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Possible Evolution Of Supermassive Black Holes From Fri Quasars, Matthew I. Kim, Damian J. Christian, David Garofalo, Jaclyn D'Avanzo 2016 California State University, Northridge

Possible Evolution Of Supermassive Black Holes From Fri Quasars, Matthew I. Kim, Damian J. Christian, David Garofalo, Jaclyn D'Avanzo

Faculty Publications

We explore the question of the rapid buildup of black hole mass in the early universe employing a growing black hole mass-based determination of both jet and disc powers predicted in recent theoretical work on black hole accretion and jet formation. Despite simplified, even artificial assumptions about accretion and mergers, we identify an interesting low probability channel for the growth of one billion solar mass black holes within hundreds of millions of years of the big bang without appealing to super Eddington accretion. This result is made more compelling by the recognition of a connection between this channel and an ...


Teaching Numerical Methods In The Context Of Galaxy Mergers, Maria Kourjanskaia 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Teaching Numerical Methods In The Context Of Galaxy Mergers, Maria Kourjanskaia

Physics

Methods of teaching numerical methods to solve ordinary differential equations in the context of galaxy mergers were explored. The research published in a paper by Toomre and Toomre in 1972 describing the formation of galactic tails and bridges from close tidal interactions was adapted into a project targeting undergraduate physics students. Typically undergraduate physics students only take one Computational Physics class in which various techniques and algorithms are taught. Although it is important to study computational physics techniques, it is just as important to apply this knowledge to a problem that is representative of what computational physics researchers are investigating ...


The Inner Gaseous Disks Of Herbig Be Stars, Parshati Patel 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Inner Gaseous Disks Of Herbig Be Stars, Parshati Patel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Herbig Ae/Be stars are intermediate mass (~2 to 20Msun) pre-main sequence stars that inherit a circumstellar disk of dust and gas from their formation phase. The region of this disk closest to the star is entirely gaseous because dust evaporates at the high temperatures there, and this gaseous region is currently poorly understood. Using non-LTE circumstellar disk codes to model the optical and near-infrared spectra of five, early-type (B0Ve to B2Ve) Herbig Be stars obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope ESPaDOnS instrument, the density structure of each inner gaseous disks was determined and estimates of the disk masses and ...


Probing The Fitting Accuracy Of Active Galaxy Spectra, Aaron T. Line 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Probing The Fitting Accuracy Of Active Galaxy Spectra, Aaron T. Line

Physics

Prior to this study, Dr. Vardha N. Bennert and collaborators selected a sample of ~100 local active galaxies to study the relationships between black hole mass and host galaxy properties. The broad Hβ width is necessary to determine black hole mass. This value is determined using a spectral decomposition code was scripted in IDL by Dr. Daeseong Park. The script fit spectral features and collected data for properties such as width of emission lines and continuum contribution percentages. The results were logged for further analysis.

To probe the accuracy of the fitting process, artificial spectra were created and fitted to ...


Reconciling Ag-Star Formation, The Soltan Argument, And Meier's Paradox, David Garofalo, Matthew I. Kim, Damian J. Christian, Emily Hollingworth 2016 Kennesaw State University

Reconciling Ag-Star Formation, The Soltan Argument, And Meier's Paradox, David Garofalo, Matthew I. Kim, Damian J. Christian, Emily Hollingworth

Faculty Publications

We provide a theoretical context for understanding the recent work of Kalfountzou et al. showing that star formation is enhanced at lower optical luminosity in radio-loud quasars. Our proposal for coupling the assumption of collimated FRII quasar-jet-induced star formation with lower accretion optical luminosity also explains the observed jet power peak in active galaxies at higher redshift compared to the peak in accretion power, doing so in a way that predicts the existence of a family of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei associated with rapidly spinning supermassive black holes at low redshift, as mounting observations suggest. The relevance of this work ...


