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Automated Spectroscopic Detection And Mapping Using Alma And Machine Learningtechniques, Steven Cocke, Andrew Wilkins, Josephine McDaniel, John Santerre, Conor Nixon 2020 Southern Methodist University

Automated Spectroscopic Detection And Mapping Using Alma And Machine Learningtechniques, Steven Cocke, Andrew Wilkins, Josephine Mcdaniel, John Santerre, Conor Nixon

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper we present a methodology for automating theclassification of spectrally resolved observations of multiple emissionlines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA).Molecules in planetary atmospheres emit or absorb different wavelengthsof light thereby providing a unique signature for each species. ALMAdata were taken from interferometric observations of Titan made be-tween UT 2012 July 03 23:22:14 and 2012 July 04 01:06:18 as part ofALMA project 2011.0.00319.S. We first employed a greedy set cover algorithm to identify the most probable molecules that would reproducethe set of frequencies with respective flux greater than ...


Gravitational Wave Calibration Error For Supernovae Core Collapse, Brad Ratto 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Gravitational Wave Calibration Error For Supernovae Core Collapse, Brad Ratto

Discovery Day - Prescott

The existence of gravitational waves reveals yet another method in which information is transmitted across the cosmos, bringing with it further insight into the inner workings of our universe. In order to detect such phenomena, we use ground based Laser Interferometers to measure the microscopic deformations in space-time and explore a new frontier in gravitational astronomy. However, such instrumentation also induces distortions in the gravitational waves henceforth diminishing the ability to extract accurate physical information. Moreover, the ability to extract a coherent signal amongst the noise remains an issue that requires constant improvement. The aim of this study is to ...


Fast Radio Bursts From Interacting Binary Neutron Star Systems, Bing Zhang 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Fast Radio Bursts From Interacting Binary Neutron Star Systems, Bing Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Recent observations of repeating fast radio bursts (FRBs) suggest that some FRBs reside in an environment consistent with that of binary neutron star (BNS) mergers. The bursting rate for repeaters could be very high and the emission site is likely from a magnetosphere. We discuss a hypothesis of producing abundant repeating FRBs in BNS systems. Decades to centuries before a BNS system coalesces, the magnetospheres of the two neutron stars start to interact relentlessly. Abrupt magnetic reconnection accelerates particles, which emit coherent radio waves in bunches via curvature radiation. FRBs are detected as these bright radiation beams point toward Earth ...


Asteroid Belt Survival Through Stellar Evolution: Dependence On The Stellar Mass, Rebecca G. Martin, Mario Livio, Jeremy L. Smallwood, Cheng Chen 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Asteroid Belt Survival Through Stellar Evolution: Dependence On The Stellar Mass, Rebecca G. Martin, Mario Livio, Jeremy L. Smallwood, Cheng Chen

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Polluted white dwarfs are generally accreting terrestrial-like material that may originate from a debris belt like the asteroid belt in the Solar system. ... See full text for complete abstract.


Effects Of Opacity Temperature Dependence On Radiatively Accelerated Clouds, Sergei Dyda, Daniel Proga, Christopher S. Reynolds 2020 Institute of Astronomy

Effects Of Opacity Temperature Dependence On Radiatively Accelerated Clouds, Sergei Dyda, Daniel Proga, Christopher S. Reynolds

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

We study how different opacity–temperature scalings affect the dynamical evolution of irradiated gas clouds using time-dependent radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. When clouds are optically thick, the bright side heats up and expands, accelerating the cloud via the rocket effect. Clouds that become more optically thick as they heat accelerate ∼35 per cent faster than clouds that become optically thin. An enhancement of ∼85 per cent in the acceleration can be achieved by having a broken power-law opacity profile, which allows the evaporating gas driving the cloud to become optically thin and not attenuate the driving radiation flux. We find that up ...


Fenderson, Julia Katharine (Squires), 1905-1989 (Sc 3500), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives 2020 Western Kentucky University

Fenderson, Julia Katharine (Squires), 1905-1989 (Sc 3500), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 3500. “The Viewing of Halley’s Comet: 1910-1986, A Personal Remembrance by Julia Squires Fenderson as told to Charles Arterburn,” a reminiscence by Mrs. Fenderson, of Culver City, California, of her viewings of Halley’s Comet: first with her father in 1910 at a Catholic mission in Albuquerque, New Mexico; and again in 1986, at the Santa Monica (California) College Planetarium. Includes an explanatory e-mail from Charles Arterburn.


