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Meat Shrinkage, J. Leising, H. Tuma Jan 1972

Meat Shrinkage, J. Leising, H. Tuma

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Meat shrinkage is a major problem for the beef industry. Shrinkage (loss in weight) results from many factors: improper chilling, low humidity, not packaging, poor sanitation, or excessive ageing time. Most beef is chilled overnight (16-20 hrs.) at cooler temperatures of 25 to 40 ÌŠF. internal temperatures after 20 hours chill vary from 55 ÌŠto 70 ÌŠF depending on cooler conditions and carcass weight. During a normal chill cycle, beef carcasses shrink 6 to 12 pounds or 1-2% for 600-pound carcass with the shrink depending on many cooler and carcass factors. Various methods have been used to reduce moisture evaporation ...


Effect Of Organic Acids On The Preservation And Feeding Value Reconstituted Milo, K.K. Bolsen, O.J. Cox, C.L. Drake Jan 1972

Effect Of Organic Acids On The Preservation And Feeding Value Reconstituted Milo, K.K. Bolsen, O.J. Cox, C.L. Drake

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The use of high moisture grain in beef cattle rations has increased during the past several years. It has improved feed efficiency of high energy rations five to 20 percent in previous research. Non-nutritional advantages of high moisture grain include: (1) earlier harvest to lengthen the harvest season and/or free land for other uses; (2) fewer field losses from shattering lodging, wind and early frost and (3) no artificial drying.


Kansas Meat Marketing Innovations, F.E. Jensen, D.B. Erickson, S.E. Trieb, H.J. Tuma Jan 1972

Kansas Meat Marketing Innovations, F.E. Jensen, D.B. Erickson, S.E. Trieb, H.J. Tuma

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The U.S. system of producing, marketing, and distributing farm products has been heralded as the world's most efficient, with lower distribution costs than any other nation. Research continues to improve marketing through new methods and technology. Central cryogenic-frozen meat packaging is an example.


Feedlot Performance And Digestibility Of Beef Steers Fed Steam Flaked, Popped, Reconstituted And Dry Rolled Sorghum Grain, D.O. Yauk, C.L. Drake, R.R. Schalles Jan 1971

Feedlot Performance And Digestibility Of Beef Steers Fed Steam Flaked, Popped, Reconstituted And Dry Rolled Sorghum Grain, D.O. Yauk, C.L. Drake, R.R. Schalles

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Because most finishing rations contain a high proportion of grain, better processing of sorghum grain to increase grain utilization should improve ration efficiency. Work in Texas, Oklahoma, Arizona, and Fort Hays has indicated that processing sorghum grain increased digestibility and utilization. This trial compared digestibility and feedlot performance of beef steers fed steam flaked, popped, reconstituted or dry-rolled sorghum grain.


Voluntary Salt Intake By Feedlot Steers, L.H. Harbers, L.C. Warren Jan 1971

Voluntary Salt Intake By Feedlot Steers, L.H. Harbers, L.C. Warren

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Because it is a standard practice, adding salt to livestock rations has not received much attention in the past several years. Salt is universally added at 0.5% of the diet, but studies here in the early 50's showed salt needs of cattle are related to dietary roughage levels.


Control Of Feed Intake In Ruminants Continuous Rumen Infusion Studies (Project 802), J.C. Parks, K.S. Lusby, B.E. Brent Jan 1971

Control Of Feed Intake In Ruminants Continuous Rumen Infusion Studies (Project 802), J.C. Parks, K.S. Lusby, B.E. Brent

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Since the requirement of animals for net energy for maintenance (NEm) is influenced largely by weight of the animal, feed efficiency and animal performance improve rapidly as feed intake surpasses maintenance requirements. Once that constant "overhead" is satisfied, remaining nutrients are available for growth and production. The object of the study reported here was to see if ruminants are capable of digesting and metabolizing nutrient intakes in excess of what they normally consume. Fistulated sheet were the experimental animals. The basal diet is shown in Table 3. The ingredients were suspended in water, filtered through cheesecloth, held in suspension by ...


Post-Weaning Performance Of Calves As Affected By Longstem Hay And Method Feeding, E.F. Smith, L.H. Harbers Jan 1971

Post-Weaning Performance Of Calves As Affected By Longstem Hay And Method Feeding, E.F. Smith, L.H. Harbers

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Three different rations were compared for feeding calves immediately after weaning. Desired is a ration that will reduce weaning stress, produce economical gains, and be easy to feed. The rations are shown in Table 4. Initial weight of the calves was taken at the pasture just before weaning. The calves were transported the same day 8 miles to the Beef Cattle Research Center where they were divided into groups and started on experimental rations.


