Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Astrophysics and Astronomy Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

6,120 Full-Text Articles 14,546 Authors 373,058 Downloads 172 Institutions

All Articles in Astrophysics and Astronomy

Faceted Search

6,120 full-text articles. Page 5 of 184.

Low Resolution Hi Imaging Of The Shield Galaxies, Masao L. Miazzo 2018 Macalester College

Low Resolution Hi Imaging Of The Shield Galaxies, Masao L. Miazzo

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

We present low-resolution Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array D-configuration HI spectral line observations of 32 previously unobserved local-volume low-mass dwarf galaxies in the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD). SHIELD was designed to probe the physical characteristics of the objects that inhabit the faint end of the HI mass function as populated by the ALFALFA blind HI extragalactic survey. These low angular-resolution images localize the HI-gas and provide the first glimpse of the neutral interstellar medium in these sources. We quantify the total HI mass of each system, and, using SDSS imaging, we compare the HI and ...


Modeling Recombination In Solar Cells, Paul Chery 2018 Macalester College

Modeling Recombination In Solar Cells, Paul Chery

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Solar cells are a competitive alternative to nonrenewable energy sources such as fossil fuels. However, the efficiency of these devices is limited by photogenerated carrier recombination. We use a finite difference numerical model to study recombination phenomena in the absorber layer of solar cells including alternate recombination models and the effects of spatial distribution of recombination centers. We compare the effect of using the constant lifetime approximation for recombination to the full Shockley-Read-Hall expression in Silicon solar cells and find that the constant lifetime approximation holds for high defect densities but not for high photon flux densities. Finally, we simulate ...


How Many Quasars Have Extremely High Velocity Outflows?, Carla P. Quintero, Sean S. Haas, Paola Rodriguez Hidalgo 2018 Humboldt State University

How Many Quasars Have Extremely High Velocity Outflows?, Carla P. Quintero, Sean S. Haas, Paola Rodriguez Hidalgo

IdeaFest: Interdisciplinary Journal of Creative Works and Research from Humboldt State University

No abstract provided.


Searching For A Connection Between Radio Emission And Uv/Optical Absorption In Quasars, Sean S. Haas, Carla P. Quintero, Paola Rodriguez Hidalgo 2018 Humboldt State University

Searching For A Connection Between Radio Emission And Uv/Optical Absorption In Quasars, Sean S. Haas, Carla P. Quintero, Paola Rodriguez Hidalgo

IdeaFest: Interdisciplinary Journal of Creative Works and Research from Humboldt State University

No abstract provided.


Polar Alignment Of A Protoplanetary Disc Around An Eccentric Binary - Ii. Effect Of Binary And Disc Parameters, Rebecca G. Martin, Stephen H. Lubow 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Polar Alignment Of A Protoplanetary Disc Around An Eccentric Binary - Ii. Effect Of Binary And Disc Parameters, Rebecca G. Martin, Stephen H. Lubow

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

In a recent paper Martin & Lubow showed that a circumbinary disc around an eccentric binary can undergo damped nodal oscillations that lead to the polar (perpendicular) alignment of the disc relative to the binary orbit. The disc angular momentum vector aligns to the eccentricity vector of the binary. We explore the robustness of this mechanism for a low-mass disc (0.001 of the binary mass) and its dependence on system parameters by means of hydrodynamic disc simulations. We describe how the evolution depends upon the disc viscosity, temperature, size, binary mass ratio, orbital eccentricity, and inclination. We compare results with ...


