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Fundamental Parameters Of The Lowest Mass Stars To The Highest Mass Planets, Joseph C. Filippazzo 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Fundamental Parameters Of The Lowest Mass Stars To The Highest Mass Planets, Joseph C. Filippazzo

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The physical and atmospheric properties of ultracool dwarfs are deeply entangled due to the degenerate effects of mass, age, metallicity, clouds and dust, activity, rotation, and possibly formation mechanism on their observed properties. Accurate fundamental parameters for a wide range of substellar objects are crucial to testing stellar and planetary formation theories. To determine these quantities, we construct flux-calibrated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 234 M, L, T, and Y dwarfs and calculate bolometric luminosity (Lbol), effective temperature (Teff), mass, surface gravity, radius, spectral indexes, synthetic photometry, and bolometric corrections (BCs) for each object. We use these results ...


An X-Rays Survey Of The Young Stellar Population Of The Lynds 1641 And Iota Orionis Regions, I. Pillitteri, S. J. Wolk, S. T. Megeath, L. Allen, J. Bally, Marc Gagné, R. A. Gutermuth, L. Hartman, G. Micela, P. Myers, J. M. Oliveira, S. Sciortino, F. Walter, L. Rebull, J. Stauffer 2016 Harvard University

An X-Rays Survey Of The Young Stellar Population Of The Lynds 1641 And Iota Orionis Regions, I. Pillitteri, S. J. Wolk, S. T. Megeath, L. Allen, J. Bally, Marc Gagné, R. A. Gutermuth, L. Hartman, G. Micela, P. Myers, J. M. Oliveira, S. Sciortino, F. Walter, L. Rebull, J. Stauffer

Marc Gagné

We present an XMM-Newton survey of the part of Orion A cloud south of the Orion Nebula. This survey includes the Lynds 1641 (L1641) dark cloud, a region of the Orion A cloud with very few massive stars and hence a relatively low ambient UV flux, and the region around the O9 III star Orionis. In addition to proprietary data, we used archival XMM data of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) to extend our analysis to a major fraction of the Orion A cloud. We have detected 1060 X-ray sources in L1641 and Ori region. About 94% of the sources ...


Dicke’S Superradiance In Astrophysics, Fereshteh Rajabi 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Dicke’S Superradiance In Astrophysics, Fereshteh Rajabi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It is generally assumed that in the interstellar medium much of the emission emanating from atomic and molecular transitions within a radiating gas happen independently for each atom or molecule, but as was pointed out by R. H. Dicke in a seminal paper several decades ago this assumption does not apply in all conditions. As will be discussed in this thesis, and following Dicke’s original analysis, closely packed atoms/molecules can interact with their common electromagnetic field and radiate coherently through an effect he named superradiance. Superradiance is a cooperative quantum mechanical phenomenon characterized by high intensity, spatially compact ...


A Multi-Wavelength Analysis Of Cold Evolving Interstellar Clouds, Mary Spraggs 2016 Western Kentucky University

A Multi-Wavelength Analysis Of Cold Evolving Interstellar Clouds, Mary Spraggs

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The interstellar medium (ISM) is the dynamic system of gas and dust that fills the space between the stars within galaxies. Due to its integral role in star formation and ga-lactic structure, it is important to understand how the ISM itself evolves over time, in-cluding the process of cooling and condensing required to form new stars. This work aims to constrain and better understand the physical properties of the cold ISM with sev-eral different types of data, including large surveys of neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) 21cm spectral line emission and absorption, carbon monoxide (CO) 2.6mm line emission, and multi-band ...


The Spectral Variability Of Astronomical Pahs, Matthew Shannon 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Spectral Variability Of Astronomical Pahs, Matthew Shannon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly abundant molecules found throughout the universe. Illuminated by ultraviolet photons, they can emit up to 10% of the total power output of star-forming galaxies and are involved in many important physical and chemical processes (e.g., gas heating). They produce prominent emission bands between 3-20 μm which vary strongly in intensity and spectral profile. The origins of these variations are not fully understood, which limits the use of PAHs as (ubiquitous) diagnostic tracers of physical conditions. To characterize their variability, we studied the relative intensities and profiles of the 10-20 μm PAH bands in ...


