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Real-Time Rfi Mitigation In Radio Astronomy, Emily Ramey, Nick Joslyn, Richard Prestage, Michael Lam, Luke Hawkins, Tim Blattner, Mark Whitehead 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Real-Time Rfi Mitigation In Radio Astronomy, Emily Ramey, Nick Joslyn, Richard Prestage, Michael Lam, Luke Hawkins, Tim Blattner, Mark Whitehead

Senior Honors Papers / Undergraduate Theses

As the use of wireless technology has increased around the world, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) has become more and more of a problem for radio astronomers. Preventative measures exist to limit the presence of RFI, and programs exist to remove it from saved data, but the use of algorithms to detect and remove RFI as an observation is occurring is much less common. Such a method would be incredibly useful for observations in which the data must undergo several rounds of processing before being saved, as in pulsar timing studies. Strategies for real-time mitigation have been discussed and tested with ...


Strong Evidence For The Density-Wave Theory Of Spiral Structure From A Multi-Wavelength Study Of Disk Galaxies, Hamed Pour-Imani 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Strong Evidence For The Density-Wave Theory Of Spiral Structure From A Multi-Wavelength Study Of Disk Galaxies, Hamed Pour-Imani

Theses and Dissertations

The density-wave theory of spiral structure, though first proposed as long ago as the mid-1960s by C.C. Lin and F. Shu (Lin & Shu, 1964; Bertin & Lin, 1996; Shu, 2016), continues to be challenged by rival theories, such as the manifold theory. One test of these theories which has been proposed is that the pitch angle of spiral arms for galaxies should vary with the wavelength of the image in the density-wave theory, but not in the manifold theory. The reason is that stars are born in the density wave but move out of it as they age. In this dissertation, I combined large ...


Affine Symmetry, Geodesics, And Homogeneous Spacetimes, David Maughan, Charles G. Torre 2018 Utah State University

Affine Symmetry, Geodesics, And Homogeneous Spacetimes, David Maughan, Charles G. Torre

Charles G. Torre

We show that the conservation laws for the geodesic equation which are associated to affine symmetries can be obtained from symmetries of the Lagrangian for affinely parametrized geodesics according to Noether’s theorem, in contrast to claims found in the literature. In particular, using Aminova’s classification of affine motions of Lorentzian manifolds, we show in detail how affine motions define generalized symmetries of the geodesic Lagrangian. We compute all infinitesimal proper affine symmetries and the corresponding geodesic conservation laws for all homogeneous solutions to the Einstein field equations in four spacetime dimensions with each of the following energy–momentum ...


The Proposed Origin Of Our Solar System With Planet Migration, Wayne R. Spencer 2018 Cedarville University

The Proposed Origin Of Our Solar System With Planet Migration, Wayne R. Spencer

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Two new models to explain the origin and history of our solar system are reviewed from a creation perspective, the Grand Tack model and the Nice model. These new theories propose that the four outer planets formed closer to the Sun, as well as closer together, than today. Then their orbits underwent periods of migration. Theories developed in the research on extrasolar planet systems are today being applied to our own solar system. The new migration models are finding much support from the planetary science community. These new models are summarized and evaluated Biblically and scientifically. Rather than demonstrating how ...


Consistent Young Earth Relativistic Cosmology, Phillip W. Dennis 2018 Unaffiliated

Consistent Young Earth Relativistic Cosmology, Phillip W. Dennis

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

We present a young earth creationist (YEC) model of creation that is consistent with distant light from distant objects in the cosmos. We discuss the reality of time from theological/philosophical foundations. This results in the rejection of the idealist viewpoint of relativity and the recognition of the reality of the flow of time and the existence of a single cosmological “now.” We begin the construction of the YEC cosmology with an examination of the “chronological enigmas” of the inhomogeneous solutions of the Einstein field equations (EFE) of General Relativity (GR). For this analysis we construct an inhomogeneous model by ...