Feeding Value Of Four Different Hybrid Sorghum Grains For Finishing Cattle, R.L. Mccollough, C.L. Drake, R.R. Schalles, G.M. Roth, K.F. Harrison Jan 1971

Feeding Value Of Four Different Hybrid Sorghum Grains For Finishing Cattle, R.L. Mccollough, C.L. Drake, R.R. Schalles, G.M. Roth, K.F. Harrison

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Hybrid sorghum grain is the major source of energy in livestock finishing rations in the Midwest. In 1969, 739 million bushels of sorghum grain were produced in the United States and 620 million bushels, or 84% were fed to livestock. Kansas ranked second to Texas, producing 183 million bushels in 1968, or 30% of the quantity fed to livestock. Since hybrid sorghum grains ware introduced in 1956, yield has increased 25%. Because livestock consumes 84% of the sorghum grain produced in the United States, hybrids with superior nutritive value would be advantageous.


Effect Of Adding Fat To Feedlot Rations, B.E. Brent, P.A. Phar, L.J. Randle, L.H. Harbers, Dell M. Allen Jan 1971

Effect Of Adding Fat To Feedlot Rations, B.E. Brent, P.A. Phar, L.J. Randle, L.H. Harbers, Dell M. Allen

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Fat is added to commercial feedlot rations as a concentrated energy source and to reduce dustiness and wear of feed processing machinery. We added fat at varying levels ( 0 to 6% of the ration) to study effects from fat and the influence of a surface-active additive. Two hundred 700-pound steers were allotted to 40 pens of 5 each all fed 135 days on the rations show in Table 12, according to the schedule shown in Table 13.


Starea, Urea And Soybean Meal Compared In Wintering Rations For Cows On Bluestem Pasture, L. Tucker, L.H. Harbers, E.F. Smith Jan 1971

Starea, Urea And Soybean Meal Compared In Wintering Rations For Cows On Bluestem Pasture, L. Tucker, L.H. Harbers, E.F. Smith

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

More urea, a torn of nonprotein nitrogen, would be fed to ruminants except for inefficient conversion of urea-nitrogen to Microbial protein, toxicity, lack of palatability and urea segregating in mixed rations. As a supplement for cattle on high-roughage rations, urea should be fed with a readily available energy source for urea nitrogen to be converted to microbial protein by rumen microorganisms. Attempting to overcome some or all of those problems, Bartley and co-workers at Kansas State University (Feedstuffs. 27 Apr. 68; 40:9) developed an expansion-processed mixture of grain and urea (Starea).We tested Starea and soybean meal as protein ...


Comparison Of Biuret And Soybean Meal For Wintering Cows On Bluestem Pasture Ii. Effect On Birth And Weaning Weight Of Progeny, H.A. Thyault, L.H. Harbers, E.F. Smith Jan 1971

Comparison Of Biuret And Soybean Meal For Wintering Cows On Bluestem Pasture Ii. Effect On Birth And Weaning Weight Of Progeny, H.A. Thyault, L.H. Harbers, E.F. Smith

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

During the winter of 1969-70, 48 five-year-old cows were divided into three groups to compared soybean meal with biuret as a winter supplement in combination with sorghum grain (Bulletin 536, 1970, p.33). Soybean meal supplemented cows gained 31 lbs. each during 4 months while biuret-fed cows lost 15 lbs. each. Cows fed sorghum with biuret in a separate mineral mix (fed free choice) lost 62 lbs. each.


Winter Nutrition For Cows, R.R. Schalles, C.L. Drake, G. Kiracofe Jan 1971

Winter Nutrition For Cows, R.R. Schalles, C.L. Drake, G. Kiracofe

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Cow productivity on four supplemental winter feeding levels were compared over 2 years. Cattle were grazed on native bluestem year round. Cows calved between February 15 and May 5. Only records (104) of cows that raised a calf in the year considered were used in this report. Cows averaged 3.3 years old at birth of calves. Rations fed are given in Table 25 referred to as group 1, 2, 3 and 4. Cows received the same ration each year. Cows were allotted to 4 groups and rotated among four approximately equal pastures so each group remained in each pasture ...


