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The Value Of Dehydrated Alfalfa And Delayed Grain Fed To Young Cows On Winter Bluestem, B.W. Swanson, E.F. Smith, D. Richardson, C.L. Drake Jan 1969

The Value Of Dehydrated Alfalfa And Delayed Grain Fed To Young Cows On Winter Bluestem, B.W. Swanson, E.F. Smith, D. Richardson, C.L. Drake

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

This test was to compared the following three winter treatments for young cows on bluestem pasture. Treatment 1 -- One pound of soybean oil meal and 2 pounds of ground sorghum grain per head daily during the entire winter feeding period. Treatment 2 -- One and a half pounds of soybean meal fed per heifer daily until 50 days before the feeding season ended, then ground sorghum grain was fed. The same total amount of sorghum grain as fed under treatment 1 throughout the winter was concentrated during the last 50 days with the soybean oil meal discontinued when grain feeding reached ...


Cow Weight And Preweaning Performance Of Calves, A.R. Singh, R.R. Schalles, W.H. Smith, F.B. Kessler Jan 1969

Cow Weight And Preweaning Performance Of Calves, A.R. Singh, R.R. Schalles, W.H. Smith, F.B. Kessler

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The influence of cow weight at parturition and during the lactation on preweaning performance of calves was evaluated. Hereford cattle at the Fort Hays Branch Experiment Station were used. Purebred sires had been used many generations in the herd that produced the calves. The calves were born January through April. Cows and calves grazed native pastures without creep feed. Heifers were bred to produce first calves when about three years old. All male calves were castrated by one month of age. Calves were weighed and identified within 24 hours after birth and were again weighed at weaning. They were weaned ...


Influence Of Feeding Practices And Season Of Birth On Calf Performance, A.R. Singh, R.R. Schalles, W.H. Smith, F.B. Kessler Jan 1969

Influence Of Feeding Practices And Season Of Birth On Calf Performance, A.R. Singh, R.R. Schalles, W.H. Smith, F.B. Kessler

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The ability of beef cows to produce heavy, vigorous and good quality calves every year is one of their most important economic traits. Feeding practices have been reported to influence average daily gain (ADG) and weaning weight. We evaluated creep-feeding, noncreep-feeding, season of birth, and other factors that affect preweaning performance of calves. At the Fort Hays Branch Experiment Station, Hays, Kansas, purebred sires had been used many generations in the grade Hereford herd. Calves, born in both spring and fall, were randomly allotted to creep-fed and noncreep-fed groups every year. Cows and calves grazed native pastures.


Effect Of Weaning Ration On Reproductive Phenomena In Beef Cows On Range, G.H. Kiracofe, R.R. Schalles, G.B. Marion Jan 1969

Effect Of Weaning Ration On Reproductive Phenomena In Beef Cows On Range, G.H. Kiracofe, R.R. Schalles, G.B. Marion

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Data are available to indicate proper wintering rations for beef cows under dry lot conditions, but few are available under range management for Kansas. This is our first attempt to determine adequate winter rations for reproductive efficiency in Kansas and to notice reproductive inefficiencies for future study.


Identical Twin Cows On Winter Bluestem Pasture Used To Measure The Value Of Supplemental Feed And Of Vitamin A, G.A. Greathouse, R.W. Swanson, E.F. Smith Jan 1969

Identical Twin Cows On Winter Bluestem Pasture Used To Measure The Value Of Supplemental Feed And Of Vitamin A, G.A. Greathouse, R.W. Swanson, E.F. Smith

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Two pairs of identical twin heifer calves were grazed together on bluestem pasture from 1961 until 1968. During the two winters, 1961-63 each ones daily supplement was 1 pound of ground sorghum grain, 1 pound of soybean oil meal, 20,000 I.U. of Vitamin A and 0.05 lb. of dicalcium phosphate. Salt was always available. The third winter {l963-64}, as bred two year olds, one of each pair was randomly selected to continue receiving the winter supplement, the other to receive only salt and bluestem pasture. They were pastured together, and those fed were separated each morning during ...