The Current State Of Creation Astronomy Ii, Danny R. Faulkner 2018 Answers in Genesis

The Current State Of Creation Astronomy Ii, Danny R. Faulkner

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

It has been nearly twenty years since the previous review of the state of creation astronomy. Since then, much progress has occurred in developing a creation model of astronomy, and some of the recommendations of that earlier review have been carried out. Both the number of papers on astronomical topics published in the creation literature and their depth of coverage have increased tremendously. There has been less concern with criticism of evolutionary ideas as creationists have begun to develop their own models of astronomy. While emphasis on indicators of recent origin is not as great as it used to be ...


Finite Element Analysis Of Large Body Deformation Induced By A Catastrophic Near Impact Event, Denver W. Seely, Andrew Bowman, Heechen Cho, Mark Horstemeyer 2018 Mississippi State University

Finite Element Analysis Of Large Body Deformation Induced By A Catastrophic Near Impact Event, Denver W. Seely, Andrew Bowman, Heechen Cho, Mark Horstemeyer

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Finite element simulations of near impacts of terrestrial bodies are presented to investigate possible deformation behavior induced by a massive body during the creation week and/or Genesis Flood. Using the universal law of gravitation, a gravitationally loaded objected is subjected to the ‘pull’ of a near passing fly-by object, and the resulting surface deformations are studied. An Internal State Variable (ISV) pressure dependent plasticity model for silicate rocks (Cho et al., 2018) is used to model the deformation behavior and to capture the history effects involved during the complex surface loading/unloading found in a near impact event. The ...


Bayesian Hierarchical Modelling Of Initial-Final Mass Relations Across Star Clusters, Shijing Si, David A. van Dyk, Ted von Hippel, Elliot Robinson, Elizabeth Jeffery, David C. Stenning 2018 Imperial College London

Bayesian Hierarchical Modelling Of Initial-Final Mass Relations Across Star Clusters, Shijing Si, David A. Van Dyk, Ted Von Hippel, Elliot Robinson, Elizabeth Jeffery, David C. Stenning

Publications

The initial-final mass relation (IFMR) of white dwarfs (WDs) plays an important role in stellar evolution. To derive precise estimates of IFMRs and explore how they may vary among star clusters, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model that pools photometric data from multiple star clusters. After performing a simulation study to show the benefits of the Bayesian hierarchical model, we apply this model to five star clusters: the Hyades, M67, NGC 188, NGC 2168, and NGC 2477, leading to reasonable and consistent estimates of IFMRs for these clusters. We illustrate how a cluster-specific analysis of NGC 188 using its own ...


Gamma-Ray Burst Classification: New Insights From Mining Pulse Data, Stanley McAfee, Jon Hakkila 2018 College of Charleston

Gamma-Ray Burst Classification: New Insights From Mining Pulse Data, Stanley Mcafee, Jon Hakkila

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Despite being the most energetic electromagnetic explosions in the universe, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are still poorly understood. The literature recognizes two potentially different types of GRB progenitors, although statistical data suggest the existence of three GRB classes. Reliable inference of GRB physics depends on the identification of appropriate classification attributes, as well as on the statistical classification techniques used. It has recently been shown that pulses are the basic unit of GRB emission. We use new data describing GRB pulse characteristics, in conjunction with data mining tools, to provide a more reliable gamma-ray burst classification system and place additional constraints ...


Fermi-Bounce Cosmology And Scale-Invariant Power Spectrum, Stephon Alexander, Cosimo Bambi, Antonino Marcianò, Leonardo Modesto 2018 Dartmouth College

Fermi-Bounce Cosmology And Scale-Invariant Power Spectrum, Stephon Alexander, Cosimo Bambi, Antonino Marcianò, Leonardo Modesto

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

We develop a non-singular bouncing cosmology using a non-trivial coupling of general relativity to fermionic fields. The usual Big Bang singularity is avoided thanks to a negative energy density contribution from the fermions. Our theory is ghost-free since the fermionic operator that generates the bounce is equivalent to torsion, which has no kinetic terms. The physical system consists of standard general relativity plus a topological sector for gravity, and fermionic matter described by Dirac fields with a non-minimal coupling. We show that a scale invariant power-spectrum generated in the contracting phase can be recovered by suitable choice s of fermion ...