The Eccentric Cavity, Triple Rings, Two-Armed Spirals, And Double Clumps Of The Mwc 758 Disk, Ruobing Dong, Sheng-yuan Liu, Josh Eisner, Sean Andrews, Jeffrey Fung, Zhauhuan Zhu, Eugene Chiang, Jun Hashimoto, Hauyu Baobab Liu, Simon Casassus, Thomas Esposito, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Takayuki Muto, Yaroslav Pavlyuchenkov, David Wilner, Eiji Akiyama, Motohide Tamura, John Wisniewski 2018 University of Arizona; Academia Sinica

The Eccentric Cavity, Triple Rings, Two-Armed Spirals, And Double Clumps Of The Mwc 758 Disk, Ruobing Dong, Sheng-Yuan Liu, Josh Eisner, Sean Andrews, Jeffrey Fung, Zhauhuan Zhu, Eugene Chiang, Jun Hashimoto, Hauyu Baobab Liu, Simon Casassus, Thomas Esposito, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Takayuki Muto, Yaroslav Pavlyuchenkov, David Wilner, Eiji Akiyama, Motohide Tamura, John Wisniewski

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Spatially resolved structures in protoplanetary disks hint at unseen planets. Previous imaging observations of the transitional disk around MWC 758 revealed an inner cavity, a ring-like outer disk, emission clumps, and spiral arms, all possibly generated by companions. We present ALMA dust continuum observations of MWC 758 at 0.87 mm wavelength with 43 × 39 mas angular resolution (6.9 × 6.2 au) and 20 μJy beam−1 rms. The central submillimeter emission cavity is revealed to be eccentric; once deprojected, its outer edge can be well fitted by an ellipse with an eccentricity of 0.1 and one focus ...


Spatial Thinking In Astronomy Education Research, Merryn Cole, Cheryl Cole, Jennifer Wilhelm, Rebecca Lindell 2018 University of Nevada - Las Vegas

Spatial Thinking In Astronomy Education Research, Merryn Cole, Cheryl Cole, Jennifer Wilhelm, Rebecca Lindell

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Faculty Publications

This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Astronomy Education Research.] Multiple studies show that spatial thinking skills contribute to students’ performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. The study of astronomy is no different with the understanding of many astronomical phenomena requiring spatial thinking skills. This paper describes traditional and contemporary approaches to characterizing and measuring spatial thinking skills and suggests how they inform research in astronomy education. It summarizes previous literature in astronomy education research and categorizes the research approaches of astronomy education peer-reviewed journal articles and conference proceedings that explicitly consider the role of spatial ...


How Middle Level Science Teachers Visualize And Translate Motion, Scale, And Geometric Space Of The Earth-Moon-Sun System With Their Students, Jennifer Wilhelm, Merryn Cole, Cheryl Cohen, Rebecca Lindell 2018 University of Kentucky

How Middle Level Science Teachers Visualize And Translate Motion, Scale, And Geometric Space Of The Earth-Moon-Sun System With Their Students, Jennifer Wilhelm, Merryn Cole, Cheryl Cohen, Rebecca Lindell

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Faculty Publications

[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Astronomy Education Research.] We examined teachers’ spatial-scientific reasoning and the alternative conceptions they held regarding Earth-space content. While participating in a professional development (PD) workshop, teachers engaged in an integrated mathematics and science project-based unit designed to foster spatial reasoning and improve lunar-related conceptual understanding. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Rotation (PSVT-Rot) and the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) were used to assess understanding. We found the teachers held similar alternative conceptions as their students. Moreover, we discovered that teachers had limited understanding of the Earth-Moon-Sun scale, motions, and geometric configurations. To ...


The Origin Of The Prompt Emission For Short Grb 170817a: Photosphere Emission Or Synchrotron Emission?, Yan-Zhi Meng, Jin-Jun Geng, Bin-Bin Zhang, Jun-Jie Wei, Di Xiao, Liang-Duan Liu, He Gao, Xue-Feng Wu, En-Wei Liang, Yong-Feng Huang, Zi-Gao Dai, Bing Zhang 2018 Chinese Academy of Sciences

The Origin Of The Prompt Emission For Short Grb 170817a: Photosphere Emission Or Synchrotron Emission?, Yan-Zhi Meng, Jin-Jun Geng, Bin-Bin Zhang, Jun-Jie Wei, Di Xiao, Liang-Duan Liu, He Gao, Xue-Feng Wu, En-Wei Liang, Yong-Feng Huang, Zi-Gao Dai, Bing Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The first gravitational-wave event from the merger of a binary neutron star system (GW170817) was detected recently. The associated short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) has a low isotropic luminosity (~1047 erg s−1) and a peak energy E p ~ 145 keV during the initial main emission between −0.3 and 0.4 s. The origin of this short GRB is still under debate, but a plausible interpretation is that it is due to the off-axis emission from a structured jet. We consider two possibilities. First, since the best-fit spectral model for the main pulse of GRB 170817A is a cutoff ...