Resolving The Fu Orionis System With Alma: Interacting Twin Disks?, Sebastian Perez, Antonio Hales, Hauyu Baobab Liu, Zhaohuan Zhu, Simon Casassus, Jonathan Williams, Alice Zurlo, Nicolas Cuello, Lucas Cieza, David Principe 2020 Universidad de Santiago de Chile

Resolving The Fu Orionis System With Alma: Interacting Twin Disks?, Sebastian Perez, Antonio Hales, Hauyu Baobab Liu, Zhaohuan Zhu, Simon Casassus, Jonathan Williams, Alice Zurlo, Nicolas Cuello, Lucas Cieza, David Principe

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

FU Orionis objects are low-mass pre-main sequence stars characterized by dramatic outbursts several magnitudes in brightness. These outbursts are linked to episodic accretion events in which stars gain a significant portion of their mass. The physical processes behind these accretion events are not yet well understood. The archetypal FU Ori system, FU Orionis, is composed of two young stars with detected gas and dust emission. The continuum emitting regions have not been resolved until now. Here, we present 1.3 mm observations of the FU Ori binary system using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. The disks are resolved at ...


Stellar Nucleosynthesis: Direct Measurement Of The Neutron-Capture Cross Sections Of Stable Germanium Isotopes And Design Of A Next Generation Ion Trap For The Study Of Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission, Alexander Laminack 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Stellar Nucleosynthesis: Direct Measurement Of The Neutron-Capture Cross Sections Of Stable Germanium Isotopes And Design Of A Next Generation Ion Trap For The Study Of Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission, Alexander Laminack

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Knowledge of stellar nuclear reaction rates is critical to understanding the cosmic origins of the abundances of elements. In order to determine these reaction rates, accurate measurements of nuclear cross sections are needed. This thesis presents the results of an experiment to directly measure the neutron capture cross sections of 70-Ge, 72-Ge, 74-Ge, and 76-Ge. These measurements were performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science CEnter (LANSCE) using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). This is the first direct measurement for many of these isotopes across the neutron energy spectrum of 10 eV to 1 MeV using the ...


Relation Between Gravitational Mass And Baryonic Mass For Non-Rotating And Rapidly Rotating Neutron Stars, He Gao, Shun-Ke Ai, Zhou-Jian Cao, Bing Zhang, Zhen-Yu Zhu, Ang Li, Nai-Bo Zhang, Andreas Bauswein 2020 Beijing Normal University

Relation Between Gravitational Mass And Baryonic Mass For Non-Rotating And Rapidly Rotating Neutron Stars, He Gao, Shun-Ke Ai, Zhou-Jian Cao, Bing Zhang, Zhen-Yu Zhu, Ang Li, Nai-Bo Zhang, Andreas Bauswein

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

With a selected sample of neutron star (NS) equations of state (EOSs) that are consistent with the current observations and have a range of maximum masses, we investigate the relations between NS gravitational mass Mg and baryonic mass Mb, and the relations between the maximum NS mass supported through uniform rotation (Mmax) and that of nonrotating NSs (MTOV). We find that for an EOS-independent quadratic, universal transformation formula (Mb=Mg+A×M2g)(Mb=Mg+A×Mg2), the best-fit A value is 0.080 for non-rotating NSs, 0.064 for maximally rotating NSs, and 0.073 when NSs with arbitrary rotation ...


Exoplanets: Correlated Noise And Cautionary Tales, Ryan Challener 2020 University of Central Florida

Exoplanets: Correlated Noise And Cautionary Tales, Ryan Challener

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Transiting exoplanets provide the best opportunity for planetary characterization, and thus the search for life outside the Solar System. These planets orbit such that they pass in front ("transit'') and behind ("eclipse'') their host star, and a spectrum of the lost flux constrains the atmospheric properties of the planet. In transits, the flux modulation scales with the cross-sectional area of the planet, and the spectrum includes signatures of molecules in the upper atmosphere of the planet's terminator, which the host star's light passes through on the way to the observer. With eclipses, the lost flux is the direct ...


