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Hunting For Fast Radio Bursts From Messier 82: Exploring The Frb--Magnetar Connection, Susie Paine 2022 Macalester College

Hunting For Fast Radio Bursts From Messier 82: Exploring The Frb--Magnetar Connection, Susie Paine

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are short-duration radio pulses of cosmological origin. Among the most common sources predicted to explain this phenomenon are bright pulses from a class of extremely highly magnetized neutron stars known as magnetars. In 2020, a Galactic magnetar produced an FRB-like burst, allowing researchers to constrain the Galactic magnetar burst rate. We assume that the magnetar burst rate scales with star formation rate and test an important prediction for similar bursts in nearby galaxies. Messier 82 (M82) has a star formation rate 40 times that of the Milky Way, implying that the magnetar burst rate would be ...


Emergent Spectra Of Young X-Ray Emitting Populations Across Environments, Alex Siebenmorgen 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Emergent Spectra Of Young X-Ray Emitting Populations Across Environments, Alex Siebenmorgen

Physics Undergraduate Honors Theses

We construct reasonably accurate models of the X-Ray spectra of a multitude of sources in M51. We construct both average and individual models for the sources, which are split into 16 groups as the counts per source increases. Then, we create a plot to show how the model-predicted values of column density (nH) and photon index (gamma) change with luminosity. These models will be used to create an accurate X-Ray stellar energy distribution (SED) for M51, and to better understand how the SED changes with environmental factors like metallicity and star formation rate (SFR).


Bayesian Methods For Multi-Messenger Analysis Of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries: Pulsars And Quasars And Gravitational Waves, Oh My!, Caitlin A. Witt 2022 West Virginia University

Bayesian Methods For Multi-Messenger Analysis Of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries: Pulsars And Quasars And Gravitational Waves, Oh My!, Caitlin A. Witt

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) can lurk, often unseen, in the centers of post-merger galaxies, and pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are rapidly approaching the sensitivities required to detect nanohertz gravitational waves (GWs) from these giant pairs. Independently, numerous electromagnetic surveys are seeking evidence of these dynamic duos’ effects on their host galaxies by searching for periodicities in time-domain observations. Combining these two methods to use multi-messenger techniques allows us to learn more about these binaries than using one messenger alone. In this thesis, we have created Bayesian methods to search for SMBHBs using electromagnetic observations of quasars and through GW ...


The Loneliest Galaxies In The Universe: A Gama And Galaxyzoo Study On Void Galaxy Morphology, Lori E. Porter, Benne W. Holwerda 2021 University of Louisville

The Loneliest Galaxies In The Universe: A Gama And Galaxyzoo Study On Void Galaxy Morphology, Lori E. Porter, Benne W. Holwerda

The Cardinal Edge

The large-scale structure (LSS) of the universe is comprised of galaxy filaments, tendrils, and voids. The majority of the universe’s volume is taken up by these voids, which exist as underdense, but not empty, regions. The galaxies found inside voids are void galaxies and expected to be some of the most isolated objects in the universe. However, their standard morphology remains poorly studied. This study, using the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey and Galaxy Zoo’s SDSS survey, aims to remedy this. To do so, survey results from GAMA have been plotted using the Sérsic index (n) to ...


Catalog Of Edge-On Galaxies Using The Pan-Starrs1 Survey Data, Dimitry I. Makarov, S. Savchenko, Alexander V. Mosenkov, Dmitry V. Bizyaev, Vladimir P. Reshetnikov, Alexandra V. Antipova, I. Tikhonenko, P. Usachev, S. Borisov, L. Makarova, Stefan Kautsch, A. Marchuk, E. Rub Edukov, M. Skryabina, P. Smirnova 2021 Russian Academy of Sciences

Catalog Of Edge-On Galaxies Using The Pan-Starrs1 Survey Data, Dimitry I. Makarov, S. Savchenko, Alexander V. Mosenkov, Dmitry V. Bizyaev, Vladimir P. Reshetnikov, Alexandra V. Antipova, I. Tikhonenko, P. Usachev, S. Borisov, L. Makarova, Stefan Kautsch, A. Marchuk, E. Rub Edukov, M. Skryabina, P. Smirnova

Chemistry and Physics Faculty Articles

We have created a catalog of edge-on galaxies based on the publicly available DR2 data from the Pan-STARRS survey. The intensive use of an artificial neural network has significantly improved the quality of candidate selection. The catalog provides homogeneous information on astrometry, photometry, and non-parametric morphological statistics for 16551 edge-on galaxies. Our catalog is intended for studying the three-dimensional structure of galaxies with different morphologies and the scaling relations for disks and bulges.