The Allowed Parameter Space Of A Long-Lived Neutron Star As The Merger Remnant Of Gw170817, Shunke Ai, He Gao, Zi-Gao Dai, Xue-Feng Wu, Ang Li, Bing Zhang, Mu-Zi Li 2018 Beijing Normal University

The Allowed Parameter Space Of A Long-Lived Neutron Star As The Merger Remnant Of Gw170817, Shunke Ai, He Gao, Zi-Gao Dai, Xue-Feng Wu, Ang Li, Bing Zhang, Mu-Zi Li

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Due to the limited sensitivity of the current gravitational wave (GW) detectors, the central remnant of the binary neutron star (NS) merger associated with GW170817 remains an open question. In view of the relatively large total mass, it is generally proposed that the merger of GW170817 would lead to a short-lived hypermassive NS or directly produce a black hole (BH). There is no clear evidence to support or rule out a long-lived NS as the merger remnant. Here, we utilize the GW and electromagnetic (EM) signals to comprehensively investigate the parameter space that allows a long-lived NS to survive as ...


On The Radio Detectability Of Circumplanetary Discs, Zhaohuan Zhu, Sean M. Andrews, Andrea Isella 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

On The Radio Detectability Of Circumplanetary Discs, Zhaohuan Zhu, Sean M. Andrews, Andrea Isella

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Discs around young planets, so-called circumplanetary discs (CPDs), are essential for planet growth, satellite formation, and planet detection. We study the millimetre and centimetre emission from accreting CPDs by using the simple α disc model. We find that it is easier to detect CPDs at shorter radio wavelengths (e.g. λ ≲ 1 mm). For example, if the system is 140 pc away from us, deep observations (e.g. 5 h) at ALMA Band 7 (0.87 mm) are sensitive to as small as 0.03 lunar mass of dust in CPDs. If the CPD is around a Jupiter mass planet ...


Automation And Enhancements To The Erau Oscom System Space Situational Awareness, Sergei Bilardi, Patrick Rupp, Yevgeniy Lischuk, Joseph Stroup 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Automation And Enhancements To The Erau Oscom System Space Situational Awareness, Sergei Bilardi, Patrick Rupp, Yevgeniy Lischuk, Joseph Stroup

Beyond: Undergraduate Research Journal

OSCOM, Optical tracking and Spectral characterization of CubeSats for Operational Missions, is a system developed at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University to produce time-resolved photometry of small satellites using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware. OSCOM has been able to observe resident space objects (RSOs) as small as CubeSats using a Celestron 11” RASA and a CMOS machine vision camera from Allied Vision. By obtaining photometric measurements of satellites, a light curve can be constructed and used to help determine satellite characteristics such as spin rate, satellite state, and even satellite attitude. To enhance the OSCOM system’s ability to observe small satellites, there is ongoing ...


Gamma-Ray Burst Jet Breaks Revisited, Xiang-Gao Wang, Bing Zhang, En-Wei Liang, Rui-Jing Liang, Da-bin Lin, Jing Li, Long Li 2018 Guangxi University

Gamma-Ray Burst Jet Breaks Revisited, Xiang-Gao Wang, Bing Zhang, En-Wei Liang, Rui-Jing Liang, Da-Bin Lin, Jing Li, Long Li

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) collimation has been inferred with the observations of achromatic steepening in GRB light curves, known as jet breaks. Identifying a jet break from a GRB afterglow light curve allows a measurement of the jet opening angle and true energetics of GRBs. In this paper, we re-investigate this problem using a large sample of GRBs that have an optical jet break that is consistent with being achromatic in the X-ray band. Our sample includes 99 GRBs from 1997 February to 2015 March that have optical and, for Swift GRBs, X-ray light curves that are consistent with the jet ...