Probing Physical Conditions In The Crab Nebula With Emission Line Analysis, Xiang Wang 2016 University of Kentucky

Probing Physical Conditions In The Crab Nebula With Emission Line Analysis, Xiang Wang

Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy

We present a range of steady-state photoionization simulations, corresponding to different assumed shell geometries and compositions, of the unseen postulated rapidly expanding outer shell to the Crab Nebula. The properties of the shell are constrained by the mass that must lie within it, and by limits to the intensities of hydrogen recombination lines. In all cases the photoionization models predict very strong emission from high ionization lines that will not be emitted by the Crab’s filaments, alleviating problems with detecting these lines in the presence of light scattered from brighter parts of the Crab. The NIR [Ne VI] λ ...


Modeling Extrasolar Trojan Asteroids In Gravitational Potentials Of Migrating Jovian-Like Planets To Inform Future Observations, Austin Hinkel 2016 University of Kentucky

Modeling Extrasolar Trojan Asteroids In Gravitational Potentials Of Migrating Jovian-Like Planets To Inform Future Observations, Austin Hinkel

Honors Program Senior Capstone Collection

In this paper, I construct a program to map the evolution of the potential in a planet-star system where a planet with a few Jupiter masses migrates inward. Given a trojan asteroid librating around the fourth or fifth Lagrange point, the asteroid follows the evolving equipotential lines of the slowly changing potential map. As the planet and its trojan asteroids migrate inward towards the host star, the trojan asteroid librations become tighter, providing a denser “cloud” of trojan asteroids. Such a change in the density of trojan asteroids is examined with the intent to deduce the likelihood of detection via ...


Suzaku X-Ray Observations Of The Nearest Non-Cool Core Cluster, Antlia: Dynamically Young But With Remarkably Relaxed Outskirts, Ka-Wah Wong, Jimmy A. Irwin, Daniel R. Wik, Ming Sun, Craig L. Sarazin, Yutaka Fujita, Thomas H. Reiprich 2016 Minnesota State University Mankato

Suzaku X-Ray Observations Of The Nearest Non-Cool Core Cluster, Antlia: Dynamically Young But With Remarkably Relaxed Outskirts, Ka-Wah Wong, Jimmy A. Irwin, Daniel R. Wik, Ming Sun, Craig L. Sarazin, Yutaka Fujita, Thomas H. Reiprich

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We present results of seven Suzaku mosaic observations (>200 ks in total) of the nearest non-cool core cluster, the Antlia Cluster, beyond its degree-scale virial radius (R200≈887 kpc = 76′) in its relaxed direction to the east. The temperature drops by a factorof three from ∼2 keV near the center out to R200, consistent with the scaled temperature profiles of many other clusters. Its pressure follows the universal profile. The density slope in its outskirts is significantly steeper than that of Virgo, which is the nearest cool-core cluster with a similar temperature as Antlia, but shallower than those of the ...


Solar Modulation Of The Cosmic Ray Intensity And The Measurement Of The Cerenkov Reemission In Nova’S Liquid Scintillator, Philip James Mason 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Solar Modulation Of The Cosmic Ray Intensity And The Measurement Of The Cerenkov Reemission In Nova’S Liquid Scintillator, Philip James Mason

Doctoral Dissertations

The NOνA (NuMI Off-axis electron neutrino Appearance) experiment is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Its purpose is to observe the oscillation of νμ (muon neutrino) to νe (electron neutrino) and to investigate the neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in the neutrino sector. Two detectors have been built for this purpose, a Near Detector 300 feet underground at Fermilab, and a Far Detector, on the surface at Ash River, Minnesota.

The completion of NOνA’s Far Detector in October 2014 enabled not only the recent measurement of neutrino oscillations, but an array ...


Excess Mid-Infrared Flux: An Indicator Of Mass Loss In Cepheids?, Edward G. Schmidt 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Excess Mid-Infrared Flux: An Indicator Of Mass Loss In Cepheids?, Edward G. Schmidt

Edward Schmidt Publications

Spectral energy distributions for 132 classical and type II Cepheids were searched for evidence of excess flux above the photospheric level in the mid-infrared. Eight of them were found to have unambiguously strong excess emission while a further 13 showed evidence of weak emission. The presence of emission appears to be unrelated to either the pulsational amplitude or the effective temperature while strong emission is limited to stars with periods longer than 11 days, with a single exception. For the stars with strong emission we attempted to fit the energy distribution with a stellar wind model. No acceptable fit could ...