An Evaluation Of Heatmount Detectors In Beef Cattle Under Range Conditions, A.R. Singh, G.H. Kiracofe, R.R. Schalles Jan 1969

An Evaluation Of Heatmount Detectors In Beef Cattle Under Range Conditions, A.R. Singh, G.H. Kiracofe, R.R. Schalles

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Kamar heatmount detectors were used last spring on 45 Polled Hereford cows 3 to 12 years old. Bulls ran with the cows. Most cows became pregnant, which lessened observations as the breeding season progressed. Detectors were placed on rumps with adhesive according to directions. Generally, the front edge of the detector was farther to the rear on heavier cattle than on lighter cattle.First observation was May 28, 1968. Observations then were made weekly for 9 weeks, by checking for presence or absence of detectors. All cows that lost detectors or had the detector activated were palpated rectally to determine ...


All-In-One High Energy Sorghum Silage Compared With And Without Antibiotic And Conventional High Energy Sorghum Silage For Feedlot Steers, L.I. Smart, C.L. Drake Jan 1969

All-In-One High Energy Sorghum Silage Compared With And Without Antibiotic And Conventional High Energy Sorghum Silage For Feedlot Steers, L.I. Smart, C.L. Drake

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Research done here in 1967 and 1968 indicated that adding a complete supplement to forage as it was ensiled gave results equal to using soybean meal at the time of feeding. The research continued to improve the complete silage. Previous work indicated that low levels of antibiotics increased bacterial growth and improved cellulose digestion in vitro. Therefore, two levels of antibiotics were tested in all-in-one silage ensiled and fed during 1968 and 1969.


Different Methods Of Managing Bluestem Pastures, E.F. Smith, Clenton E. Owensby, B.W. Swanson, J.D. Mckendrick Jan 1969

Different Methods Of Managing Bluestem Pastures, E.F. Smith, Clenton E. Owensby, B.W. Swanson, J.D. Mckendrick

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

This experiment was to determine the effect of increased early summer stocking and burning on cattle performance, productivity of pastures and range condition as determined by plant population changes. Early stocking at twice the normal rate for the first half the growing season was tried hoping for more gain per acre and cattle ready for dry lot finishing at midsummer. If grass recovers the last half of the season, it could be "mined" the first half when highest in nutritive value.


Nutritive Value Of Forages As Affected By Soil And Climatic Differences, F.G. Clary, B.E. Brent, D. Richardson, Evans E. Banbury, C.W. Spaeth, A.B. Erhart, D.W. Arnett, Fred W. Boren, H.B. Perry Jan 1969

Nutritive Value Of Forages As Affected By Soil And Climatic Differences, F.G. Clary, B.E. Brent, D. Richardson, Evans E. Banbury, C.W. Spaeth, A.B. Erhart, D.W. Arnett, Fred W. Boren, H.B. Perry

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Wintering and finishing performances of beef steers have been compared at Colby, Garden City, Manhattan and Mound Valley. When feeds were grown locally, cattle at Garden City and Colby outperformed those at Manhattan and Mound Valley (Bulletin 507, 1967). Since all cattle were of the same origin, differences were credited to the climate and/ or feed composition. In 1968-9 (trials 5 and 6), cattle were fed at all locations on feed produced at Garden City. During the wintering phase in trial 5, cattle at Colby and Garden City significantly outgained those at Mound Valley (P<.0l). Performance at Manhattan was intermediate. In trial 6, table 18, during wintering, steers at Manhattan gained faster (P<.01) than those at Colby or Garden City but not those at Mound Valley. Finishing gains did not differ significantly in either trial. Results of the last two tests being more uniform than results of the previous four indicates some of the differences are from the site where the feed is produced.


Effect Of Pre-Slaughter Withdrawal From Feed On Cattle Fasted For Varying Lengths Of Time, T. Carr, Dell M. Allen, P. Phar, R. Cox Jan 1969

Effect Of Pre-Slaughter Withdrawal From Feed On Cattle Fasted For Varying Lengths Of Time, T. Carr, Dell M. Allen, P. Phar, R. Cox

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Feedstuffs pass through cattle in approximately four days; however, steam-flaked rations may have a faster rate of passage. How much value do cattle derive from feed fed the last few days prior to slaughter, particularly cattle taken directly from feedlot to slaughter plant? Cattle that have been shrunk kill more easily than those with full intestinal tracts. Perhaps withdrawing cattle from feed 1, 2, or 3 days before they are slaughtered would economically benefit both feeder and slaughterer.