Simmental-Hereford Cross Calves, M. Mckee, R.R. Schalles, K.O. Zoellner Jan 1971

Simmental-Hereford Cross Calves, M. Mckee, R.R. Schalles, K.O. Zoellner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Data on nine Simmental-Hereford cross calves (3 bulls and 6 females) from birth to 6 months of age was reported in Bulletin 536. The three bulls shared conditions with three Hereford, four Angus, and one Shorthorn bull. The six cross heifers grew with three Hereford, three Angus, and two Shorthorn heifers.


The Tenderometer As A Tool For Evaluating Beef Tenderness, H.J. Tuma, Dell M. Allen, Michael E. Dikeman Jan 1971

The Tenderometer As A Tool For Evaluating Beef Tenderness, H.J. Tuma, Dell M. Allen, Michael E. Dikeman

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Numerous instruments have been developed to objectively measure tenderness, an important eating characteristics of beef. The Kramer shear press and Warner-Bratzler shear show the best relationships to taste panel tenderness scores. However, shear values of raw muscle are poorly correlated with shear value of cooked meat. An instrument that could be used in the beef cooler an raw carcass muscle to predict tenderness of cooked meat would be valuable.


Effect Of Beet Pulp Pellets Fed Steers Wintering And Finishing Rations, L.A. Arehart, Evans E. Banbury Jan 1971

Effect Of Beet Pulp Pellets Fed Steers Wintering And Finishing Rations, L.A. Arehart, Evans E. Banbury

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Sugar beet by-products are available to cattle feeders in northwestern Kansas, but their value as livestock feed is not known. In 1967-68, steers fed liquid protein concentrate beet pulp pellets (LPC) in wintering rations gained faster (1.96 vs. 1.24 lb. per day) than steers on similar amounts of alfalfa hay. Then on finishing rations, gain per day favored alfalfa-fed cattle (2.58 to 2.25 lb. per day). In 1968-69, there was no significant difference between beet pellets and alfalfa, but 5.0 lb. LPC beet pellets reduced feed consumption and daily gains compared with results from rations ...


Nutritive Value Of Forages As Affected By Soil And Climatic Differences, F.G. Clary, B.E. Brent, D. Richardson, A.B. Erhart, Evans E. Banbury, Fred W. Boren Jan 1970

Nutritive Value Of Forages As Affected By Soil And Climatic Differences, F.G. Clary, B.E. Brent, D. Richardson, A.B. Erhart, Evans E. Banbury, Fred W. Boren

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Effects of environment on the performance of beef steers in Kansas have been studied since 1962. The experiments, in three phases, have included seven feedlot trials and one digestion trial.


Using Simmental Bulls On Hereford Cows, M. Mckee, R.R. Schalles, K.O. Zoellner Jan 1970

Using Simmental Bulls On Hereford Cows, M. Mckee, R.R. Schalles, K.O. Zoellner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Fourteen registered Hereford cows in the Kansas State University purebred teaching herd were mated artificially to the Simmental bull Capitaine #1236 in November and December, 1968. The 23 ampules of semen available were used on the first 23 Hereford cows to show estrus following November 20, 1968. Of cows inseminated, six calved as two-year olds, two as three-year olds, one at four years, two at five years, one at eight, and two at ten years of age. The two that calved at five years of age were sold prior to calving. Both calved unassisted but one calf was dead at ...


Urea And Soybean Meal Compared For Cows On Winter Bluestem Pasture, R.W. Swanson, E.F. Smith Jan 1970

Urea And Soybean Meal Compared For Cows On Winter Bluestem Pasture, R.W. Swanson, E.F. Smith

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

This test compared urea supplement (hand-fed), urea supplement (self-fed), and soybean meal (SBM) supplement (hand-fed) with cows on winter bluestem pasture. The supplements were formulated to supply the same amount of protein and total digestible nutrients. Salt was fed free choice with the hand-fed supplement.


Protein, Salt, And Premix Aspects Of All-Concentrate Cattle Finishing Rations, G.M. Roth, E.F. Smith, R.R. Schalles Jan 1970

Protein, Salt, And Premix Aspects Of All-Concentrate Cattle Finishing Rations, G.M. Roth, E.F. Smith, R.R. Schalles

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

This test was designed to study the following aspects of all-concentrate rations: (1) salt, (2) supplemental protein (3) self-feeding a protein and premix combination (4) a pelleted premix compared to a mash form, and (5) a repeat trial of soybean meal versus urea as a supplemental protein source.