Stellar Chromospheric Activity And Age Relation From Open Clusters In The Lamost Survey, Jiajun Zhang, Terry Oswalt, Jingkun Zhao, Xiangsong Fang, Gang Zhao, Xilong Liang, Xianhao Ye, Jing Zhong 2019 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,

Stellar Chromospheric Activity And Age Relation From Open Clusters In The Lamost Survey, Jiajun Zhang, Terry Oswalt, Jingkun Zhao, Xiangsong Fang, Gang Zhao, Xilong Liang, Xianhao Ye, Jing Zhong

Publications

No abstract provided.


New Foundation In The Sciences: Physics Without Sweeping Infinities Under The Rug, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd 2019 University of New Mexico

New Foundation In The Sciences: Physics Without Sweeping Infinities Under The Rug, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

It is widely known among the Frontiers of physics, that “sweeping under the rug” practice has been quite the norm rather than exception. In other words, the leading paradigms have strong tendency to be hailed as the only game in town. For example, renormalization group theory was hailed as cure in order to solve infinity problem in QED theory. For instance, a quote from Richard Feynman goes as follows: “What the three Nobel Prize winners did, in the words of Feynman, was "to get rid of the infinities in the calculations. The infinities are still there, but now they can ...


A Unified Binary Neutron Star Merger Magnetar Model For The Chandra X-Ray Transients Cdf-S Xt1 And Xt2, Hui Sun, Ye Li, Bin-Bin Zhang, Bing Zhang, Franz E. Bauer, Yongquan Xue, Weimin Yuan 2019 Chinese Academy of Sciences

A Unified Binary Neutron Star Merger Magnetar Model For The Chandra X-Ray Transients Cdf-S Xt1 And Xt2, Hui Sun, Ye Li, Bin-Bin Zhang, Bing Zhang, Franz E. Bauer, Yongquan Xue, Weimin Yuan

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Two bright X-ray transients were reported from the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) archival data, namely CDF-S XT1 and XT2. Whereas the nature of the former is not identified, the latter was suggested as an excellent candidate for a rapidly spinning magnetar born from a binary neutron star (BNS) merger. Here we propose a unified model to interpret both transients within the framework of the BNS merger magnetar model. According to our picture, CDF-S XT2 is observed from the "free zone" where the magnetar spindown powered X-ray emission escapes freely, whereas CDF-S XT1 originates from the "trapped zone" where the ...


Alpha Capture Reaction Rates For Nucleosynthesis Within An Ab Initio Framework, Alison Constance Dreyfuss 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Alpha Capture Reaction Rates For Nucleosynthesis Within An Ab Initio Framework, Alison Constance Dreyfuss

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Clustering in nuclear systems has broad impacts on all phases of stellar burning, and plays a significant role in our understanding of nucleosynthesis, or how and where nuclei are produced in the universe. The role of alpha particles in particular is extremely important for nuclear astrophysics: 4He was one of the earliest elements produced in the Big Bang, it is one of the most abundant elements in the universe, and helium burning -- in particular, the triple-alpha process -- is one of the most important ``engines'' in stars. To better understand nucleosynthesis and stellar burning, then, it is important to develop ...


A Rotating Aperture Mask For Small Telescopes, Edward L. Foley 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

A Rotating Aperture Mask For Small Telescopes, Edward L. Foley

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Observing the dynamic interaction between stars and their close stellar neighbors is key to establishing the stars’ orbits, masses, and other properties. Our ability to visually discriminate nearby stars is limited by the power of our telescopes, posing a challenge to astronomers at small observatories that contribute to binary star surveys. Masks placed at the telescope aperture promise to augment the resolving power of telescopes of all sizes, but many of these masks must be manually and repetitively reoriented about the optical axis to achieve their full benefits. This paper introduces a design concept for a mask rotation mechanism that ...


Observational Studies Of Fragmentation In Molecular Clouds, Riwaj Pokhrel, Riwaj Pokhrel, Riwaj Pokhrel 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Observational Studies Of Fragmentation In Molecular Clouds, Riwaj Pokhrel, Riwaj Pokhrel, Riwaj Pokhrel

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, I explore fragmentation physics in multiple scales in nearby molecular clouds and discuss some implications of fragmentation for cloud structure formation and star formation, primarily by analyzing multi-wavelength observations of dust emission. First, I tested the complete thermal and combined thermal and nonthermal support mechanisms that balance gravitational contraction at multiple scales in the Perseus molecular cloud. I found that the observed multiscale structures in Perseus are consistent with an inefficient thermal Jeans fragmentation, where the Jeans efficiency increases from the largest scale ($\gtrsim$10s of pc) to the smallest scale ($\sim$10s of AU). Next, I ...