Luminosity Functions Of Galaxy Clusters In The Aquarius And Microscopium Superclusters, Logan A. Hess 2021 The University of Maine

Luminosity Functions Of Galaxy Clusters In The Aquarius And Microscopium Superclusters, Logan A. Hess

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We examine physical properties of several galaxy clusters located within the Aquarius (AQR) and Microscopium (MSC) super-cluster complexes via their luminosity functions, fitted using Schechter functions. Images of clusters were acquired via the DECam (Dark Energy Camera) imager of the 4-meter diameter telescope at CTIO (Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory). We observe six clusters in our sample; four from the Aquarius supercluster (AQR 2541, 2546, 2554, 2555) and two from the Microscopium supercluster (MSC 3695, 3696). Magnitude information and density of member galaxies in each cluster were extracted via the SExtractor software utility from obtained images. We correct for background by ...


Laplace's Equation In Fractional-Dimension Spaces, Kyle Schoener, Gabriele Varieschi 2021 Loyola Marymount University

Laplace's Equation In Fractional-Dimension Spaces, Kyle Schoener, Gabriele Varieschi

Honors Thesis

The correct way to model gravity is a question in physics whose answer continues to elude our understanding. One major difficulty is the dark matter problem, which exists due to the mass discrepancy between predicted and measured values in our universe. One possible solution to this problem is Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). MOND is an alternative gravity model that modifies Newtonian Dynamics with the hope to avoid the necessity of dark matter.

Dr. Varieschi has done work connecting MOND to Newtonian Fractional-Dimension Gravity—the application of fractional calculus and fractional mechanics to classical gravitation laws. In this formulation, we can ...


Testing Spiral Density-Wave Theory In Disk Galaxies Using Multi-Wavelength Image Data, Star Formation History Maps And Spatially Resolved Stellar Clusters, Mohamed Shameer Abdeen 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Testing Spiral Density-Wave Theory In Disk Galaxies Using Multi-Wavelength Image Data, Star Formation History Maps And Spatially Resolved Stellar Clusters, Mohamed Shameer Abdeen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Studying galaxy structures using different wavebands enables us to observe a varietyof intrinsic galactic features and to test the validity of underlying theories in detail. Density wave theory, originally proposed by C.C. Lin and F. Shu (Lin & Shu 1964), explains the nature of the spiral arm patterns in disk galaxies as density waves that propagate through the galactic disk. From spiral galaxies to the rings of Saturn, density wave theory has had success in providing qualitative explanations of disk dynamics. However, it is now widely believed that galactic disks are dissipative systems which raises the question of whether they ...


029— Calculating Gravitational Waves In A Black Hole Binary System, Nami Nishimura 2021 SUNY Geneseo

029— Calculating Gravitational Waves In A Black Hole Binary System, Nami Nishimura

GREAT Day

Our ultimate goal is to compute the gravitational waves in an extreme mass-ratio binary system. Since gravitational perturbations are difficult to calculate, we model the compact object as a point carrying a scalar charge q and moving around a spinning black holes.

In this project, we take advantage of symmetry under rotation around the spin axis in order to separate φ variables and leverage the periodicity of the source to separate t variable with a Fourier series. The remaining differential equations will be solved numerically with an appropriate discretization considering a grid of points in r-θ plane


Formation Of Supermassive Black Holes In The Early Universe, Arpan Das 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Formation Of Supermassive Black Holes In The Early Universe, Arpan Das

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to understand the formation and growth of the seeds of the supermassive black holes in early universe. Supermassive black holes (SMBH) with masses larger than 108MSun have been observed when the Universe was only 800 Myr old. The formation and accretion history of the seeds of these supermassive black holes are a matter of debate. We consider the scenario of massive seed black hole formation which allows gas to directly collapse into a black hole (DCBH) of similar mass. Considering this scenario, we show that the mass ...