The Turning-Off Of Supernova Remnants: The Transition Into The Radiative Phase, Ryan A. Lazur, Rodolfo Barniol Duran, Dimitrios Giannios 2016 Purdue University

The Turning-Off Of Supernova Remnants: The Transition Into The Radiative Phase, Ryan A. Lazur, Rodolfo Barniol Duran, Dimitrios Giannios

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Supernovae are amongst the most energetic events in the Universe. Understanding the different stages of the life of a supernova is currently one of the main objectives in astrophysics. During a supernova explosion, material with mass several times that of the Sun is ejected with a speed about 1/10 that of light. In current models, the transition from the Sedov-Taylor to the radiative phase is assumed to be almost instantaneous, which is not entirely accurate. Here the physics of the transition to the radiative phase will be revisited. Observations indicate that the supernova ejecta remains bright in the radio ...


Back Half Of The Year, Ian R. Clarke 2016 Gettysburg College

Back Half Of The Year, Ian R. Clarke

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

Here we are in the back half of 2016, and the days are getting shorter. We have, as of today, lost 18 minutes since the solstice on June 20, and the speed of that change is quickening. You may wonder why it is that we have our hottest weather after our longest day is behind us. The simple answer is that it takes time for land and water masses to warm up. That’s the reason that Sept. 21 is likely to be a lot warmer than March 21, even though they have the same amount of daylight. [excerpt]


Living In The Milky Way, Ian R. Clarke 2016 Gettysburg College

Living In The Milky Way, Ian R. Clarke

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

It’s finally here. Today, June 20 at 6:34 p.m., is the the summer solstice, also known as the first day of summer and, confusingly enough, midsummer’s eve. From a scientific perspective, it marks the moment the sun reaches its northernmost point in our sky. As a result of that position, it’s the shortest night and longest day if you live north of the equator. [excerpt]


Possible Evolution Of Supermassive Black Holes From Fri Quasars, Matthew I. Kim, Damian J. Christian, David Garofalo, Jaclyn D'Avanzo 2016 California State University, Northridge

Possible Evolution Of Supermassive Black Holes From Fri Quasars, Matthew I. Kim, Damian J. Christian, David Garofalo, Jaclyn D'Avanzo

Faculty Publications

We explore the question of the rapid buildup of black hole mass in the early universe employing a growing black hole mass-based determination of both jet and disc powers predicted in recent theoretical work on black hole accretion and jet formation. Despite simplified, even artificial assumptions about accretion and mergers, we identify an interesting low probability channel for the growth of one billion solar mass black holes within hundreds of millions of years of the big bang without appealing to super Eddington accretion. This result is made more compelling by the recognition of a connection between this channel and an ...


Teaching Numerical Methods In The Context Of Galaxy Mergers, Maria Kourjanskaia 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Teaching Numerical Methods In The Context Of Galaxy Mergers, Maria Kourjanskaia

Physics

Methods of teaching numerical methods to solve ordinary differential equations in the context of galaxy mergers were explored. The research published in a paper by Toomre and Toomre in 1972 describing the formation of galactic tails and bridges from close tidal interactions was adapted into a project targeting undergraduate physics students. Typically undergraduate physics students only take one Computational Physics class in which various techniques and algorithms are taught. Although it is important to study computational physics techniques, it is just as important to apply this knowledge to a problem that is representative of what computational physics researchers are investigating ...


The Inner Gaseous Disks Of Herbig Be Stars, Parshati Patel 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Inner Gaseous Disks Of Herbig Be Stars, Parshati Patel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Herbig Ae/Be stars are intermediate mass (~2 to 20Msun) pre-main sequence stars that inherit a circumstellar disk of dust and gas from their formation phase. The region of this disk closest to the star is entirely gaseous because dust evaporates at the high temperatures there, and this gaseous region is currently poorly understood. Using non-LTE circumstellar disk codes to model the optical and near-infrared spectra of five, early-type (B0Ve to B2Ve) Herbig Be stars obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope ESPaDOnS instrument, the density structure of each inner gaseous disks was determined and estimates of the disk masses and ...