The Impact Of Protostellar Feedback On Astrochemistry, Brandt Gaches 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Impact Of Protostellar Feedback On Astrochemistry, Brandt Gaches

Doctoral Dissertations

Star formation is the lynch pin that lies in between the scales of galaxy and planet formation. Observational studies of molecular clouds, the sites of star formation, primarly use molecular line emission, providing dynamical and chemical information. Two of the key parameters of astrochemical models are far-ultraviolet (FUV) flux and the cosmic ray ionization rate. We use analytic accretion histories to predict the bolometric and FUV luminosities of protostar clusters and compare different histories with observed bolometric luminosities. We find that the Tapered Turbulent Core model best represents the observed luminosities and their dispersion. We extend the models to calculate ...


Synchrotron Self-Compton Emission From External Shocks As The Origin Of The Sub-Tev Emission In Grb 180720b And Grb 190114c, Xiang-Yu Wang, Ruo-Yu Liu, Hai-Ming Zhang, Shao-Qiang Xi, Bing Zhang 2019 Nanjing University

Synchrotron Self-Compton Emission From External Shocks As The Origin Of The Sub-Tev Emission In Grb 180720b And Grb 190114c, Xiang-Yu Wang, Ruo-Yu Liu, Hai-Ming Zhang, Shao-Qiang Xi, Bing Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Recently, very high-energy photons above 100 GeV were reported to be detected from GRB 190114C and GRB 180720B at, respectively, 100–1000 s and 10 hr after the burst. We model the available broadband data of both GRBs with the synchrotron plus synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission of the afterglow shocks. We find that the sub-TeV emission of GRB 180720B can be interpreted as the SSC emission from afterglow shocks expanding in a constant-density circumburst medium. The SSC emission of GRB 190114C dominates over the synchrotron component from GeV energies at ~100 s, which can explain the possible hard spectrum of ...


"Double-Tracking" Characteristics Of The Spectral Evolution Of Grb 131231a: Synchrotron Origin?, Liang Li, Jin-Jun Geng, Yan-Zhi Meng, Xue-Feng Wu, Yong-Feng Huang, Yu Wang, Rahim Moradi, Lucas Uhm, Bing Zhang 2019 Chinese Academy of Sciences

"Double-Tracking" Characteristics Of The Spectral Evolution Of Grb 131231a: Synchrotron Origin?, Liang Li, Jin-Jun Geng, Yan-Zhi Meng, Xue-Feng Wu, Yong-Feng Huang, Yu Wang, Rahim Moradi, Lucas Uhm, Bing Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The characteristics of the spectral evolution of the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are closely related to the radiation mechanism (synchrotron or photosphere), are still an unsolved subject. Here, by performing the detailed time-resolved spectral fitting of GRB 131231A, which has a very bright and well-defined single pulse, some interesting spectral evolution features have been found. (i) Both the low-energy spectral index α and the peak energy E p exhibit the "flux-tracking" pattern ("double-tracking" characteristics). (ii) The parameter relations, i.e., F (the energy flux)-α, F–E p, and E p–α, along with the analogous Yonetoku ...


The Frb 121102 Host Is Atypical Among Nearby Fast Radio Bursts, Ye Li, Bing Zhang, Kentaro Nagamine, Jingjing Shi 2019 Peking University

The Frb 121102 Host Is Atypical Among Nearby Fast Radio Bursts, Ye Li, Bing Zhang, Kentaro Nagamine, Jingjing Shi

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

We search for host galaxy candidates of nearby fast radio bursts (FRBs), FRB 180729.J1316+55, FRB 171020, FRB 171213, FRB 180810.J1159+83, and FRB 180814.J0422+73 (the second repeating FRB). We compare the absolute magnitudes and the expected host dispersion measure DMhost of these candidates with that of the first repeating FRB, FRB 121102, as well as those of long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) and superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), the proposed progenitor systems of FRB 121102. We find that while the FRB 121102 host is consistent with those of LGRBs and SLSNe, the nearby FRB host candidates, at least ...


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