Protein Synthesis In The Rumen: Ruminal Urease Inhibition By Acetohydroxamic Acid, A. Adepoju, F. Portela, B.E. Brent Jan 1969

Protein Synthesis In The Rumen: Ruminal Urease Inhibition By Acetohydroxamic Acid, A. Adepoju, F. Portela, B.E. Brent

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

When urea is fed to ruminants, it is immediately converted to ammonia by an enzyme, urease. The ammonia usually becomes available faster than rumen bacteria can convert it to protein. Studies were reported last year (Bulletin 518) on attempts to slow down, or inhibit urease with acetohydroxamic acid. This year effects of acetohydroxamic acid on rumen ammonia, and volatile fatty acid levels in both sheep and cattle have been studied. In both, rumen ammonia was depressed for about 4 hours after feeding, and rumen fluid urea levels were increased, showing that urease was inhibited. Ammonia data for the steers showed ...


The Value Of Dehydrated Alfalfa And Delayed Grain Feeding Young Cows On Winter Bluestem, E.F. Smith, D. Richardson, C.L. Drake, M.C. Hall Jan 1968

The Value Of Dehydrated Alfalfa And Delayed Grain Feeding Young Cows On Winter Bluestem, E.F. Smith, D. Richardson, C.L. Drake, M.C. Hall

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Two primary objectives of this test were to: (1) compared dehydrated alfalfa with soybean oil meal as a winter supplemental feed on bluestem pasture for young cows to be bred shortly after the winter feeding period. (2) Determine any merit in feeding grain the last 50 days of the winter period compared with feeding the same total amount of grain throughout the winter when heifers are to be bred shortly after the winter feeding period.


Comparison Of Time And Method In Freeze-Marking Cattle, R.R. Schalles, C.L. Drake, Dell M. Allen Jan 1968

Comparison Of Time And Method In Freeze-Marking Cattle, R.R. Schalles, C.L. Drake, Dell M. Allen

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Freeze marking for within-herd identification was used on 65 Hereford females. The cattle were 18 months to nearly three years old. Three numerals were placed on the right rump of each animal in the fall of 1967. The "branding irons" used were four-inch brass numerals with a half inch face. Dry ice and ethyl alcohol were used as the coolant with 40, 50 and or 60 seconds of contact time as well as liquid nitrogen with 39, 35 or 40 seconds of contact. Three men each applied one of the three numerals using dry ice and alcohol coolant with 60 ...


Inhibition Of Ruminal Urease, B.E. Brent, A. Adepoju, F. Portela, D. Richardson Jan 1968

Inhibition Of Ruminal Urease, B.E. Brent, A. Adepoju, F. Portela, D. Richardson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Rumen bacteria elaborate an enzyme, urease. Urease is capable of breaking down urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. Rumen bacteria then incorporate the ammonia into new amino acids and bacterial protein. Thus, urea can be used as a non-nitrogen source for ruminants. Unfortunately, urease often makes ammonia available faster than it can be used by rumen bacteria. That leads to poor utilization of urea or, in extreme cases, to toxicity.


Urea Vs. Soybean Meal In Wintering And Finishing Rations For Beef Steers, D. Richardson, E.F. Smith, B.E. Brent Jan 1968

Urea Vs. Soybean Meal In Wintering And Finishing Rations For Beef Steers, D. Richardson, E.F. Smith, B.E. Brent

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A previous test using sorghum silage (Kans. Agri. Expt. Sta. Bull. 507:5, 1967) indicated that 3 pounds of grain per day in silage would supply enough available energy for reasonably good utilization of nonprotein nitrogen (urea). However, additional grain apparently increased the utilization of urea. This is the second test to obtain information on the minimum amount of readily available energy as grain necessary for efficient utilization of nonprotein nitrogen as a substitute for natural protein. During the wintering phase, the roughage was corn silage with an average of 38.5% dry matter. Grain made up 27% of the ...


Different Methods Of Managing Bluestem Pastures, E.F. Smith, Clenton E. Owensby, S.P. Kolstad Jan 1968

Different Methods Of Managing Bluestem Pastures, E.F. Smith, Clenton E. Owensby, S.P. Kolstad

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Studied were the effects of early season heavy stocking and burning on cattle performance, productivity of pastures and range condition as determined by plant population changes. The objective of early season heavy stocking at twice the normal rate for the first half the growing season is to obtain more gain per acre, have cattle available for dry lot finishing at mid summer and determine if the grass will recover the last half of the season. Forage quality is best early in the growing season.