Probing The Fitting Accuracy Of Active Galaxy Spectra, Aaron T. Line 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Probing The Fitting Accuracy Of Active Galaxy Spectra, Aaron T. Line

Physics

Prior to this study, Dr. Vardha N. Bennert and collaborators selected a sample of ~100 local active galaxies to study the relationships between black hole mass and host galaxy properties. The broad Hβ width is necessary to determine black hole mass. This value is determined using a spectral decomposition code was scripted in IDL by Dr. Daeseong Park. The script fit spectral features and collected data for properties such as width of emission lines and continuum contribution percentages. The results were logged for further analysis.

To probe the accuracy of the fitting process, artificial spectra were created and fitted to ...


Reconciling Ag-Star Formation, The Soltan Argument, And Meier's Paradox, David Garofalo, Matthew I. Kim, Damian J. Christian, Emily Hollingworth 2016 Kennesaw State University

Reconciling Ag-Star Formation, The Soltan Argument, And Meier's Paradox, David Garofalo, Matthew I. Kim, Damian J. Christian, Emily Hollingworth

Faculty Publications

We provide a theoretical context for understanding the recent work of Kalfountzou et al. showing that star formation is enhanced at lower optical luminosity in radio-loud quasars. Our proposal for coupling the assumption of collimated FRII quasar-jet-induced star formation with lower accretion optical luminosity also explains the observed jet power peak in active galaxies at higher redshift compared to the peak in accretion power, doing so in a way that predicts the existence of a family of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei associated with rapidly spinning supermassive black holes at low redshift, as mounting observations suggest. The relevance of this work ...


Probing Physical Conditions In The Crab Nebula With Emission Line Analysis, Xiang Wang 2016 University of Kentucky

Probing Physical Conditions In The Crab Nebula With Emission Line Analysis, Xiang Wang

Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy

We present a range of steady-state photoionization simulations, corresponding to different assumed shell geometries and compositions, of the unseen postulated rapidly expanding outer shell to the Crab Nebula. The properties of the shell are constrained by the mass that must lie within it, and by limits to the intensities of hydrogen recombination lines. In all cases the photoionization models predict very strong emission from high ionization lines that will not be emitted by the Crab’s filaments, alleviating problems with detecting these lines in the presence of light scattered from brighter parts of the Crab. The NIR [Ne VI] λ ...


Suzaku X-Ray Observations Of The Nearest Non-Cool Core Cluster, Antlia: Dynamically Young But With Remarkably Relaxed Outskirts, Ka-Wah Wong, Jimmy A. Irwin, Daniel R. Wik, Ming Sun, Craig L. Sarazin, Yutaka Fujita, Thomas H. Reiprich 2016 Minnesota State University Mankato

Suzaku X-Ray Observations Of The Nearest Non-Cool Core Cluster, Antlia: Dynamically Young But With Remarkably Relaxed Outskirts, Ka-Wah Wong, Jimmy A. Irwin, Daniel R. Wik, Ming Sun, Craig L. Sarazin, Yutaka Fujita, Thomas H. Reiprich

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We present results of seven Suzaku mosaic observations (>200 ks in total) of the nearest non-cool core cluster, the Antlia Cluster, beyond its degree-scale virial radius (R200≈887 kpc = 76′) in its relaxed direction to the east. The temperature drops by a factorof three from ∼2 keV near the center out to R200, consistent with the scaled temperature profiles of many other clusters. Its pressure follows the universal profile. The density slope in its outskirts is significantly steeper than that of Virgo, which is the nearest cool-core cluster with a similar temperature as Antlia, but shallower than those of the ...