X-Ray Emission From The Giant Magnetosphere Of The Magnetic O-Type Star Ngc 1624-2, V. Petit, D. H. Cohen, G. A. Wade, Y. Naze, S. P. Owocki, J. O. Sundqvist, A. ud-Doula, A. Fullerton, M. Leutenegger, Marc Gagne 2015 Florida Institute of Technology - Melbourne

X-Ray Emission From The Giant Magnetosphere Of The Magnetic O-Type Star Ngc 1624-2, V. Petit, D. H. Cohen, G. A. Wade, Y. Naze, S. P. Owocki, J. O. Sundqvist, A. Ud-Doula, A. Fullerton, M. Leutenegger, Marc Gagne

Geology & Astronomy Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Photometric Study Of The Short-Period Eclipsing Binary V441 Lac, Daimei Wang, Liyun Zhang, Xianming Han, Franz Agerer, Qingfeng Pi, Shuai Wang 2015 Butler University

Photometric Study Of The Short-Period Eclipsing Binary V441 Lac, Daimei Wang, Liyun Zhang, Xianming Han, Franz Agerer, Qingfeng Pi, Shuai Wang

Xianming Han

We present the first multi-color VRI CCD light curves of a short-period eclipsing binary star v441 Lac in this paper. We obtained our light curves on Oct. 4 and 8, 2013 at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, China. We updated the ephemeris of V441 Lac based on three new minima derived by our new observational data together with previously available light curve minima. By fitting the O−C (observed minus calculated) values of the minima, we found that the orbital period of V441 Lac exhibits an increasing trend of Ṗ=5.67(0.35)×10^-7 days/year, which ...


The First Multi-Color Photometric Study Of The Short-Period Contact Eclipsing Binary Gk Aqr, Liyun Zhang, Qingfeng Pi, Xianming Han, TongAn Li, Xiliang Zhang, Hongyan Sang, Daimei Wang, Shuai Wang 2015 Butler University

The First Multi-Color Photometric Study Of The Short-Period Contact Eclipsing Binary Gk Aqr, Liyun Zhang, Qingfeng Pi, Xianming Han, Tongan Li, Xiliang Zhang, Hongyan Sang, Daimei Wang, Shuai Wang

Xianming Han

We made the first VRI CCD light curves of the short-period contact eclipsing binary GK Aqr, which was observed on October 5 and 8, 2013 at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, China. The ephemeris of GK Aqr was calculated based on our two newly obtained minima and the minima that other observers obtained previously. We discovered that the orbital period of GK Aqr exhibits an increasing trend of Ṗ=2.8(0.1)×10^-7 days/year by means of fitting the O-C values of the minima. This phenomenon might be explained by mass transfer from the primary (less ...


University Scholar Series: Michael Kaufman, Michael Kaufman 2015 San Jose State University

University Scholar Series: Michael Kaufman, Michael Kaufman

University Scholar Series

On October 28, 2015, Dr. Michael Kaufman spoke in the University Scholar Series hosted by Provost Andy Feinstein at the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library. His talk was titled “H2O in Interstellar Space: How the Universe Conspires to Make Water, Water Everywhere.” Dr. Kaufman's astrophysics research focuses on the interactions and feedback between newly formed stars and the interstellar medium—the raw material from which stars form. He constructs computational models of the radiative transfer, dynamics and chemistry that occur in regions of active star formation, and uses these models to interpret observations with ground-based, airborne ...


Nitrogen Abundances In Early-Type Be Stars, Ahmed Ahmed 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Nitrogen Abundances In Early-Type Be Stars, Ahmed Ahmed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A sample of 26 Be stars from the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) spectroscopic survey are analyzed for their photospheric nitrogen abundances in an effort to detect rotational mixing in the Be stars. Be stars are massive stars, between 3 and 20 times the mass of the Sun, that are surrounded by a thin, equatorial disk of gas that produces emission lines in their optical and near-infrared spectra. Be stars are the most rapidly-rotating stellar population on the main sequence, where stars produce energy by core hydrogen burning. New, non-LTE line transfer calculations are performed for the Nii ion, the ...