Nutritive Value Of Forages As Affected By Soil And Climatic Differences, D. Richardson, F.G. Clary, Evans E. Banbury, C.W. Spaeth, A.B. Erhart, D.W. Arnett, Fred W. Boren, H.B. Perry Jan 1968

Nutritive Value Of Forages As Affected By Soil And Climatic Differences, D. Richardson, F.G. Clary, Evans E. Banbury, C.W. Spaeth, A.B. Erhart, D.W. Arnett, Fred W. Boren, H.B. Perry

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Four previous tests (Kans. Agri. Expt. Sta. Bull. 507:7, 1967) at Colby, Garden City, Manhattan, and Mound Valley, using beef steers from the same herd and feeding the same feedstuffs, grown locally, produced differences in performance. What is the cause(s) of the differences? This test was designed as previous ones, except that all locations used the same feed, which was produced at Garden City. Sorghum silage was dehydrated and pelleted for easier transportation. The calves were wintered on the silage pellets and alfalfa hay. Silage pellets were gradually removed from the ration and sorghum grain added for finishing ...


The Effects Of Feeding A High Concentrate Ration Containing 25% Ground Beef Manure To Fattening Heifers In Concrete And Soil-Surfaced Lots, C.L. Drake, L.I. Smart, E.F. Smith, R.I. Lipper Jan 1968

The Effects Of Feeding A High Concentrate Ration Containing 25% Ground Beef Manure To Fattening Heifers In Concrete And Soil-Surfaced Lots, C.L. Drake, L.I. Smart, E.F. Smith, R.I. Lipper

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

This is a cooperative project with the Department of Agricultural Engineering to study surface runoff, in addition to animal performance. Twenty Hereford heifers were randomly allotted to four equal sized lots: 2 surfaced with concrete and 2 with soil. Self-feeders in soil-surfaced lots have concrete aprons.


The Influence Of Marbling And Maturity On Beef Tenderness, H.J. Tuma, D. Grant, R. Covington Jan 1968

The Influence Of Marbling And Maturity On Beef Tenderness, H.J. Tuma, D. Grant, R. Covington

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The beef carcass quality grading system currently used has been challenged by many who say current standards are too high and that the amount of marbling to attain a given grade should be decreased.


The Cattle Feeding Industry Of Kansas, P. Phar Jan 1968

The Cattle Feeding Industry Of Kansas, P. Phar

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The Kansas cattle feeding industry has grown tremendously since 1956. The 1968 January Cattle on Feed Report shows more than ten times as many cattle in commercial feedlots as in 1956. Farm feedlots have also increased, but since 1966 over 50 percent of our cattle have been fed in lots with at least 1,000 head capacity.


The Value Of Chlortetracycline (Aureomycin) And Sulfamethazine Fed Independently And In Combination To Weanling Beef Calves Following Shipment, C.L. Drake, L.I. Smart, E.F. Smith Jan 1968

The Value Of Chlortetracycline (Aureomycin) And Sulfamethazine Fed Independently And In Combination To Weanling Beef Calves Following Shipment, C.L. Drake, L.I. Smart, E.F. Smith

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Two hundred weaning calves were received in two shipments and placed on experiment. The calves were weighed, ear tagged and tattooed as rapidly as possible after being received, and were treated as follows: Treatment A - No oral medication (Control) Treatment B - Fed 350 mg. sulfamethazinel per head daily Treatment C - Fed 350 mg. chlortetracycline per head daily Treatment D - Fed 350 mg. sulfamethazine and 350 mg. chlortetracycline per head daily The cattle were fed sorghum silage to consumption and 3 lbs. sorghum grain (containing the medication) per head daily. They were injected with 10cc Combiotic (penicillin and streptomycin) when fever ...


The Value Of An Artery Clamp To Dehorn Cattle, C.L. Drake, R.R. Schalles, C.W. Smith Jan 1968

The Value Of An Artery Clamp To Dehorn Cattle, C.L. Drake, R.R. Schalles, C.W. Smith

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A preliminary trail involving use of an artery clamp and a drawing and description of the clamp are reported in Bulletin 507. This trial involved 42 horned heifers owned and fed by a cooperating feedlot operator. The heifers were individually weighed and placed on these experimental treatments: 1. Control - not dehorned 2. Dehorned using clamp; arteries pulled 3. Dehorned not using clamp; arteries pulled All heifers were placed in one large lot and fed the same ration for 30 days after being dehorned.


