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Understanding Atmospheres Across The Stellar-Substellar Boundary, Eileen C. Gonzales 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Understanding Atmospheres Across The Stellar-Substellar Boundary, Eileen C. Gonzales

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Complexities in the atmospheres of sources that straddle the boundary between low-mass stars and planets drive the spectral features we observe and the fundamental parameters that we derive. In an effort to understand the underlying cause of these spectral features, this work examines low-mass stars and brown dwarfs using two approaches: distance-calibrated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and atmospheric retrievals. SEDs allow for the determination of semi-empirical fundamental parameters, while atmospheric retrievals allow us to derive the atmospheric structure and composition, as well as extrapolated fundamental parameters for a source. Low-metallicity and high surface gravity sources, known as subdwarfs, are the ...


Binary Neutron Star Mergers: Testing Ejecta Models For High Mass-Ratios, Allen Murray 2020 Purdue University - North Central Campus

Binary Neutron Star Mergers: Testing Ejecta Models For High Mass-Ratios, Allen Murray

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Neutron stars are extremely dense stellar corpses which sometimes exist in orbiting pairs known as binary neutron star (BNS) systems. The mass ratio (q) of a BNS system is defined as the mass of the heavier neutron star divided by the mass of the lighter neutron star. Over time the neutron stars will inspiral toward one another and produce a merger event. Although rare, these events can be rich sources of observational data due to their many electromagnetic emissions as well as the gravitational waves they produce. The ability to extract physical information from such observations relies heavily on numerical ...


Relativity Lite: A Pictorial Translation Of Einstein’S Theories Of Motion And Gravity, Jack C. Straton 2020 Portland State University

Relativity Lite: A Pictorial Translation Of Einstein’S Theories Of Motion And Gravity, Jack C. Straton

PDXOpen: Open Educational Resources

Relativity Lite is designed for the General Astronomy sequence (PH 361-2U, SCI 315-6U) whose primary book glosses over Special Relativity and General Relativity while trying to explain the Cosmology that is based on those subjects. Relativity Lite translates the mathematical equations conventional relativity texts rely upon into pictures that are readily understood and contain within them the mathematical essentials. This book provides the comprehensive coverage needed to understand, in sufficient depth, these three linked areas of our reality.

Readers seeking this knowledge on their own, and those in other courses for nonscientists, may also find it helpful.

Adopt/Adapt
If ...


Active Magnetic Radiation Shielding For Long-Duration Human Spaceflight, Kristine Ferrone 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Active Magnetic Radiation Shielding For Long-Duration Human Spaceflight, Kristine Ferrone

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Exploration of interplanetary space presents dramatic hazards to human survival.

Space radiation hazards outside the protection of the Earth’s magnetosphere can

produce both acute and chronic health risks and thus become limiting factors for

NASA’s planned mission to Mars by the 2030s. Radiation exposure on a Mars mission

is delivered primarily by high energy ions from galactic cosmic rays and moderate

energy protons from solar particle events. The chronic radiation dose due to galactic

cosmic rays on a typical Mars mission is on the order of 1 Sv, and additional acute

radiation dose from solar flares can reach ...


A Numerical Survey Of Multi-Planet Systems’ Inclination Excitation And Survival Under The Influence Of An Oblate, Tilted Star, Kathleen M T Schultz 2020 University of Maine

A Numerical Survey Of Multi-Planet Systems’ Inclination Excitation And Survival Under The Influence Of An Oblate, Tilted Star, Kathleen M T Schultz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Among the many exciting and thought-provoking discoveries facilitated by the Kepler telescope, one of the most puzzling is the very large proportion of systems with only a single transiting planet in them, relative to the number of systems with multiple transiting planets. Given that most of these multis are close together and have low mutual inclinations, and that planetary systems tend to form in such a configuration, the next logical step is to guess that at least some of the singles are part of multi-planet systems with large mutual inclinations between planets, excited by some other object’s gravitational perturbations ...


Computational Astronomy: Classification Of Celestial Spectra Using Machine Learning Techniques, Gayatri Milind Hungund 2020 San Jose State University

Computational Astronomy: Classification Of Celestial Spectra Using Machine Learning Techniques, Gayatri Milind Hungund

Master's Projects

Lightyears beyond the Planet Earth there exist plenty of unknown and unexplored stars and Galaxies that need to be studied in order to support the Big Bang Theory and also make important astronomical discoveries in quest of knowing the unknown. Sophisticated devices and high-power computational resources are now deployed to make a positive effort towards data gathering and analysis. These devices produce massive amount of data from the astronomical surveys and the data is usually in terabytes or petabytes. It is exhaustive to process this data and determine the findings in short period of time. Many details can be missed ...


Mineral-Surface Chemistry Of Hydroxyapatite And Urea-Rich Solutions, Estefania Garcia 2020 Kennesaw State University

Mineral-Surface Chemistry Of Hydroxyapatite And Urea-Rich Solutions, Estefania Garcia

Master of Science in Chemical Sciences Theses

On this planet the development of life requires six essential elements: C, H, O, N, P, and S. These elements are present in gaseous form, with the exception of phosphorus, which is primarily found in solid mineral sources. Phosphorus in biological systems is significant through its involvement in metabolic functions (e.g., Coenzyme A), cell structure (i.e., phospholipid membranes), and genetic storage/transfer (i.e., phosphodiester bonds in DNA and RNA). However, an ambiguity remains with the assimilation of phosphorus in biological systems, caused by its habitual presence in insoluble phosphate mineral sources. Recent research has found that insoluble ...


Towards Gross-Pitaevskiian Description Of Solar System & Galaxies, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati 2020 University of New Mexico

Towards Gross-Pitaevskiian Description Of Solar System & Galaxies, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

In this paper, we argue that Gross-Pitaevskii model can be a more complete description of both solar system and spiral galaxies, especially taking into account the nature of chirality and vortices in galaxies. We also hope to bring out some correspondence among existing models, e.g., the topological vortex approach, Burgers equation in the light of KAM theory, and the Cantorian Navier-Stokes approach. We hope further investigation can be done around this line of approach.


Automated Spectroscopic Detection And Mapping Using Alma And Machine Learningtechniques, Steven Cocke, Andrew Wilkins, Josephine McDaniel, John Santerre, Conor Nixon 2020 Southern Methodist University

Automated Spectroscopic Detection And Mapping Using Alma And Machine Learningtechniques, Steven Cocke, Andrew Wilkins, Josephine Mcdaniel, John Santerre, Conor Nixon

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper we present a methodology for automating theclassification of spectrally resolved observations of multiple emissionlines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA).Molecules in planetary atmospheres emit or absorb different wavelengthsof light thereby providing a unique signature for each species. ALMAdata were taken from interferometric observations of Titan made be-tween UT 2012 July 03 23:22:14 and 2012 July 04 01:06:18 as part ofALMA project 2011.0.00319.S. We first employed a greedy set cover algorithm to identify the most probable molecules that would reproducethe set of frequencies with respective flux greater than ...


Perfect Circles: A Study Of The Scattering Regions Of Wolf Rayet Binary Stars, Stella Yoos, Jennifer Hoffman, Andrew Fullard 2020 University of Denver

Perfect Circles: A Study Of The Scattering Regions Of Wolf Rayet Binary Stars, Stella Yoos, Jennifer Hoffman, Andrew Fullard

DU Undergraduate Research Journal Archive

Although we have been able to develop an understanding of many aspects of stellar evolution and formation, a few key gaps remain. One is the fate of massive binary star systems composed of Wolf-Rayet (WR) and O-type stars. In these WR + O binaries, the stellar winds surrounding these stars collide, creating a complex interaction region in which light from the stars scatters and becomes polarized. To study these scattering regions, I employ a technique that allows me to map the polarization of the light emitted from these stars and track its variation over the binary orbit. I found that although ...


Neutron Energy Effects On Asteroid Deflection, Lansing S. Horan IV 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Neutron Energy Effects On Asteroid Deflection, Lansing S. Horan Iv

Theses and Dissertations

In the future, a hazardous asteroid will find itself on a collision course with Earth. It is an inevitability; the question is not if, but when. For asteroids of moderate size or larger, a nuclear device is one of humanity's only technologies capable of mitigating this threat via deflection on a timescale of less than a decade. This work examined how changing the output neutron energy from a nuclear device detonation affects asteroid deflection. The notional asteroid target was 300 meters in diameter and composed of silicon dioxide at a bulk density of 1.855 g/cm3. To ...


Creating A Sample Of Off-Color Galaxies Using Big Data Tools, Christopher Becker 2020 Rollins College

Creating A Sample Of Off-Color Galaxies Using Big Data Tools, Christopher Becker

Honors Program Theses

This thesis begins an investigation into the presence of off-colored galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Through establishing the emergence and history of Astroinformatics, the thesis introduces the concepts surrounding both off-color galaxies and the Big Data tools helpful in analyzing the data to find them. A discussion of initial implementation methods and revised implementation due to difficulties with previous plans follows. Results are presented, with well in excess of 500,000 candidates for off-color galaxies present in the sample. Conclusions are then drawn regarding such a large sample and the implications this may have on the conventional understanding ...


Cosmic-Ray Acceleration In The Cygnus Ob2 Stellar Association, Binita Hona 2020 Michigan Technological University

Cosmic-Ray Acceleration In The Cygnus Ob2 Stellar Association, Binita Hona

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The Cygnus region of our Galaxy consists of an active star forming region and a wealth of various astrophysical sources such as pulsar wind nebulae (PWN), supernova remnants (SNRs), and massive star clusters. Massive stellar clusters and associations have been postulated as possible sources of cosmic rays (CRs) in our Galaxy. One example of a gamma-ray source associated with a stellar association lies in the Cygnus region known as the "Cygnus Cocoon". It is an extended region of gamma-ray emission in the Cygnus X region and attributed to a possible superbubble with freshly accelerated CRs which are hypothesized to produce ...


Modeling The Galactic Compact Binary Neutron Star Population And Studying The Double Pulsar System, Nihan Pol 2020 West Virginia University

Modeling The Galactic Compact Binary Neutron Star Population And Studying The Double Pulsar System, Nihan Pol

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Binary neutron star (BNS) systems consisting of at least one neutron star provide an avenue for testing a broad range of physical phenomena ranging from tests of General Relativity to probing magnetospheric physics to understanding the behavior of matter in the densest environments in the Universe. Ultra-compact BNS systems with orbital periods less than few tens of minutes emit gravitational waves with frequencies ~mHz and are detectable by the planned space-based Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), while merging BNS systems produce a chirping gravitational wave signal that can be detected by the ground-based Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). Thus, BNS ...


Searching For Needles In The Cosmic Haystack, Thomas Ryan Devine 2020 West Virginia University

Searching For Needles In The Cosmic Haystack, Thomas Ryan Devine

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Searching for pulsar signals in radio astronomy data sets is a difficult task. The data sets are extremely large, approaching the petabyte scale, and are growing larger as instruments become more advanced. Big Data brings with it big challenges. Processing the data to identify candidate pulsar signals is computationally expensive and must utilize parallelism to be scalable. Labeling benchmarks for supervised classification is costly. To compound the problem, pulsar signals are very rare, e.g., only 0.05% of the instances in one data set represent pulsars. Furthermore, there are many different approaches to candidate classification with no consensus on ...


New Foundation In The Sciences: Physics Without Sweeping Infinities Under The Rug, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd 2019 University of New Mexico

New Foundation In The Sciences: Physics Without Sweeping Infinities Under The Rug, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

It is widely known among the Frontiers of physics, that “sweeping under the rug” practice has been quite the norm rather than exception. In other words, the leading paradigms have strong tendency to be hailed as the only game in town. For example, renormalization group theory was hailed as cure in order to solve infinity problem in QED theory. For instance, a quote from Richard Feynman goes as follows: “What the three Nobel Prize winners did, in the words of Feynman, was "to get rid of the infinities in the calculations. The infinities are still there, but now they can ...


