehensive Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) exploration, to assess infra zygomatic Crest bone thickness.


Soft Tissue Secrets: A Comparative Analysis Of Facial Soft Tissue Thickness In Skeletal Class Ii Versus Class I Malocclusions, Jacob Thomas Feb 2024

Soft Tissue Secrets: A Comparative Analysis Of Facial Soft Tissue Thickness In Skeletal Class Ii Versus Class I Malocclusions, Jacob Thomas

Annual Research Symposium

This study aimed to measure facial soft tissue thicknesses in adults with skeletal class II malocclusion and compare them to individuals with skeletal class I relationships. The outcomes intended to provide clinicians with data to enhance treatment strategies for facial reconstruction and esthetics.


Evaluating The Impact Of Low-Level Laser Therapy On Accelerating Orthodontic Tooth Movement, Mcqueen Mendonca Feb 2024

Evaluating The Impact Of Low-Level Laser Therapy On Accelerating Orthodontic Tooth Movement, Mcqueen Mendonca

Annual Research Symposium

The prolonged duration of orthodontic therapy is a primary concern for patients. Low-Level Laser Therapy can accelerate bone remodeling and thus, orthodontic tooth movement. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of Low-Level Laser Treatment (LLLT) in enhancing the rate of orthodontic tooth movement during en-masse retraction.


Influence Of Orthodontic Treatment On Changes In The Maxillary Sinus Dimensions, Eiji Tanaka Dds, Phd, Hiroshi Yamada Dds, Phd, Masaaki Higashino Md, Phd, Saya Suetake Dds, Susumu Abe Dds, Phd Feb 2024

Influence Of Orthodontic Treatment On Changes In The Maxillary Sinus Dimensions, Eiji Tanaka Dds, Phd, Hiroshi Yamada Dds, Phd, Masaaki Higashino Md, Phd, Saya Suetake Dds, Susumu Abe Dds, Phd

Annual Research Symposium

This study aimed to investigate the correlation of craniofacial morphology with maxillary sinus morphology and to evaluate whether orthodontic treatment facilitates maxillary sinus enlargement in adults.


Comparative Efficacy Of Forsus Frd And Twin Block Appliance In Class Ii Malocclusion Correction, Priyanka Udeshi Feb 2024

Comparative Efficacy Of Forsus Frd And Twin Block Appliance In Class Ii Malocclusion Correction, Priyanka Udeshi

Annual Research Symposium

The Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device (FRD) and Twin Block appliances are used to correct Class IImalocclusions. Both appliances work primarily through mandibular repositioning. Despite theirwidespread use, uncertainties remain about their specific mechanisms of correction andcomparative effectiveness. Our study aimed to evaluate and compare the dentoalveolar, skeletal,and soft tissue changes between the Forsus FRD and Twin Block appliance in the treatment of ClassII malocclusions.


Evaluating Pi Angle Efficacy Against Established Cephalometric Angular Parameters, Sumit Bohra Feb 2024

Evaluating Pi Angle Efficacy Against Established Cephalometric Angular Parameters, Sumit Bohra

Annual Research Symposium

Cephalometrics is a cornerstone of orthodontic diagnosis. Numerous angularmeasurements are used to assess the anteroposterior jaw relation include the ANB angle, Betaangle, Yen angle, and W angle. However, these have limitations, leading to the development of thePi angle. Our study aimed to evaluate the predictability of the Pi angle in a South Indian populationand compare it with other established antero-posterior dysplasia indicators such as the ANB angle,W angle, Yen angle, and Beta angle. This comparison is crucial for determining the most accuratemethod for assessing sagittal skeletal discrepancies.


Dentofacial Effects Of Radiotherapy On Pediatric Population With Retinoblastoma, Kristi Truong Feb 2024

Dentofacial Effects Of Radiotherapy On Pediatric Population With Retinoblastoma, Kristi Truong

Annual Research Symposium

This literature review investigates the dentofacial consequences of radiotherapy in young patients with retinoblastoma by referencing current research. In addition, the management and rehabilitation of the dentofacial abnormalities, highlighting orthodontic, surgical, and prosthetic approaches, is examined. By understanding the changes of dentofacial development due to retinoblastoma treatment, effective management techniques can be implemented to resolve significant issues, relating to dental and skeletal relationship and facial appearance.


Referral Patterns Of Neonatal Healthcare Professionals For Cleft Lip And Palate Patients, Alyssa Morrow Feb 2024

Referral Patterns Of Neonatal Healthcare Professionals For Cleft Lip And Palate Patients, Alyssa Morrow

Annual Research Symposium

Cleft Lip and Palate patients are some of the most vulnerable and complex orthodontic patients. They face a myriad of health challenges including psychological, nutritional, auditory, speech, airway, skeletal, and dental. Ideal comprehensive treatment for CLP patients is provided via multidisciplinary teams of healthcare providers. However, there is currently limited access to proper multidisciplinary care for CLP patients in the US, partly due to lack of education regarding available resources. For the most effective treatment and optimal outcomes, it is essential that coordinated care starts at birth and that parental education begins as soon as CLP is detected in utero. …