Grb 120729a: External Shock Origin For Both The Prompt Gamma-Ray Emission And Afterglow, Li-Ye Huang, Xiang-Gao Wang, WeiKang Zheng, En-Wei Liang, Da-bin Lin, Shi-Qing Zhong, Hai-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Li Huang, Alexi V. Filippenko, Bing Zhang 2018 Guangxi University

Grb 120729a: External Shock Origin For Both The Prompt Gamma-Ray Emission And Afterglow, Li-Ye Huang, Xiang-Gao Wang, Weikang Zheng, En-Wei Liang, Da-Bin Lin, Shi-Qing Zhong, Hai-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Li Huang, Alexi V. Filippenko, Bing Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 120729A was detected by Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM, and then rapidly observed by Swift/XRT, Swift/UVOT, and ground-based telescopes. It had a single long and smooth \gamma-ray emission pulse, which extends continuously to the X-rays. We report Lick/KAIT observations of the source, and make temporal and spectral joint fits of the multiwavelength light curves of GRB 120729A. It exhibits achromatic light-curve behavior, consistent with the predictions of the external shock model. The light curves are decomposed into four typical phases: onset bump (Phase I), normal decay (Phase II), shallow decay (Phase III), and post-jet ...


Contribution Of Hi-Bearing Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies To The Cosmic Number Density Of Galaxies, M. Jones, E. Papastergis, V. Pandya, L. Leisman, Aaron J. Romanowsky, L. Yung, R. Somerville, E. Adams 2018 Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía

Contribution Of Hi-Bearing Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies To The Cosmic Number Density Of Galaxies, M. Jones, E. Papastergis, V. Pandya, L. Leisman, Aaron J. Romanowsky, L. Yung, R. Somerville, E. Adams

Faculty Publications

We estimate the cosmic number density of the recently identified class of HI-bearing ultra-diffuse sources (HUDs) based on the completeness limits of the ALFALFA survey. These objects have HI masses approximately in the range 8.5 < logMHI∕M⊙ < 9.5, average r-band surface brightnesses fainter than 24 mag arcsec−2, half-light radii greater than 1.5 kpc, and are separated from neighbours by at least 350 kpc. In this work we demonstrate that they contribute at most ~6% of the population of HI-bearing dwarfs detected by ALFALFA (with similar HI masses), have a total cosmic number density of (1.5 ± 0 ...


The Sluggs Survey: A Comparison Of Total-Mass Profiles Of Early-Type Galaxies From Observations And Cosmological Simulations, To ∼4 Effective Radii, Sabine Bellstedt, Duncan Forbes, Aaron Romanowsky, Rhea-Silvia Remus, Adam Stevens, Jean Brodie, Adriano Poci, Richard McDermid, Adebusola Alabi, Leonie Chevalier, Caitlin Adams, Anna Ferré-Mateu, Asher Wasserman, Viraj Pandya 2018 Swinburne University of Technology

The Sluggs Survey: A Comparison Of Total-Mass Profiles Of Early-Type Galaxies From Observations And Cosmological Simulations, To ∼4 Effective Radii, Sabine Bellstedt, Duncan Forbes, Aaron Romanowsky, Rhea-Silvia Remus, Adam Stevens, Jean Brodie, Adriano Poci, Richard Mcdermid, Adebusola Alabi, Leonie Chevalier, Caitlin Adams, Anna Ferré-Mateu, Asher Wasserman, Viraj Pandya