A Biopsy Technique To Predict Quality In The Live Beef Animal With Emphasis On Tenderness, Michael E. Dikeman, C.C. Melton, H.J. Tuma, G.R. Beecher Jan 1970

A Biopsy Technique To Predict Quality In The Live Beef Animal With Emphasis On Tenderness, Michael E. Dikeman, C.C. Melton, H.J. Tuma, G.R. Beecher

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Because tenderness is considered the most desired eating characteristic in meat, more emphasis should be placed on this trait in evaluating beef quality in breeding and selection programs. Both tenderness and marbling are highly heritable traits (Heritability = approximately 0.6), therefore much improvement could be made through progeny testing of sires; however, this requires considerable time and expense. This consideration, plus an increasing interest in feeding young beef bulls for market, led to an interest in applying a biopsy technique to evaluate and predict meat quality in the live animal.


Mineral Content Of Feeds Grown At Various Kansas Locations, F.G. Clary, B.E. Brent Jan 1970

Mineral Content Of Feeds Grown At Various Kansas Locations, F.G. Clary, B.E. Brent

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Earlier experiments have shown that cattle may perform differently at different Kansas locations. Feeds from four locations (Manhattan, Mound Valley, Colby, and Garden City) were analyzed for several minerals to see if mineral differences might be responsible. Table 4 shows the results for alfalfa hay. Samples were taken at random and no attempt was made to choose particular varieties. Data for FS 1a sorghum silage is shown in table 5. Table 6 shows mineral analyses for two sorghum grain varieties, and one mixed sample (varieties unknown) taken at each location. The K.S.U. agronomy department carries out annual tests ...


Post-Weaning Performance Of Calves As Affected By Longstem Hay And Pre-Weaning Creep Feeding, G. Greathouse, E.F. Smith Jan 1970

Post-Weaning Performance Of Calves As Affected By Longstem Hay And Pre-Weaning Creep Feeding, G. Greathouse, E.F. Smith

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Mortality in calves at weaning is one of the major problems in the beef industry. Some relief from this problem might be achieved if the calves could be changed from milk and grass to high energy ration with little lapse in time. Many ranchers do not have adequate equipment, labor or time to do this job on the ranch where it could best be done. If a post-weaning management system could be formulated that would be acceptable to the producers of the calves and reduce death and sickness it would be of tremendous benefit. Many local feed companies are in ...


Effects Of Winter Nutrition Levels On Cow And Calf Performance, R.R. Schalles, G. Kiracofe, C.L. Drake, C.N. Reves Jan 1970

Effects Of Winter Nutrition Levels On Cow And Calf Performance, R.R. Schalles, G. Kiracofe, C.L. Drake, C.N. Reves

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Cow and calf performance under four winter-nutrition levels was compared using 34 cows the first year and 87 cows the second year. Cows were maintained on the same nutrition treatment both years with additional cows added the second year, Cows ranged from less than 2 to 11 years of age. Average calving date was early April. A total of 95 calves were included during the two years. Calves were weighed within 24 hours after birth and at monthly intervals from June to November. Cows were weighed each month. All cows were graded and calves were weaned and graded at the ...


Relationships Among Carcass Characteristics Of Cattle Exhibited At Shows In The Midwest, M. Mckee, R.R. Schalles, M. Harris, K.O. Zoellner, H.W. Westmeyer Jan 1970

Relationships Among Carcass Characteristics Of Cattle Exhibited At Shows In The Midwest, M. Mckee, R.R. Schalles, M. Harris, K.O. Zoellner, H.W. Westmeyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Carcass data were collected from 24 carcass shows held throughout the Midwest, including eight county shows in Kansas and one county show in Nebraska, seven years' results from the Kansas National Junior Livestock Show in Wichita, two years results from the Midwest Steer and Carcass Show at Austin, Minn,. two years results from the St. Joseph Live Steer and Carcass Show, St. Joseph, Mo., and one-year results from AK-SAR-BEN, Omaha, Nebr., Waterloo Carcass Show, Waterloo, Iowa; Hoosier Beef Show, Indianapolis, Ind.; and the 4-H Beef Carcass Summary, Nebraska State Fair, Lincoln, Nebr.