What Powered The Optical Transient At2017gfo Associated With Gw170817?, Shao-Ze Li, Liang-Duan Liu, Yun-Wei Yu, Bing Zhang 2018 Central China Normal University; University of Nevada, Las Vegas

What Powered The Optical Transient At2017gfo Associated With Gw170817?, Shao-Ze Li, Liang-Duan Liu, Yun-Wei Yu, Bing Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The groundbreaking discovery of the optical transient AT2017gfo associated with GW170817 opens a unique opportunity to study the physics of double neutron star (NS) mergers. We argue that the standard interpretation of AT2017gfo as being powered by radioactive decay of r-process elements faces the challenge of simultaneously accounting for the peak luminosity and peak time of the event, as it is not easy to achieve the required high mass, and especially the low opacity of the ejecta required to fit the data. A plausible solution would be to invoke an additional energy source, which is probably provided by the merger ...


Use Of Phase And Amplitude Gradient Estimation For Acoustic Source Characterization And Localization, Joseph Scott Lawrence 2018 Brigham Young University

Use Of Phase And Amplitude Gradient Estimation For Acoustic Source Characterization And Localization, Joseph Scott Lawrence

All Theses and Dissertations

Energy-based acoustic quantities provide vital information about acoustic fields and the characterization of acoustic sources. Recently, the phase and amplitude gradient estimator (PAGE) method has been developed to reduce error and extend bandwidth of energy-based quantity estimates. To inform uses and applications of the method, analytical and experimental characterizations of the method are presented. Analytical PAGE method bias errors are compared with those of traditional estimation for two- and three-microphone one-dimensional probes. For a monopole field when phase unwrapping is possible, zero bias error is achieved for active intensity using three-microphone PAGE and for specific acoustic impedance using two-microphone PAGE ...


Characterization Of Eight Potentially Hazardous Near Earth Asteroids: Rotation Period Analysis And Structure Modeling Via Light Curve Inversion Techniques, Stacy Jo Hicks 2018 Western Kentucky University

Characterization Of Eight Potentially Hazardous Near Earth Asteroids: Rotation Period Analysis And Structure Modeling Via Light Curve Inversion Techniques, Stacy Jo Hicks

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The term “homeland security”, seems to have become synonymous with terrorism in the minds of the general public. However, there are other threats to the security of the United States homeland that can be just as, if not more, devastating than terrorism. Included among these other threats is the potential of an asteroid collision with Earth. Historically, asteroid impact events have been responsible for the devastation of our planet and many of the mass extinction events encountered throughout the geologic record. Knowledge of physical parameters such as structure and rotational dynamics of the asteroid are critical parameters in developing interception ...


A Wave From Einstein, 2018 DePaul University

A Wave From Einstein

DePaul Magazine

The discovery in 2015 of gravitational waves 100 years after Albert Einstein predicted their existence gave scientists a new way of understanding the universe. This discovery, made possible by decades of work and the collaborative efforts of astrophysicists around the world offers a window into how science advances. The concept of science as a way of knowing is discussed.


Lp 133-373: A New Chromospherically Active Eclipsing Dme Binary With A Distant, Cool White Dwarf Companion, Todd R. Vaccaro, A. Kawka, T. D. Oswalt, I. Silver, M. Wood, J. Allyn Smith 2018 St. Cloud State University

Lp 133-373: A New Chromospherically Active Eclipsing Dme Binary With A Distant, Cool White Dwarf Companion, Todd R. Vaccaro, A. Kawka, T. D. Oswalt, I. Silver, M. Wood, J. Allyn Smith

Terry D. Oswalt

We report the discovery of the partially eclipsing binary LP 133-373. Nearly identical eclipses along with observed photometric colors and spectroscopy indicate that it is a pair of chromospherically active dM4 stars in a circular 1.6 day orbit. Light and velocity curve modeling to our differential photometry and velocity data show that each star has a mass and radius of 0.340+/-0.014 Msolar and 0.33+/-0.02 Rsolar. The binary is itself part of a common proper motion pair with LP 133-374, a cool DC or possible DA white dwarf with a mass of ...


