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Elasticity Of Cylindrical Black Holes, Conrad Pearson 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Elasticity Of Cylindrical Black Holes, Conrad Pearson

Physics

Black holes are regions of strong gravity, and are often regarded as behaving like drops of fluid. When this line of thought is applied to cylindrical black holes (black cylinders), a mapping can be made between known instabilities for black cylinders and ordinary fluid cylinders. However, this known correlation is increasingly less accurate for lower spatial dimensions, and I seek to correct this discrepancy in this thesis. By considering soft solids instead of pure fluids, elastic energy can be included, which brings us closer to a direct comparison. In improving this mapping, it becomes possible to better understand the behavior ...


Quantum Dot Band Gap Measurements, John Ryan Peterson 2016 Brigham Young University - Provo

Quantum Dot Band Gap Measurements, John Ryan Peterson

All Student Publications

This presentation was given during the summer of 2016 as part of the BYU REU program funded by the NSF. Here I give a brief explanation of our quantum dot synthesis as well as explain the use of absorption spectroscopy to measure indirect band gap energies of semiconductors. Our experimental setup is shown and recent improvements are explained. We report indirect band gaps of quantum dots containing varying amounts of cobalt oxide and manganese oxide and synthesized in the protein ferritin. The data show that the band gap can be tuned arbitrarily in a certain range by varying the concentrations ...


Direct Band Gap Measurements, John Ryan Peterson 2016 Brigham Young University - Provo

Direct Band Gap Measurements, John Ryan Peterson

All Student Publications

This presentation was given during the summer of 2016 as part of the BYU REU program funded by the NSF. Here I give a brief explanation of our quantum dot synthesis and then explain the mechanism of photoluminsecence used to measure indirect band gap energies of semiconductors. Our experimental setup is shown. Direct band gaps of lead sulfide quantum dots synthesized in ferritin are reported. The data show that the band gap can be tuned arbitrarily in a certain range by varying the concentrations of the reactants. We compare stability of quantum dots in ferritin to quantum dots synthesized without ...


Determining The Index Of Refraction Of Aluminum Fluoride In The Ultra Violet Spectrum, Zoe Hughes 2016 Brigham Young University

Determining The Index Of Refraction Of Aluminum Fluoride In The Ultra Violet Spectrum, Zoe Hughes

All Student Publications

A NASA project called Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR) is looking into ways to coat a mirror for a new space telescope. We contributed to this project by investigating aluminum fluoride (AlF3) as a possible coating for the mirror. We measured the index of refraction of AlF3 in the wavelength range 6 – 49.5 nm by testing three sample mirrors, each made up of a silicon wafer with a coating of AlF3. We took data at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley, California and in the laboratory at Brigham Young University (BYU). There are discrepancies ...


The Sdss–2mass–Wise 10 Dimensional Stellar Color Locus, James R. A. Davenport, Željko Ivezić, Andrew C. Becker, John J. Ruan, Nicholas M. Hunt-Walker, Kevin R. Covey, Alexia R. Lewis, Yusra AlSayyad, Lauren M. Anderson 2016 Western Washington University

The Sdss–2mass–Wise 10 Dimensional Stellar Color Locus, James R. A. Davenport, Željko Ivezić, Andrew C. Becker, John J. Ruan, Nicholas M. Hunt-Walker, Kevin R. Covey, Alexia R. Lewis, Yusra Alsayyad, Lauren M. Anderson

James Davenport

We present the fiducial main-sequence stellar locus traced by 10 photometric colours observed by Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer(WISE). Median colours are determined using 1052 793 stars with r-band extinction less than 0.125. We use this locus to measure the dust extinction curve relative to the r band, which is consistent with previous measurements in the SDSS and 2MASS bands. The WISE band extinction coefficients are larger than predicted by standard extinction models. Using 13 lines of sight, we find variations in the extinction curve in H ...