White Sorghum Grain (Funk's G766w) And Elevator-Run Red Sorghum Grain Compared For Fattening Cattle, C.L. Drake, V.P. Carlson, P.H. Wilson, Dell M. Allen Jan 1970

White Sorghum Grain (Funk's G766w) And Elevator-Run Red Sorghum Grain Compared For Fattening Cattle, C.L. Drake, V.P. Carlson, P.H. Wilson, Dell M. Allen

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

An new white variety of sorghum grain (Funk's G766W) has been reported to be higher in digestible dry matter and protein than elevator-run, rod sorghum grain. A 120-day field trial was conducted on the George and Vernon Miller farm near Great Bend to compare the two sorghum grain types under feed-lot conditions.


Preliminary Investigations With Adapted Rumen Microorganisms (Arm) For Fattening Beef Cattle, C.L. Drake, D.L. Good, R.R. Schalles, P.A. Hahn, O.D. Jr. Myrick Jan 1970

Preliminary Investigations With Adapted Rumen Microorganisms (Arm) For Fattening Beef Cattle, C.L. Drake, D.L. Good, R.R. Schalles, P.A. Hahn, O.D. Jr. Myrick

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The use of rumen microorganisms is not new but neither is it a common practice. We used a product developed by W.R. Grace and Company in an attempt to reduce the "adaptation period" of cattle placed on a finishing ration. The adaptation response is believed to correlate with changes in microbial populations in the cattles rumen. Microbes that efficiently metabolize one type of diet, like forage, do not survive on a high grain diet. However, the multitude of microbes in the rumen includes types that help digest grain. When they increase until they dominate the rumen population, the adaptation ...


The Nutritive Value Of Four Varieties Of Sorghum Grain, R.L. Mccollough, C.L. Drake, K.F. Harrison Jan 1970

The Nutritive Value Of Four Varieties Of Sorghum Grain, R.L. Mccollough, C.L. Drake, K.F. Harrison

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

In 1969, Kansas harvested 182, 896, 00 bushels from 3,266,00 acres of grains sorghum for a 56-bushel-per-acre average. Much of it is fed to beef cattle; therefore, it would be an economic advantage for both grain producers and cattle feeders to have a sorghum grain of superior feeding quality.


Comparison Of Biuret And Soybean Meal For Wintering Cows On Bluestem Pasture, H.A. Thyfault, E.F. Smith, L.H. Harbers Jan 1970

Comparison Of Biuret And Soybean Meal For Wintering Cows On Bluestem Pasture, H.A. Thyfault, E.F. Smith, L.H. Harbers

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Biuret, a non protein nitrogen compound, has shown promise as a protein substitute for ruminants fed poor quality roughages. Urea, by comparison, cannot be sued without an adequate supply of energy in the form of either grain or molasses. Biuret is not broken down to ammonia so rapidly as urea is. Biuret, therefore, is less toxic than urea.


Influence Of Feeding Practices And Season Of Birth On Calf Performance, A.R. Singh, R.R. Schalles, W.H. Smith, F.B. Kessler Jan 1969

Influence Of Feeding Practices And Season Of Birth On Calf Performance, A.R. Singh, R.R. Schalles, W.H. Smith, F.B. Kessler

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The ability of beef cows to produce heavy, vigorous and good quality calves every year is one of their most important economic traits. Feeding practices have been reported to influence average daily gain (ADG) and weaning weight. We evaluated creep-feeding, noncreep-feeding, season of birth, and other factors that affect preweaning performance of calves. At the Fort Hays Branch Experiment Station, Hays, Kansas, purebred sires had been used many generations in the grade Hereford herd. Calves, born in both spring and fall, were randomly allotted to creep-fed and noncreep-fed groups every year. Cows and calves grazed native pastures.


Sorghum Grain, Urea Or Soybean Meal As A Protein Source In All-Concentrate Cattle Finishing Rations, G.A. Greathouse, R.W. Swanson, E.F. Smith, L.I. Smart, B.E. Brent Jan 1969

Sorghum Grain, Urea Or Soybean Meal As A Protein Source In All-Concentrate Cattle Finishing Rations, G.A. Greathouse, R.W. Swanson, E.F. Smith, L.I. Smart, B.E. Brent

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Results of previous similar research have been reported in Kansas Agicu1tural Experiment Station Bulletins 483, 493, 507, and 518. Trials at several research centers and here have shown that roughage may be satisfactorily omitted from finishing rations for cattle often, reducing feed required per pound of gain. Cattle nay be finished on all-grain diets with only mineral and vitamin supplements when the grain has sufficient protein.