Faculty Publications

We apply the Jeans Anisotropic Multi-Gaussian Expansion dynamical modelling method to SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey data of early-type galaxies in the stellar mass range 1010 < M*/M⊙ < 1011.6 that cover a large radial range of 0.1–4.0 effective radii. We combine SLUGGS and ATLAS3D data sets to model the total-mass profiles of a sample of 21 fast-rotator galaxies, utilizing a hyperparameter method to combine the two independent data sets. The total-mass density profile slope values derived for these galaxies are consistent with those measured in the inner regions of galaxies by other studies. Furthermore, the total-mass density slopes (γtot) appear to be universal over this broad stellar mass range, with an average value of γtot =  −2.24 ±  0.05 , i.e. slightly steeper than isothermal. We compare our results to model galaxies from the Magneticum and EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, in order to probe the mechanisms that are responsible for varying total-mass density profile slopes. The simulated-galaxy slopes are shallower than the observed values by ∼0.3–0.5, indicating that the physical processes shaping the mass distributions of galaxies in cosmological simulations are still incomplete. For galaxies with M* > 1010.7 M⊙ in the Magneticum simulations, we identify a significant anticorrelation between total-mass density profile slopes and the fraction of stellar mass formed ex situ (i.e. accreted), whereas this anticorrelation is weaker for lower stellar masses, implying that the measured total-mass density slopes for low-mass galaxies are less likely to be determined by merger activity.


Spectroscopic Constants And Line Positions For Tio Singlet States, Dror M. Bittner, Peter F. Bernath 2018 Old Dominion University

Spectroscopic Constants And Line Positions For Tio Singlet States, Dror M. Bittner, Peter F. Bernath

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

consistent set of spectroscopic constants for the a1Δ,d1Σ+,b1Π,c1Φ, and f1Δ states of 48Ti16O has been determined from analysis of the b1Π–a1Δ,b1Π–d1Σ+,c1Φ–a1Δ, and f1Δ–a1Δ systems. Three Fourier transform emission spectra have been used for the analysis. New bands of the b1Π–a1Δ and c1Φ–a1Δ systems have been fitted. The first analysis of the c ...


Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability: Lessons Learned And Ways Forward, A. Masson, K. Nykyri 2018 European Space Agency

Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability: Lessons Learned And Ways Forward, A. Masson, K. Nykyri

Publications

The Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) is a ubiquitous phenomenon across the Universe, observed from 500 m deep in the oceans on Earth to the Orion molecular cloud. Over the past two decades, several space missions have enabled a leap forward in our understanding of this phenomenon at the Earth’s magnetopause. Key results obtained by these missions are first presented, with a special emphasis on Cluster and THEMIS. In particular, as an ideal instability, the KHI was not expected to produce mass transport. Simulations, later confirmed by spacecraft observations, indicate that plasma transport in Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) vortices can arise ...


Book Review: Spectral Atlas For Amateur Astronomers: A Guide To The Spectra Of Astronomical Objects And Terrestrial Light Sources, T. D. Oswalt 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Book Review: Spectral Atlas For Amateur Astronomers: A Guide To The Spectra Of Astronomical Objects And Terrestrial Light Sources, T. D. Oswalt

Publications

This document is Dr. Oswalt’s review of Spectral Atlas for Amateur Astronomers: A Guide to the Spectra of Astronomical Objects and Terrestrial Light Sources by Richard Walker. Cambridge 2017, 277 p bibl index, 9781107165908 $89.99, 9781316731048 $72.00


Orbital Characteristics Of The Subdwarf-B And F V Star Binary Ec 20117-4014 (=V4640 Sgr), T. Otani, T. D. Oswalt, A. E. Lynas-Gray, D. Kilkenny, C. Koen, M. Amaral, R. Jordan 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Orbital Characteristics Of The Subdwarf-B And F V Star Binary Ec 20117-4014 (=V4640 Sgr), T. Otani, T. D. Oswalt, A. E. Lynas-Gray, D. Kilkenny, C. Koen, M. Amaral, R. Jordan

Publications

Among the competing evolution theories for subdwarf-B (sdB) stars is the binary evolution scenario. EC 20117-4014 (=V4640 Sgr) is a spectroscopic binary system consisting of a pulsating sdB star and a late F main-sequence companion; however, the period and the orbit semimajor axes have not been precisely determined. This paper presents orbital characteristics of the EC 20117-4014 binary system using 20 years of photometric data. Periodic observed minus calculated (OC) variations were detected in the two highest-amplitude pulsations identified in the EC 20117-4014 power spectrum, indicating the binary system's precise orbital period (P = 792.3 days) and the ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress