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Real-Time Rfi Mitigation In Radio Astronomy, Emily Ramey, Nick Joslyn, Richard Prestage, Michael Lam, Luke Hawkins, Tim Blattner, Mark Whitehead 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Real-Time Rfi Mitigation In Radio Astronomy, Emily Ramey, Nick Joslyn, Richard Prestage, Michael Lam, Luke Hawkins, Tim Blattner, Mark Whitehead

Senior Honors Papers / Undergraduate Theses

As the use of wireless technology has increased around the world, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) has become more and more of a problem for radio astronomers. Preventative measures exist to limit the presence of RFI, and programs exist to remove it from saved data, but the use of algorithms to detect and remove RFI as an observation is occurring is much less common. Such a method would be incredibly useful for observations in which the data must undergo several rounds of processing before being saved, as in pulsar timing studies. Strategies for real-time mitigation have been discussed and tested with ...


Dance Of Two Supermassive Binary Black Holes, Karishma Bansal 2018 University of New Mexico

Dance Of Two Supermassive Binary Black Holes, Karishma Bansal

Shared Knowledge Conference

Black holes exist in a various range of masses ranging from stellar mass (~ 10 Solar Mass) to Supermassive black holes (SMBHs, million to billion Solar Mass). It is expected that as the separation between the black holes decreases, emission of gravitational waves will grow stronger, which makes binary black holes one of the most promising sources for gravitational radiation detection. Gravitational waves from merging stellar-mass black holes have recently been discovered by LIGO; however, we are yet to detect them from binary SMBHs. These massive black holes reside at the heart of most of the galaxies and when two such ...


5 - Irregularities In Young Stellar Models: Are Starspots To Blame?, Jessica Hamilton 2018 University of North Georgia

5 - Irregularities In Young Stellar Models: Are Starspots To Blame?, Jessica Hamilton

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Starspots are dark areas on a star’s surface formed by intense magnetic fields that actively suppress the flow of energy, causing the area to become cooler and darker than its surroundings. Starspots threaten a star’s equilibrium because they prevent energy from leaving the star, causing a buildup of pressure. The prevailing assumption is that increased pressure will cause the star to inflate, producing a cooler and larger star. For this reason, starspots have been proposed to explain why some stars appear cooler and larger than we expect. This requires energy blocked by a spot to be trapped deep ...


Observation Of High-Energy Gamma-Rays With The Calorimetric Electron Telescope (Calet) On-Board The International Space Station, Nicholas Wade Cannady 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Observation Of High-Energy Gamma-Rays With The Calorimetric Electron Telescope (Calet) On-Board The International Space Station, Nicholas Wade Cannady

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a multi-instrument high-energy astrophysics observatory deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in August 2015. The primary instrument is the calorimeter (CAL), which is intended for measurement of the cosmic ray electron flux in the energy range 10 GeV - 20 TeV. The CAL is also sensitive to gamma-rays in the energy range 1 GeV - 10 TeV and protons and nuclei up to PeV energies. Also present on the CALET payload are an Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) for the fine determination of the pointing direction and the CALET Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (CGBM) for the observation ...


Expected And Achievable Accuracy In Estimating Parameters Of Standing Accretion Shock Instability (Sasi) Fluctuations From Neutrinos And Gravitational Wave Oscillations, Colter Richardson, Jonathan Westhouse 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Expected And Achievable Accuracy In Estimating Parameters Of Standing Accretion Shock Instability (Sasi) Fluctuations From Neutrinos And Gravitational Wave Oscillations, Colter Richardson, Jonathan Westhouse

Undergraduate Research Symposium - Prescott

Core collapse supernovae are one of the most interesting sources of gravitational waves. When the progenitor star is particularly massive, hydrodynamic instability called standing accretion shock instability can develop and it is characterized by deterministic oscillations in the gravitational wave signal as well as in the neutrino luminosity with frequencies of 100hz. In this talk we will review current efforts to extract physical information from the SASI components of the gravitational wave and enhance the detectability of gravitational waves with such components both using laser interferometers and neutrino detectors.


Modeling And Detectability Of Gravitational Wave Waveform Memory From Core Collapse Supernovae, Pedro Jesus Quinonez, Emily Grimes 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Modeling And Detectability Of Gravitational Wave Waveform Memory From Core Collapse Supernovae, Pedro Jesus Quinonez, Emily Grimes

Undergraduate Research Symposium - Prescott

Ever since the discovery of gravitational waves by LIGO, studying these waves have become of utmost importance. This is because gravitational waves have the potential to carry information that have remain unseen by physicist in the past. For example, take the case of a core collapse supernovae. Any information transferred through electromagnetic waves that attempts to escape the inner core of a dying star is blocked out by the intense radiation of its outer shell. For this reason, astronomers have been unable to truly study what goes in the core. However, this is not the case for gravitational waves, which ...


Astromimetics: The Dawn Of A New Era For (Bio)Materials Science?, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu 2018 Chapman University

Astromimetics: The Dawn Of A New Era For (Bio)Materials Science?, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Composite, multifunctional fine particles are likely to be at the frontier of materials science in the foreseeable future. Here we present a submicron composite particle that mimics the stratified structure of the Earth by having a zero-valent iron core, a silicate/silicide mantle, and a thin carbonaceous crust resembling the biosphere and its biotic deposits. Particles were formulated in a stable colloidal form and made to interact with various types of healthy and cancer cells in vitro. A selective anticancer activity was observed, promising from the point of view of the intended use of the particles for tumor targeting across ...


High Dynamic Range Optical Devices And Applications., Elijah Robert Jensen 2018 University of Louisville

High Dynamic Range Optical Devices And Applications., Elijah Robert Jensen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Much of what we know about fundamental physical law and the universe derives from observations and measurements using optical methods. The passive use of the electromagnetic spectrum can be the best way of studying physical phenomenon in general with minimal disturbance of the system in the process. While for many applications ambient visible light is sufficient, light outside of the visible range may convey more information. The signals of interest are also often a small fraction of the background, and their changes occur on time scales so quickly that they are visually imperceptible. This thesis reports techniques and technologies developed ...


Cosmological Distance Measurements With Rotse Supernovae Iip And Observational Systematics On Desi Emission Line Galaxy Clustering, Govinda Dhungana 2018 Southern Methodist University

Cosmological Distance Measurements With Rotse Supernovae Iip And Observational Systematics On Desi Emission Line Galaxy Clustering, Govinda Dhungana

Physics Theses and Dissertations

Both Supernovae (SNe) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) surveys emerged as complementary probes of the expansion history of the universe in the last few decades. SNe Ia cosmology has reached the systematic limits in the optical surveys. The most frequently occuring SNe Type IIP are emerging as equally rich distance probes for the next generation larger surveys. In this thesis, I highlight the astrophysical observables of these events in the context of ROTSE III SN survey and using the ROTSE SNe IIP sample, I present calibration in the framework of expanding photosphere method (EPM) to use them as cosmological distance ...


Primordial Black Hole Atoms, David Zwick, Tyler Hanover, Brian Nepper 2018 Rowan University

Primordial Black Hole Atoms, David Zwick, Tyler Hanover, Brian Nepper

Student Research Symposium Posters

Primordial black holes are thought to have been formed at the early stages of the universe in the presence of non-homogeneous density distributions of dark matter. We are working under the assumption that dark matter consists of elementary low mass particles, specifically, spin 1/2 fermions. We further assume that dark matter is electrically neutral, thus its main interaction is gravitational. We investigate dark matter spin 1/2 fermions in orbit around a black hole atom and consider mass ranges for which the quantum description is appropriate. Solutions to the Dirac equation are utilized to describe the radial mass distribution ...


The Prospect Of Human Spiritual Unity Through The Cosmic Story, Philip Novak 2018 Department of Religion and Philosophy, Dominican University of California

The Prospect Of Human Spiritual Unity Through The Cosmic Story, Philip Novak

Collected Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Thomas Berry and Brian Swimme have noted that, “we seem to be moving beyond any religious expression so far known to the human into a meta-religious age that seems to be a new comprehensive context for all religions.” That “new comprehensive context” is of course now known as Big History -- a.k.a. the Evolutionary Epic, Universe Story, or New Cosmic Story—the astonishing contemporary synthesis of modern sciences that tells a coherent story of the evolution of the universe from the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago to the present.

Yet with the notable exception of the writings ...


Effects Of Mass And Distance Uncertainties On Calculations Of Flux From Giant Molecular Clouds, Matt Coel 2018 Michigan Technological University

Effects Of Mass And Distance Uncertainties On Calculations Of Flux From Giant Molecular Clouds, Matt Coel

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

It is assumed that the distribution of the Milky Way cosmic rays, the cosmic ray ‘sea,’ is even throughout the Galaxy. This assumption can be tested by measuring gamma rays produced from cosmic ray interactions with Giant Molecular Clouds. The gamma ray flux depends on the mass and distance of a given molecular cloud as well as the cosmic ray flux in its vicinity. Thus a predicted gamma ray flux can be compared to actual flux data from a detector. Uncertainties from measuring the mass of and distance to the clouds are taken into account for this prediction. This report ...


Pathways To The Cosmos:The Alignment Of Megalithic Tombs In Ireland And Atlantic Europe, Frank Prendergast, Gabriel Cooney 2018 Dublin Institute of Technology

Pathways To The Cosmos:The Alignment Of Megalithic Tombs In Ireland And Atlantic Europe, Frank Prendergast, Gabriel Cooney

Articles

Gabriel Cooney and Frank Prendergast present the context of and outline the approach to this one-day conference organised by Archaeology Ireland on behalf of the National Monuments Service at the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht and the Office of Public Works to mark the European Year of Cultural Heritage 2018. The event will take place at Dublin Castle on 15 September 2018.