Improved Photometric Calibrations For Red Stars Observed With The Sdss Photometric Telescope, James R. A. Davenport, John J. Bochanski, Kevin R. Covey, Suzanne L. Hawley, Andrew A. West, Doanld P. Schneider 2016 Western Washington University

Improved Photometric Calibrations For Red Stars Observed With The Sdss Photometric Telescope, James R. A. Davenport, John J. Bochanski, Kevin R. Covey, Suzanne L. Hawley, Andrew A. West, Doanld P. Schneider

James Davenport

We present a new set of photometric transformations for red stars observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 0.5 m Photometric Telescope (PT) and the SDSS 2.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico. Nightly PT observations of US Naval Observatory standards are used to determine extinction corrections and calibration terms for SDSS 2.5 m photometry. Systematic differences between the PT and native SDSS 2.5 m ugriz photometry require conversions between the two systems which have previously been undefined for the reddest stars. By matching ~43,000 stars observed with both the ...


Death Of A Cluster: The Destruction Of M67 As Seen By The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, James R. A. Davenport, Eric L. Sandquist 2016 Western Washington University

Death Of A Cluster: The Destruction Of M67 As Seen By The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, James R. A. Davenport, Eric L. Sandquist

James Davenport

We probe the spatial and dynamical structure of the old open cluster M67 using photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's sixth data release. Making use of an optimal contrast, or matched filter, algorithm, we map the distribution of high probability members of M67. We find an extended and elongated halo of likely members to a radius of nearly 60'. Our measured core radius of R core = 824 ± 060 is somewhat larger than that of previous estimates. We attribute the larger core radius measurement to the SDSS probing lower mass main sequence stars than has been done before ...


Kepler Flares Ii: The Temporal Morphology Of White-Light Flares On Gj 1243, James R. A. Davenport, Suzanne L. Hawley, Leslie Hebb, John P. Wisniewski, Adam F. Kowalski, Emily C. Johnson, Michael Malatesta, Jesus Paraza, Marcus Keil, Steven M. Silverberg, Tiffany C. Jansen, Matthew S. Scheffler, Jodi R. Berdis, Daniel M. Larsen, Eric J. Hilton 2016 Western Washington University

Kepler Flares Ii: The Temporal Morphology Of White-Light Flares On Gj 1243, James R. A. Davenport, Suzanne L. Hawley, Leslie Hebb, John P. Wisniewski, Adam F. Kowalski, Emily C. Johnson, Michael Malatesta, Jesus Paraza, Marcus Keil, Steven M. Silverberg, Tiffany C. Jansen, Matthew S. Scheffler, Jodi R. Berdis, Daniel M. Larsen, Eric J. Hilton

James Davenport

We present the largest sample of flares ever compiled for a single M dwarf, the active M4 star GJ 1243. Over 6100 individual flare events, with energies ranging from 1029 to 1033 erg, are found in 11 months of 1 minute cadence data from Kepler. This sample is unique for its completeness and dynamic range. We have developed automated tools for finding flares in short-cadence Kepler light curves, and performed extensive validation and classification of the sample by eye. From this pristine sample of flares we generate a median flare template. This template shows that two exponential cooling ...


Sdss J14584479+3720215: A Benchmark Jhks Blazar Light Curve From The 2mass Calibration Scans, James R. A. Davenport, John J. Ruan, Andrew C. Becker, Chelsea L. MaCleod, Roc M. Cutri 2016 Western Washington University

Sdss J14584479+3720215: A Benchmark Jhks Blazar Light Curve From The 2mass Calibration Scans, James R. A. Davenport, John J. Ruan, Andrew C. Becker, Chelsea L. Macleod, Roc M. Cutri

James Davenport

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are well-known to exhibit flux variability across a wide range of wavelength regimes, but the precise origin of the variability at different wavelengths remains unclear. To investigate the relatively unexplored near-IR (NIR) variability of the most luminous AGNs, we conduct a search for variability using well sampled JHKs-band light curves from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) calibration fields. Our sample includes 27 known quasars with an average of 924 epochs of observation over three years, as well as one spectroscopically confirmed blazar (SDSS J14584479+3720215) with 1972 epochs of data. This is the best-sampled ...


The Kepler Catalog Of Stellar Flares, James R. A. Davenport 2016 Western Washington University

The Kepler Catalog Of Stellar Flares, James R. A. Davenport

James Davenport

A homogeneous search for stellar flares has been performed using every available Kepler light curve. An iterative light curve de-trending approach was used to filter out both astrophysical and systematic variability to detect flares. The flare recovery completeness has also been computed throughout each light curve using artificial flare injection tests, and the tools for this work have been made publicly available. The final sample contains 851,168 candidate flare events recovered above the 68% completeness threshold, which were detected from 4041 stars, or 1.9% of the stars in the Kepler database. The average flare energy detected is ~1035 ...