Dr. Linda French: Don’T Limit Yourself (Interview With Kelsi Singer), Linda French 2015 Illinois Wesleyan University

Dr. Linda French: Don’T Limit Yourself (Interview With Kelsi Singer), Linda French

Linda French

Dr. Linda French is Professor of Physics and past Chair of the Physics Department at Illinois Wesleyan University, where she has been a professor since 2002. She received her A.B. in astronomy from Indiana University and a Ph. D. in planetary astronomy from Cornell University. Her scientific research, funded by the National Science Foundation, concerns the study of the shapes and surfaces of asteroids and comets. She is a frequent guest observer at Lowell Observatory in Arizona and at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory in Chile, and is often accompanied by students on these research trips.


The V471 Tauri System: A Multi-Data-Type Probe, Todd R. Vaccaro, Robert E. Wilson, W. Van Hamme, Dirk Terrell 2015 St. Cloud State University

The V471 Tauri System: A Multi-Data-Type Probe, Todd R. Vaccaro, Robert E. Wilson, W. Van Hamme, Dirk Terrell

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

V471 Tauri, a white dwarf–red dwarf eclipsing binary ( EB) in the Hyades, is well known for stimulating development of common envelope theory, whereby novae and other cataclysmic variables form from much wider binaries by catastrophic orbit shrinkage. Our evaluation of a recent imaging search that reported negative results for a much postulated third body shows that the object could have escaped detection or may have actually been seen. The balance of evidence continues to favor a brown dwarf companion about 12 AU from the EB. A recently developed algorithm finds unified solutions from three data types. New radial velocities ...


A Coordinated X-Ray And Optical Campaign Of The Nearest Massive Eclipsing Binary, Δ Ori Aa: I. Overview Of The X-Ray Spectrum., M. Corcoran, J. Nichols, H. Pablo, T. Shenar, A. Pollock, W. Waldron, A. Moffat, N. Richardson, C. Russell, K. Hamaguchi, D. Huenemoerder, L. Oskinova, W.-R. Hamann, Y. Nazé, R. Ignace, N. Evans, J. Lomax, J. Hoffman, K. Gayley, S. Owocki, M. Leutenegger, T. Gull, K. Hole, J. Lauer, R. Iping 2015 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

A Coordinated X-Ray And Optical Campaign Of The Nearest Massive Eclipsing Binary, Δ Ori Aa: I. Overview Of The X-Ray Spectrum., M. Corcoran, J. Nichols, H. Pablo, T. Shenar, A. Pollock, W. Waldron, A. Moffat, N. Richardson, C. Russell, K. Hamaguchi, D. Huenemoerder, L. Oskinova, W.-R. Hamann, Y. Nazé, R. Ignace, N. Evans, J. Lomax, J. Hoffman, K. Gayley, S. Owocki, M. Leutenegger, T. Gull, K. Hole, J. Lauer, R. Iping

Richard Ignace

We present an overview of four deep phase-constrained Chandra HETGS X-ray observations of δ Ori A. Delta Ori A is actually a triple system that includes the nearest massive eclipsing spectroscopic binary, δ Ori Aa, the only such object that can be observed with little phase-smearing with the Chandra gratings. Since the fainter star, δ Ori Aa2, has a much lower X-ray luminosity than the brighter primary (δ Ori Aa1), δ Ori Aa provides a unique system with which to test the spatial distribution of the X-ray emitting gas around δ Ori Aa1 via occultation by the photosphere of, and ...


A Coordinated X-Ray And Optical Campaign Of The Nearest Massive Eclipsing Binary, Δ Orionis Aa. Iii. Analysis Of Optical Photometric (Most) And Spectroscopic (Ground Based) Variations., Herbert Pablo, Noel Richardson, Anthony Moffat, Michael Corcoran, Tomer Shenar, Omar Benvenuto, Jim Fuller, Yaël Nazé, Jennifer Hoffman, Anatoly Miroshnichenko, Jesús Apellániz, Nancy Evans, Thomas Eversberg, Ken Gayley, Ted Gull, Kenji Hamaguchi, Wolf-Rainer Hamann, Huib Henrichs, Tabetha Hole, Richard Ignace, Rosina Iping, Jennifer Lauer, Maurice Leutenegger, Jamie Lomax, Joy Nichols, Lida Oskinova, Stan Owocki, Andy Pollock, Christopher Russell, Wayne Waldron, Christian Buil, Thierry Garrel, Keith Graham, Bernard Heathcote, Thierry Lemoult, Dong Li, Benjamin Mauclaire, Mike Potter, Jose Ribeiro, Jaymie Matthews, Chris Cameron, David Guenther, Rainer Kuschnig, Jason Rowe, Slavek Rucinski, Dimitar Sasselov, Werner Weiss 2015 Université de Montréal