Mda Foundation: What A Difference A Smile Makes, Anne Berquist Feb 2024

Mda Foundation: What A Difference A Smile Makes, Anne Berquist

The Journal of the Michigan Dental Association

The 2023 round of scholarships awarded by the MDA Foundation totaled $31,000, more than twice the amount awarded in 2022. As a recipient of the MDA Foundation's Dr. George L. Bletsas Scholarship, Maya Scott, now a dental student, is dedicated to advocating for underserved minorities. Scott's journey into dentistry was shaped by her personal experiences with dental care and her desire to address health disparities. Growing up in challenging circumstances, orthodontic treatment transformed her smile and ignited her interest in dentistry. Her scholarship facilitates participation in dental missions and eases living expenses. With aspirations for general dentistry in underserved areas, …


J Mich Dent Assoc February 2024 Feb 2024

J Mich Dent Assoc February 2024

The Journal of the Michigan Dental Association

Every month, The Journal of the Michigan Dental Association brings news, information, and features about Michigan dentistry to our state's oral health community and the MDA's 6,200+ members. No publication reaches more Michigan dentists!

  • The February issue previews the 2024 Annual Session in Lansing, highlighting 61 courses, 48 speakers, and Michigan’s largest dental exhibit hall
  • A Feature article on The MDA Member Assistance Program: Real Help When You Need It
  • News You Need, including The MDA announcement of John Tramontana as the new CEO/executive director
  • The MDA Student Debt Resource Center
  • Updates on the MDA website refresh
  • Celebrating National Children’s …


Barriers And Facilitators For Dental Practitioners In Implementing Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy: A Scoping Review Protocol, Heuiwon Han, Mina Jawadi Jan 2024

Barriers And Facilitators For Dental Practitioners In Implementing Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy: A Scoping Review Protocol, Heuiwon Han, Mina Jawadi

International Journal of Orofacial Myology and Myofunctional Therapy

Purpose: Orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT) addresses various dental issues and has evolved significantly since its emergence in the early 20th century. Despite its uses and effectiveness, the adoption of OMT among dental practitioners varies with a lack of comprehensive understanding in the field. This scoping review will aim to map the current evidence on OMT in dentistry, with a focus on the perspectives and attitudes of dental practitioners, as well as the barriers to and facilitators of its implementation in clinical practice.

Method: The planned scoping review adheres to the JBI methodology for scoping reviews guide, with data sourced …


The Reliability Of Soft Tissue Profile Analysis Comparing Photoshop And Cephalometric Measurements In Maxillary Protrusion Patients, Sara Usama Imam, Heba Dehis, Nagwa Elmangoury, Amr El-Beialy Jan 2024

The Reliability Of Soft Tissue Profile Analysis Comparing Photoshop And Cephalometric Measurements In Maxillary Protrusion Patients, Sara Usama Imam, Heba Dehis, Nagwa Elmangoury, Amr El-Beialy

Future Dental Journal

Abstract

Introduction: Cephalometric x-ray is considered as a crucial step in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. However, patients nowadays, especially those pursuing cosmetic goals, are concerned about radiation dosages as a result of increased understanding. Therefore, the aim of this study is to provide a simple reliable, affordable and reproducible way to evaluate the soft tissue measures for creating an orthodontic treatment plan.

Methods: Comparing standardized profile photographs and lateral cephalograms were obtained from twenty-eight patients with maxillary protrusion of the age group between 14 – 24 years before and after retraction. Evaluation and comparison were done for cephalometric x-ray …


Evaluation Of Pain Perception Associated With Maxillary First Molars Distalization In The Presence Of Maxillary Third Molars Versus Extracted Third Molars Using Infra-Zygomatic Mini-Screws: A Randomized Clinical Trial, Nadeen H. Hafez, Yehya A. Mostafa, Amr E. El-Dakroury, Mostafa M. El-Dawlatly Jan 2024

Evaluation Of Pain Perception Associated With Maxillary First Molars Distalization In The Presence Of Maxillary Third Molars Versus Extracted Third Molars Using Infra-Zygomatic Mini-Screws: A Randomized Clinical Trial, Nadeen H. Hafez, Yehya A. Mostafa, Amr E. El-Dakroury, Mostafa M. El-Dawlatly

Future Dental Journal

Aim: The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the pain associated with distalizing maxillary first molars with the presence versus extraction of unerupted third molars using infra-zygomaic mini -screws in a group of adolescent female patients.

Study design: This randomized clinical trial (parallel group design) was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Dentistry, Future University in Egypt

Materials and methods: 30 patients requiring bilateral maxillary molar distalization using infra-zygomatic mini-implant were randomly allocated to third molar extraction (TME) or third Molar presence (TMP) groups

All patients were asked to assess their pain levels …


Comparing Program Compatibility For Dental Operators Between Different In-Office Clear Aligners Software, Karim Ibrahim Hammam, Essam Nassef, Mostafa Al Dawltaly Jan 2024

Comparing Program Compatibility For Dental Operators Between Different In-Office Clear Aligners Software, Karim Ibrahim Hammam, Essam Nassef, Mostafa Al Dawltaly

Future Dental Journal

Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare program compatibility for dental operators between different in office clear aligners software: (3D Maestro,3shape, BlueSky bio, Plainmeca). Materials and methods: 4 in office clear aligners software: (3D Maestro,3shape, BlueSky bio, Plainmeca) were used. Ten orthodontists were recruited for the evaluation process, A total of 48 casts were used including upper and lower arches for each case. Each orthodontist made a check mark on each option in the pre-made scoring template.A check mark with YES was given a One point, and a check mark with NO was given Zero point. Results: …