Multi-Wavelength Characterization Of Stellar Flares On Low-Mass Stars Using Sdss And 2mass Time Domain Surveys, James R. A. Davenport, Andrew C. Becker, Adam F. Kowalski, Suzanne L. Hawley, Sarah J. Schmidt, Eric J. Hilton, Branimir Sesar, Roc Cutri 2016 Western Washington University

Multi-Wavelength Characterization Of Stellar Flares On Low-Mass Stars Using Sdss And 2mass Time Domain Surveys, James R. A. Davenport, Andrew C. Becker, Adam F. Kowalski, Suzanne L. Hawley, Sarah J. Schmidt, Eric J. Hilton, Branimir Sesar, Roc Cutri

James Davenport

We present the first rates of flares from M dwarf stars in both red optical and near-infrared (NIR) filters. We have studied ~50,000 M dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 area and 1321 M dwarfs from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) Calibration Scan Point Source Working Database that overlap SDSS imaging fields. We assign photometric spectral types from M0 to M6 using (ri) and (iz) colors for every star in our sample. Stripe 82 stars each have 50-100 epochs of data, while 2MASS Calibration stars have ~1900 epochs. From these data ...


Detecting Differential Rotation And Starspot Evolution On The M Dwarf Gj 1243 With Kepler, James R. A. Davenport, Leslie Hebb, Suzanne L. Hawley 2016 Western Washington University

Detecting Differential Rotation And Starspot Evolution On The M Dwarf Gj 1243 With Kepler, James R. A. Davenport, Leslie Hebb, Suzanne L. Hawley

James Davenport

We present an analysis of the starspots on the active M4 dwarf GJ 1243, using 4 years of time series photometry from Kepler. A rapid P = 0.592596 ± 0.00021 days rotation period is measured due to the ~2.2% starspot-induced flux modulations in the light curve. We first use a light curve modeling approach, using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain sampler to solve for the longitudes and radii of the two spots within 5 day windows of data. Within each window of time the starspots are assumed to be unchanging. Only a weak constraint on the starspot latitudes can ...


The Very Short Period M Dwarf Binary Sdss J001641–000925, James R. A. Davenport, Andrew C. Becker, Andrew A. West, John J. Bochanski, Suzanne L. Hawley, Jon Holtzman, Heather C. Gunning, Eric J. Hilton, Ferah A. Munshi, Meagan Albright 2016 Western Washington University

The Very Short Period M Dwarf Binary Sdss J001641–000925, James R. A. Davenport, Andrew C. Becker, Andrew A. West, John J. Bochanski, Suzanne L. Hawley, Jon Holtzman, Heather C. Gunning, Eric J. Hilton, Ferah A. Munshi, Meagan Albright

James Davenport

We present follow-up observations and analysis of the recently discovered short period low-mass eclipsing binary, SDSS J001641–000925. With an orbital period of 0.19856 days, this system has one of the shortest known periods for an M dwarf binary system. Medium-resolution spectroscopy and multi-band photometry for the system are presented. Markov Chain Monte Carlo modeling of the light curves and radial velocities yields estimated masses for the stars of M 1 = 0.54 ± 0.07 M ☉ and M 2 = 0.34 ± 0.04 M ☉, and radii of R 1 = 0.68 ± 0.03 R ☉ and R 2 = 0.58 ...


Most Observations Of Our Nearest Neighbor: Flares On Proxima Centauri, James R. A. Davenport, David M. Kipping, Dimitar Sasselov, Jaymie M. Matthews, Chris Cameron 2016 Western Washington University

Most Observations Of Our Nearest Neighbor: Flares On Proxima Centauri, James R. A. Davenport, David M. Kipping, Dimitar Sasselov, Jaymie M. Matthews, Chris Cameron

James Davenport

We present a study of white-light flares from the active M5.5 dwarf Proxima Centauri using the Canadian microsatellite Microvariability and Oscillations of STars. Using 37.6 days of monitoring data from 2014 to 2015, we have detected 66 individual flare events, the largest number of white-light flares observed to date on Proxima Cen. Flare energies in our sample range from 1029 to 1031.5erg. The flare rate is lower than that of other classic flare stars of a similar spectral type, such as UV Ceti, which may indicate Proxima Cen had a higher flare rate in ...