Modeling Extrasolar Trojan Asteroids In Gravitational Potentials Of Migrating Jovian-Like Planets To Inform Future Observations, Austin Hinkel 2016 University of Kentucky

Modeling Extrasolar Trojan Asteroids In Gravitational Potentials Of Migrating Jovian-Like Planets To Inform Future Observations, Austin Hinkel

Honors Program Senior Capstone Collection

In this paper, I construct a program to map the evolution of the potential in a planet-star system where a planet with a few Jupiter masses migrates inward. Given a trojan asteroid librating around the fourth or fifth Lagrange point, the asteroid follows the evolving equipotential lines of the slowly changing potential map. As the planet and its trojan asteroids migrate inward towards the host star, the trojan asteroid librations become tighter, providing a denser “cloud” of trojan asteroids. Such a change in the density of trojan asteroids is examined with the intent to deduce the likelihood of detection via ...


Solar Modulation Of The Cosmic Ray Intensity And The Measurement Of The Cerenkov Reemission In Nova’S Liquid Scintillator, Philip James Mason 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Solar Modulation Of The Cosmic Ray Intensity And The Measurement Of The Cerenkov Reemission In Nova’S Liquid Scintillator, Philip James Mason

Doctoral Dissertations

The NOνA (NuMI Off-axis electron neutrino Appearance) experiment is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Its purpose is to observe the oscillation of νμ (muon neutrino) to νe (electron neutrino) and to investigate the neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in the neutrino sector. Two detectors have been built for this purpose, a Near Detector 300 feet underground at Fermilab, and a Far Detector, on the surface at Ash River, Minnesota.

The completion of NOνA’s Far Detector in October 2014 enabled not only the recent measurement of neutrino oscillations, but an array ...


Excess Mid-Infrared Flux: An Indicator Of Mass Loss In Cepheids?, Edward G. Schmidt 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Excess Mid-Infrared Flux: An Indicator Of Mass Loss In Cepheids?, Edward G. Schmidt

Edward Schmidt Publications

Spectral energy distributions for 132 classical and type II Cepheids were searched for evidence of excess flux above the photospheric level in the mid-infrared. Eight of them were found to have unambiguously strong excess emission while a further 13 showed evidence of weak emission. The presence of emission appears to be unrelated to either the pulsational amplitude or the effective temperature while strong emission is limited to stars with periods longer than 11 days, with a single exception. For the stars with strong emission we attempted to fit the energy distribution with a stellar wind model. No acceptable fit could ...


X-Ray Emission From The Giant Magnetosphere Of The Magnetic O-Type Star Ngc 1624-2, V. Petit, D. H. Cohen, G. A. Wade, Y. Naze, S. P. Owocki, J. O. Sundqvist, A. ud-Doula, A. Fullerton, M. Leutenegger, Marc Gagne 2015 Florida Institute of Technology - Melbourne

X-Ray Emission From The Giant Magnetosphere Of The Magnetic O-Type Star Ngc 1624-2, V. Petit, D. H. Cohen, G. A. Wade, Y. Naze, S. P. Owocki, J. O. Sundqvist, A. Ud-Doula, A. Fullerton, M. Leutenegger, Marc Gagne

Geology & Astronomy Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Photometric Study Of The Short-Period Eclipsing Binary V441 Lac, Daimei Wang, Liyun Zhang, Xianming Han, Franz Agerer, Qingfeng Pi, Shuai Wang 2015 Butler University

Photometric Study Of The Short-Period Eclipsing Binary V441 Lac, Daimei Wang, Liyun Zhang, Xianming Han, Franz Agerer, Qingfeng Pi, Shuai Wang

Xianming Han

We present the first multi-color VRI CCD light curves of a short-period eclipsing binary star v441 Lac in this paper. We obtained our light curves on Oct. 4 and 8, 2013 at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, China. We updated the ephemeris of V441 Lac based on three new minima derived by our new observational data together with previously available light curve minima. By fitting the O−C (observed minus calculated) values of the minima, we found that the orbital period of V441 Lac exhibits an increasing trend of Ṗ=5.67(0.35)×10^-7 days/year, which ...


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