Comparing Dust In Other Galaxies To Dust In Our Galaxy, Fatima Elkhatib 2021 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Comparing Dust In Other Galaxies To Dust In Our Galaxy, Fatima Elkhatib

Senior Theses

Interstellar dust in galaxies has a profound effect on the galaxies’ light output and apparent properties as well as on the physical processes connected to star formation. Therefore, to understand the true properties of the galaxies around us, it is important to understand the dust in those galaxies and compare it to the dust in our galaxy. To do this, we study the effects of dust on background quasars by analyzing interstellar reddening and extinction. It has been shown that many quasars look redder and dimmer than the average quasar when observing them from Earth, due to the dust in ...


Monitoring Agns With H-Beta Asymmetry: Markarian 841, Samuel J. Schonsberg 2021 University of Montana

Monitoring Agns With H-Beta Asymmetry: Markarian 841, Samuel J. Schonsberg

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

Quasars are among the most luminous objects in the Universe, and the mechanism behind their luminosity was shrouded in mystery decades after their discovery. Since then, we have found that these objects are active galactic nuclei (AGN), which are powered by actively-feeding super massive black holes at the center of a galaxy. But we still know fairly little about the structure and motion of the material surrounding active super massive black holes, and most of these objects are not resolvable by conventional observations. We use a technique called reverberation mapping, which is traditionally used only as a mass determination method ...


Searching Harder, Localizing Better, Classifying Faster: Optimizing Fast Radio Burst Detection And Analysis, Kshitij Aggarwal 2021 West Virginia University

Searching Harder, Localizing Better, Classifying Faster: Optimizing Fast Radio Burst Detection And Analysis, Kshitij Aggarwal

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Fast Radio Bursts (or FRBs) are millisecond-duration transients of extragalactic origin. They exhibit dispersion caused by propagation through an ionized medium, and quantified by Dispersion Measure (DM). Around 800 FRBs (24 repeaters) have been discovered; so far, 24 FRBs have been confidently associated with a host galaxy. In this thesis, we discuss multiple new FRB search and analysis techniques and the corresponding tools that enable us to search for FRBs harder, localize them better, and classify candidates faster.

We discuss five open-source software suites that can be used in FRB analysis. These suites are used to distinguish between FRBs and ...


A Detailed X-Ray Analysis Of The Cold Front In Relics Cluster A2163, Anne Poy 2021 Claremont Colleges

A Detailed X-Ray Analysis Of The Cold Front In Relics Cluster A2163, Anne Poy

CMC Senior Theses

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe. Studying them can teach us about how they merge and grow, which in turn provides unparalleled information about the history of the evolution of the Universe. X-ray observations of galaxy clusters have uncovered substructure in the hot, X-ray emitting gas known as the intracluster mediums (ICM). Substructure indicates that the ICM has been churned up, possibly by a significant off-axis merger event. This substructure includes cold fronts, sloshing spirals, and shocks. We present deep Chandra observations of the merging cluster Abell 2163. We investigate the global spectrum and find ...


Investigating The Agn-Merger Connection Using Close Galaxy Pairs In The Candels Fields, Sean L. Dougherty 2021 Colby College

Investigating The Agn-Merger Connection Using Close Galaxy Pairs In The Candels Fields, Sean L. Dougherty

Honors Theses

Galaxy mergers are catastrophic events in that they greatly change the properties of the galaxies involved. Observations of the nearby universe suggest that they may also be able to trigger active galactic nuclei (AGN) even prior to the final coalescence, though there is much controversy surrounding this belief, particularly at high redshifts. In order to address this question, we have assembled a large sample of photometric galaxy pairs within the GDS and EGS fields of the CANDELS survey. We use photometric redshift probability distribution functions and the combined redshift probability function to assign probabilities for each projected pair. We incorporate ...