High Protein Sorghum Grain With No Added Protein In All Concentrate Cattle Finishing Rations; Urea And Soybean Oil Meal In All Concentrate Rations, E.F. Smith, D. Richardson, C.L. Drake, B.E. Brent Jan 1968

High Protein Sorghum Grain With No Added Protein In All Concentrate Cattle Finishing Rations; Urea And Soybean Oil Meal In All Concentrate Rations, E.F. Smith, D. Richardson, C.L. Drake, B.E. Brent

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Trials at several research centers as well as in Kansas (Bulletin 483, page 32) have shown roughage may be satisfactorily omitted from finishing rations for cattle and doing so, often reduces feed required per pound of gain. That has made it feasible to try to finish cattle on all grain diet5, when the grain has sufficient protein, and to omit other protein sources as well as roughage. Other research on this subject is reported in Kansas Bulletins 493 and 507 and on page in this bulletin.


Improvement Of Beef Cattle Through Breeding Methods, W.H. Smith, J. Akinokun, R.R. Schalles Jan 1968

Improvement Of Beef Cattle Through Breeding Methods, W.H. Smith, J. Akinokun, R.R. Schalles

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Two inbred lines of purebred Shorthorn cattle were established and progressively developed, to study production traits and effects of inbreeding. Inbreeding was initiated in the Wernace Premier Line in 1949 and in the Mercury line in 1952. Both lines have remained closed to outside breeding since. Inbreeding has progressively increased as the result of successive generations of half sibbing.


The Effect Of Aureomycin And Sulmet Combinations In Feed On The Performance Of Cattle, P.A. Phar, P.R. Zimmer Jan 1968

The Effect Of Aureomycin And Sulmet Combinations In Feed On The Performance Of Cattle, P.A. Phar, P.R. Zimmer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Two feedlot trials were conducted during the summer of 1967 at the Morris Feed Yards, Marris, Kansas, to study effects of aureomycin (chlortetracycline) and sulfamethazine fed alone or in combination on weight gain, feed efficiency and general health of newly arrived feeder calves.


The Kansas Beef Cattle Improvement Program, H.W. Westmeyer, K.O. Zoellner Jan 1968

The Kansas Beef Cattle Improvement Program, H.W. Westmeyer, K.O. Zoellner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The Kansas Beef Cattle Improvement Program is to help improve beef cow herds in Kansas and to provide information that will be valuable to producers in selecting breeding animals and making management decisions. The program is not to encourage competition among herds. Environmental conditions vary from herd to herd so competitive among herds cannot be "under the same rules".


Sorghum Grain As The Only Protein Source In All-Concentrate Heifer Finishing Rations: Two Levels Of Year In An All-Concentrate Ration, E.F. Smith, D. Richardson, C.L. Drake, B.E. Brent Jan 1968

Sorghum Grain As The Only Protein Source In All-Concentrate Heifer Finishing Rations: Two Levels Of Year In An All-Concentrate Ration, E.F. Smith, D. Richardson, C.L. Drake, B.E. Brent

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Tests reporting on sorghum grain as the only protein source in a diet for finishing cattle are reported in Kansas Agr. Expt. Station Bulletins 493 and 507 and on page 24 in this bulletin. The three rations fed are show in table 10. The sorghum grain was obtained as needed at a local elevator, mixed with other ration ingredients at the Animal Husbandry elevator and delivered, usually in 2000 lb. loads to the self feeders when needed.


A Comparison Of All-In-One And Conventional Sorghum Silage With And Without Mga For Feedlot Heifers, L.I. Smart, C.L. Drake Jan 1968

A Comparison Of All-In-One And Conventional Sorghum Silage With And Without Mga For Feedlot Heifers, L.I. Smart, C.L. Drake

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Silage is being utilized in larger quantities in beef cattle growing and fattening rations. Hammes et al. (1964) showed that higher levels of corn silage can be used because gains from high silage and high grain rations are similar. However, more total digestible nutrients may be harvested per acre and the cost of gain is usually less with silage. Several investigators have shown advantages to certain additives with silage.


Effects Of Supplementing Corn Silage With Mga And Feeding Varying Levels Of Sorghum Grain To Feed-Lot Heifers, L.I. Smart, C.L. Drake Jan 1968

Effects Of Supplementing Corn Silage With Mga And Feeding Varying Levels Of Sorghum Grain To Feed-Lot Heifers, L.I. Smart, C.L. Drake

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Melengestrol acetate (MGA) 1S a new drug recently approved for use in the supplement portion of rations of feed-lot heifers. The recommended level is from 0.25 to 0.50 mg. per head per day. A 48-hour withdrawal period is required before slaughter. Several experiment stations have shown improved rate of gain, feed utilization and suppressed estrus in feed-lot heifers on high concentrate rations plus MGA.