Solar Alignment And The Irish Passage Tomb Tradition, Frank Prendergast 2018 Dublin Institute of Technology

Solar Alignment And The Irish Passage Tomb Tradition, Frank Prendergast

Book/Book Chapter

A succinct and very useful, illustrated, explanatory guide to the phenomenon of solar alignment in the irish Passage Tomb tradition. Includes a listing of where to visit the 15 known astronomically aligned passage tombs in the 32 counties.

Written by Dr Frank Prendergast who is now Emeritus at the Dublin Institute of Technology, where he researches Irish prehistoric monuments and their landscapes from a cultural astronomy perspective. His current interests and publications are on the meaning of the dark sky in the prehistoric past and on the conservation of archaeological landscapes from light pollution.

Heritage Guides are included free with ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Current Atmospheric Refraction Models In Predicting Sunrise And Sunset Times, Teresa Wilson 2018 Michigan Technological University

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Current Atmospheric Refraction Models In Predicting Sunrise And Sunset Times, Teresa Wilson

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The standard value for atmospheric refraction on the horizon of 34', used in all publicly available sunrise and sunset calculators, is found to be inadequate. The assumptions behind atmospheric models that predict this value fail to account for real meteorological conditions. The result is an uncertainty of one to five minutes in sunrise and sunset predictions at mid-latitudes (0° - 55° N/S). A sunrise/set calculator that interchanges the refraction component by varying the refraction model was developed. Two atmospheric refraction models of increasing complexity were tested along with the standard value. The predictions were compared with data sets of ...


The Coincident Coherence Of Extreme Doppler Velocity Events With P-Mode Patches In The Solar Photosphere, Rachel Mcclure 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

The Coincident Coherence Of Extreme Doppler Velocity Events With P-Mode Patches In The Solar Photosphere, Rachel Mcclure

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Observations of the solar photosphere show many spatially compact Doppler velocity events with short life spans and extreme values. In the IMaX spectropolarimetric inversion data of the first flight of the SUNRISE balloon in 2009 these striking flashes in the intergranule lanes and complementary outstanding values in the centers of granules have line of sight Doppler velocity values in excess of 4σ from the mean. We conclude that values outside 4σ are a result from the superposition of the granulation flows and the p-modes.

To determine how granulation and p-modes contribute to these outstanding Doppler events, I separate the two ...


Investigating The Opal Cubesat’S Ability To Measure Thermospheric Gravity Waves, Kenneth Zia, Michael J. Taylor, Ludger Scherliess 2018 Utah State University

Investigating The Opal Cubesat’S Ability To Measure Thermospheric Gravity Waves, Kenneth Zia, Michael J. Taylor, Ludger Scherliess

Posters

Understanding the Earth’s lower thermosphere is of high interest to the space science community because of competing forcing due to solar heating above and episodic wave forcing from below. The NSF sponsored OPAL cubesat is designed to measure the temperature profile in this region by observing day-time O2 A time O2 A-band (~760nm) emission on the limb and is expected to be launched from the ISS (International Space Station). To band (~760nm) emission on the limb and is expected to be launched from the ISS (International Space Station). To investigate the instrument’s ability to detect space weather signatures ...


Collective Gravity Of Minor Planets In The Outer Solar System, Jacob Fleisig 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Collective Gravity Of Minor Planets In The Outer Solar System, Jacob Fleisig

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Our Solar System contains a large population of icy bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. This group of objects, known as the Kuiper Belt, are remnants from early in the formation of the Solar System. However, these bodies exhibit strange orbital characteristics, hinting at the possibility of a missing chapter in the Solar System's formation history. To find an explanation to these phenomena, we investigate the effects that the KBOs' collective gravity has on the Solar System using computer simulations. In doing so, we find a new mechanism capable of changing objects' distances of closest approach to the Sun ...


Observations Of Ion Density And Temperature Around The International Space Station During Two Geomagnetic Storms, Alex M. Wright 2018 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Observations Of Ion Density And Temperature Around The International Space Station During Two Geomagnetic Storms, Alex M. Wright

Honors Theses and Capstones

The International Space Station (ISS) is a low Earth orbit research facility and host to an international crew. Geomagnetic storms cause changes in the Earth’s magnetic field and affect the ion density and temperature in the ionosphere which could pose a hazard to ISS crew. This hazard is measured by the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) which measures ion density, ion temperature, and the charge differential of the ISS relative to its surrounding environment. I analyzed data collected by Narrow Sweep Langmuir Probe for two storms in 2015. Ion density and temperature were affected by geomagnetic storms, but the ...


A Microlensing Detection Algorithm For Wide-Field Surveys, Daniel Godines Alcantara 2018 Bard College

A Microlensing Detection Algorithm For Wide-Field Surveys, Daniel Godines Alcantara

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Gravitational microlensing is a rare event in which the light from a foreground star (source star) is amplified temporarily as it goes around the Einstein radius of another star (lens star). This only occurs when the two stars align with the line of sight of the observer. The significance of microlensing is that it allows for the detection of planets, as when a planet orbiting the lensing star aligns within the Einstein radius, it acts as an additional lens that further amplifies the light. This results in a gaussian-like light curve with an additional deviation on the curve. Unlike transit ...


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