Low Resolution Hi Imaging Of The Shield Galaxies, Masao L. Miazzo 2018 Macalester College

Low Resolution Hi Imaging Of The Shield Galaxies, Masao L. Miazzo

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

We present low-resolution Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array D-configuration HI spectral line observations of 32 previously unobserved local-volume low-mass dwarf galaxies in the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD). SHIELD was designed to probe the physical characteristics of the objects that inhabit the faint end of the HI mass function as populated by the ALFALFA blind HI extragalactic survey. These low angular-resolution images localize the HI-gas and provide the first glimpse of the neutral interstellar medium in these sources. We quantify the total HI mass of each system, and, using SDSS imaging, we compare the HI and ...


Modeling Recombination In Solar Cells, Paul Chery 2018 Macalester College

Modeling Recombination In Solar Cells, Paul Chery

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Solar cells are a competitive alternative to nonrenewable energy sources such as fossil fuels. However, the efficiency of these devices is limited by photogenerated carrier recombination. We use a finite difference numerical model to study recombination phenomena in the absorber layer of solar cells including alternate recombination models and the effects of spatial distribution of recombination centers. We compare the effect of using the constant lifetime approximation for recombination to the full Shockley-Read-Hall expression in Silicon solar cells and find that the constant lifetime approximation holds for high defect densities but not for high photon flux densities. Finally, we simulate ...


How Many Quasars Have Extremely High Velocity Outflows?, Carla P. Quintero, Sean S. Haas, Paola Rodriguez Hidalgo 2018 Humboldt State University

How Many Quasars Have Extremely High Velocity Outflows?, Carla P. Quintero, Sean S. Haas, Paola Rodriguez Hidalgo

IdeaFest: Interdisciplinary Journal of Creative Works and Research from Humboldt State University

No abstract provided.


Searching For A Connection Between Radio Emission And Uv/Optical Absorption In Quasars, Sean S. Haas, Carla P. Quintero, Paola Rodriguez Hidalgo 2018 Humboldt State University

Searching For A Connection Between Radio Emission And Uv/Optical Absorption In Quasars, Sean S. Haas, Carla P. Quintero, Paola Rodriguez Hidalgo

IdeaFest: Interdisciplinary Journal of Creative Works and Research from Humboldt State University

No abstract provided.


The Eccentric Cavity, Triple Rings, Two-Armed Spirals, And Double Clumps Of The Mwc 758 Disk, Ruobing Dong, Sheng-yuan Liu, Josh Eisner, Sean Andrews, Jeffrey Fung, Zhauhuan Zhu, Eugene Chiang, Jun Hashimoto, Hauyu Baobab Liu, Simon Casassus, Thomas Esposito, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Takayuki Muto, Yaroslav Pavlyuchenkov, David Wilner, Eiji Akiyama, Motohide Tamura, John Wisniewski 2018 University of Arizona; Academia Sinica

The Eccentric Cavity, Triple Rings, Two-Armed Spirals, And Double Clumps Of The Mwc 758 Disk, Ruobing Dong, Sheng-Yuan Liu, Josh Eisner, Sean Andrews, Jeffrey Fung, Zhauhuan Zhu, Eugene Chiang, Jun Hashimoto, Hauyu Baobab Liu, Simon Casassus, Thomas Esposito, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Takayuki Muto, Yaroslav Pavlyuchenkov, David Wilner, Eiji Akiyama, Motohide Tamura, John Wisniewski

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Spatially resolved structures in protoplanetary disks hint at unseen planets. Previous imaging observations of the transitional disk around MWC 758 revealed an inner cavity, a ring-like outer disk, emission clumps, and spiral arms, all possibly generated by companions. We present ALMA dust continuum observations of MWC 758 at 0.87 mm wavelength with 43 × 39 mas angular resolution (6.9 × 6.2 au) and 20 μJy beam−1 rms. The central submillimeter emission cavity is revealed to be eccentric; once deprojected, its outer edge can be well fitted by an ellipse with an eccentricity of 0.1 and one focus ...


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