A Coordinated X-Ray And Optical Campaign Of The Nearest Massive Eclipsing Binary, Δ Orionis Aa. Iii. Analysis Of Optical Photometric (Most) And Spectroscopic (Ground Based) Variations., Herbert Pablo, Noel Richardson, Anthony Moffat, Michael Corcoran, Tomer Shenar, Omar Benvenuto, Jim Fuller, Yaël Nazé, Jennifer Hoffman, Anatoly Miroshnichenko, Jesús Apellániz, Nancy Evans, Thomas Eversberg, Ken Gayley, Ted Gull, Kenji Hamaguchi, Wolf-Rainer Hamann, Huib Henrichs, Tabetha Hole, Richard Ignace, Rosina Iping, Jennifer Lauer, Maurice Leutenegger, Jamie Lomax, Joy Nichols, Lida Oskinova, Stan Owocki, Andy Pollock, Christopher Russell, Wayne Waldron, Christian Buil, Thierry Garrel, Keith Graham, Bernard Heathcote, Thierry Lemoult, Dong Li, Benjamin Mauclaire, Mike Potter, Jose Ribeiro, Jaymie Matthews, Chris Cameron, David Guenther, Rainer Kuschnig, Jason Rowe, Slavek Rucinski, Dimitar Sasselov, Werner Weiss

Richard Ignace

We report on both high-precision photometry from the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST) space telescope and ground-based spectroscopy of the triple system δ Ori A, consisting of a binary O9.5II+early-B(Aa1 and Aa2) with P=5.7 days, and a more distant tertiary(O9 IV P 400 years). This data was collected in concert with X-ray spectroscopy from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Thanks to continuous coverage for three weeks, the MOST light curve reveals clear eclipses between Aa1 and Aa2 for the first time in non-phased data. From the spectroscopy, we have a well-constrained radial velocity (RV ...


A Coordinated X-Ray And Optical Campaign Of The Nearest Massive Eclipsing Binary, Δ Orionis Aa: Ii. X-Ray Variability., J. Nichols, D. Huenemoerder, M. Corcoran, W. Waldron, Y. Nazé, A. Pollock, A. Moffat, J. Lauer, T. Shenar, C. Russell, N. Richardson, H. Pablo, N. Evans, K. Hamaguchi, T. Gull, W.-R. Hamann, L. Oskinova, R. Ignace, Jennifer Hoffman, K. Hole, J. Lomax 2015 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

A Coordinated X-Ray And Optical Campaign Of The Nearest Massive Eclipsing Binary, Δ Orionis Aa: Ii. X-Ray Variability., J. Nichols, D. Huenemoerder, M. Corcoran, W. Waldron, Y. Nazé, A. Pollock, A. Moffat, J. Lauer, T. Shenar, C. Russell, N. Richardson, H. Pablo, N. Evans, K. Hamaguchi, T. Gull, W.-R. Hamann, L. Oskinova, R. Ignace, Jennifer Hoffman, K. Hole, J. Lomax

Richard Ignace

We present time-resolved and phase-resolved variability studies of an extensive X-ray high-resolution spectral data set of the δ Ori Aa binary system. The four observations, obtained with Chandra ACIS HETGS, have a total exposure time of ≈ 479 ks and provide nearly complete binary phase coverage. Variability of the total X-ray flux in the range of 5–25 Å is confirmed, with a maximum amplitude of about ±15% within a single ≈ 125 ks observation. Periods of 4.76 and 2.04 days are found in the total X-ray flux, as well as an apparent overall increase in the flux level throughout ...


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