Commercial Space Situational Awareness (Ssa) Capabilities And Their Benefits For Civilian Space Traffic Management (Stm), Mark A. Skinner 2016 Boeing

Commercial Space Situational Awareness (Ssa) Capabilities And Their Benefits For Civilian Space Traffic Management (Stm), Mark A. Skinner

Space Traffic Management Conference

Paralleling (but lagging) satellite development, SSA, long the sole domain of sophisticated militaries, now includes commercial providers. These commercial capabilities, identified as beneficial to the sustainable use of outer space[1], have demonstrated technical sophistication sufficient to positively contribute to the mitigation of satellite interference and provide actionable SSA information. Utilizing small optical telescopes, these entities are able to determine the orbits of objects in the geosynchronous orbit (GSO) to sizes as small as 1 m2, with measured positional uncertainties of 10s of meters, on the order of the size of a modern communications satellite. These techniques can benefit ...


Rainich Conditions In (2+1)-Dimensional Gravity, Dionisios Krongos, Charles G. Torre 2016 Selected Works

Rainich Conditions In (2+1)-Dimensional Gravity, Dionisios Krongos, Charles G. Torre

Charles G. Torre

In (3 + 1) spacetime dimensions the Rainich conditions are a set of equations expressed solely in terms of the metric tensor which are equivalent to the Einstein-Maxwell equations for non-null electromagnetic fields. Here we provide the analogous conditions for (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity coupled to electromagnetism. Both the non-null and null cases are treated. The construction of these conditions is based upon reducing the problem to that of gravity coupled to a scalar field, which we have treated elsewhere. These conditions can be easily extended to other theories of (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity. For example, we apply the geometrization conditions ...


The Mid-Infrared Luminosity Evolution And Luminosity Function Of Quasars With Wise And Sdss, Jack Singal 2016 University of Richmond

The Mid-Infrared Luminosity Evolution And Luminosity Function Of Quasars With Wise And Sdss, Jack Singal

Physics Faculty Publications

We determine the 22 μm luminosity evolution and luminosity function for quasars from a data set of over 20,000 objects obtained by combining flux-limited Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical and Wide field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-infrared data. We apply methods developed in previous works to access the intrinsic population distributions non-parametrically, taking into account the truncations and correlations inherent in the data. We find that the population of quasars exhibits positive luminosity evolution with redshift in the mid-infrared, but with considerably less mid-infrared evolution than in the optical or radio bands. With the luminosity evolutions accounted for, we ...


Siuc Dark Site Observatory, Teresa M. Meyer Ms. 2016 Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Siuc Dark Site Observatory, Teresa M. Meyer Ms.

ASA Multidisciplinary Research Symposium

A joint venture between the SIUC Physics department, which houses the astronomy curriculum, and the Architecture department has begun the planning for the two upcoming total solar eclipses in 2017 and 2024.


Search For Gravitational Wave Ringdowns From Perturbed Intermediate Mass Black Holes In Ligo-Virgo Data From 2005-2010, Tiffany Summerscales 2016 Andrews University

Search For Gravitational Wave Ringdowns From Perturbed Intermediate Mass Black Holes In Ligo-Virgo Data From 2005-2010, Tiffany Summerscales

Tiffany Summerscales

We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as ringdowns, with frequency 50≤f0/Hz≤2000 and decay timescale 0.0001≲τ/s≲0.1 characteristic of those produced in mergers of IMBH pairs. No significant gravitational wave candidate was detected. We report upper limits on the astrophysical coalescence rates of IMBHs with total binary mass 50≤M/M⊙≤450 and component mass ratios ...


Gravitational Waves From Known Pulsars: Results From The Initial Detector Era, Tiffany Summerscales 2016 Andrews University

Gravitational Waves From Known Pulsars: Results From The Initial Detector Era, Tiffany Summerscales

Tiffany Summerscales

We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and ...


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