Measurements Of The 16c + 12c And 16c + 13c Fusion Cross Sections With Implications For Astrophysics, Ashley Ann Hood 2019 Louisiana State University

Measurements Of The 16c + 12c And 16c + 13c Fusion Cross Sections With Implications For Astrophysics, Ashley Ann Hood

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The fusion of neutron-rich nuclei is of interest to nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure. X-ray superbursts are powered by runaway thermonuclear burning deep inside of a neutron star, where heating from the pycnonuclear fusion of neutron-rich isotopes is an important heat source. Experimental measurements of fusion cross sections of neutron-rich isotopes have provided insights regarding nucleon transfer and nuclear structure properties affecting fusion. Recently, the 15C + 12C total fusion cross section was measured using a 15C beam produced by the in-flight beam production facility, which is part of the Argonne Tandem LINAC Accelerator System (ATLAS) at Argonne ...


#7 - Cluster Characterization And Veto Analysis Of The Frequencyhough All-Sky Continuous Gravitational Wave Search, Cain Gantt, Pia Astone 2019 Georgia College and State University

#7 - Cluster Characterization And Veto Analysis Of The Frequencyhough All-Sky Continuous Gravitational Wave Search, Cain Gantt, Pia Astone

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Continuous gravitational waves (CWs) can be produced by rotating neutron stars with an asymmetric mass distribution about their axis of rotation. The FrequencyHough search is an all-sky search for these signals, and the large parameter space considered introduces computational limits into the pipeline. We investigate the distributions of candidates produced by earlier stages in the pipeline, and propose the mechanisms within the pipeline that produce these effects. We also characterize the performance of two steps, a veto and ranking procedure, used to reduce the number of candidates within the FrequencyHough pipeline. We found the distance metric in the parameter space ...


Galaxy And Mass Assembly: A Comparison Between Galaxy-Galaxy Lens Searches In Kids/Gama, Shawn Knabel, Benne Holwerda 2019 University of Louisville

Galaxy And Mass Assembly: A Comparison Between Galaxy-Galaxy Lens Searches In Kids/Gama, Shawn Knabel, Benne Holwerda

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Strong gravitational lenses are cases where a distant background galaxy is located directly behind a massive foreground galaxy, whose gravity causes the light from the background galaxy to bend around the foreground galaxy. In addition to being visually stunning, these rare events are useful laboratories for furthering our understanding of gravity and cosmology and to determine properties, such as the mass and dark matter content, of the lensing galaxies themselves. The trouble is finding enough of these strong gravitational lenses for further study. The immensity of the catalogs being collected by state-of-the-art telescopes requires equally innovative methods for interpreting that ...


Large‐Amplitude Mountain Waves In The Mesosphere Observed On 21 June 2014 During Deepwave: 1.Wave Development, Scales, Momentum Fluxes, And Environmental Sensitivity, Michael J. Taylor, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, David C. Fritts, Bernd Kaifler, Steven M. Smith, Yucheng Zhao, Neal R. Criddle, Pattilyn McLaughlin, William R. Pendleton Jr., Michael P. McCarthy, Gonzalo Hernandez, Stephen D. Eckermann, James Doyle, Markus Rapp, Ben Liley, James M. Russell III 2019 Utah State University

Large‐Amplitude Mountain Waves In The Mesosphere Observed On 21 June 2014 During Deepwave: 1.Wave Development, Scales, Momentum Fluxes, And Environmental Sensitivity, Michael J. Taylor, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, David C. Fritts, Bernd Kaifler, Steven M. Smith, Yucheng Zhao, Neal R. Criddle, Pattilyn Mclaughlin, William R. Pendleton Jr., Michael P. Mccarthy, Gonzalo Hernandez, Stephen D. Eckermann, James Doyle, Markus Rapp, Ben Liley, James M. Russell Iii

Publications

A remarkable, large‐amplitude, mountain wave (MW) breaking event was observed on the night of 21 June 2014 by ground‐based optical instruments operated on the New Zealand South Island during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE). Concurrent measurements of the MW structures, amplitudes, and background environment were made using an Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper, a Rayleigh Lidar, an All‐Sky Imager, and a Fabry‐Perot Interferometer. The MW event was observed primarily in the OH airglow emission layer at an altitude of ~82 km, over an ~2‐hr interval (~10:30–12:30 UT), during strong eastward winds ...


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