Star Formation In Dwarf Galaxies, Simeon L. Bolds 2020 Florida International University

Star Formation In Dwarf Galaxies, Simeon L. Bolds

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A catalog of neutral hydrogen (HI) of nearby dwarf galaxies obtained from the LITTLE THINGS (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey) project along with ancillary data are used to examine the relative importance of star-induced star formation associated with the HI holes in 31 dwarf galaxies. HI shells/rings surrounding the HI holes are defined and the fractional amounts of HI and star formation in the rings relative to the global galactic amounts are calculated. These are then compared to look for correlations between the amount of star formation and neutral hydrogen in the rings ...


Variability Of Active Galactic Nuclei From Differential Photometry, Nicholas Steven Yee 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Variability Of Active Galactic Nuclei From Differential Photometry, Nicholas Steven Yee

Physics

The Seoul AGN Monitoring Project, or SAMP for short, is an international project (PI Jonghak Woo from Korea) with the goal of measuring the masses of black holes residing in the center of massive active galactic nuclei (AGNs). AGNs are some of the brightest objects in the universe. Their light is attributed to the accretion of material onto the black hole. However, these objects are too distant to spatially resolve the gravitational sphere of influence of the black hole directly. Instead, we use a technique called reverberation mapping which observes the variability of the AGN power-law continuum emission and the ...


A Mildly Relativistic Outflow From The Energentic, Fast-Rising Blue Optical Transient Css161010 In A Dwarf Galaxy, Deanne L. Coppejans, R. Margutti, G. Terreran, A. J. Nayana, E. R. Coughlin, T. Laskar, K. D. Alexander, M. Bietenholz, D. Caprioli, P. Chandra, M. R. Drout, D. Frederiks, C. Frohmaier, K. H. Hurley, C. S. Kochanek, M. MacLeod, A. Meisner, P. E. Nugent, A. Ridnaia, D. J. Sand, D. Svinkin, C. Ward, S. Yang, A. Baldeschi, I. V. Chilingarian, Y. Dong, C. Esquivia, W. Fong, C. Guidorzi, P. Lundqvist, D. Milisavljevic 2020 Northwestern University

A Mildly Relativistic Outflow From The Energentic, Fast-Rising Blue Optical Transient Css161010 In A Dwarf Galaxy, Deanne L. Coppejans, R. Margutti, G. Terreran, A. J. Nayana, E. R. Coughlin, T. Laskar, K. D. Alexander, M. Bietenholz, D. Caprioli, P. Chandra, M. R. Drout, D. Frederiks, C. Frohmaier, K. H. Hurley, C. S. Kochanek, M. Macleod, A. Meisner, P. E. Nugent, A. Ridnaia, D. J. Sand, D. Svinkin, C. Ward, S. Yang, A. Baldeschi, I. V. Chilingarian, Y. Dong, C. Esquivia, W. Fong, C. Guidorzi, P. Lundqvist, D. Milisavljevic

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

We present X-ray and radio observations of the Fast Blue Optical Transient CRTS-CSS161010 J045834−081803 (CSS161010 hereafter) at t = 69–531 days. CSS161010 shows luminous X-ray (L x ~ 5 × 1039 erg s−1) and radio (L ν ~ 1029 erg s−1 Hz−1) emission. The radio emission peaked at ~100 days post-transient explosion and rapidly decayed. We interpret these observations in the context of synchrotron emission from an expanding blast wave. CSS161010 launched a mildly relativistic outflow with velocity Γβc ≥ 0.55c at ~100 days. This is faster than the non-relativistic AT 2018cow (Γβc ~ 0.1c) and closer to ZTF18abvkwla ...


The Planetary Luminosity Problem: " Missing Planets" And The Observational Consequences Of Episodi Accretion, Sean D. Brittain, Joan R. Najita, Ruobing Dong, Zhaohuan Zhu 2020 Clemson University

The Planetary Luminosity Problem: " Missing Planets" And The Observational Consequences Of Episodi Accretion, Sean D. Brittain, Joan R. Najita, Ruobing Dong, Zhaohuan Zhu

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The high occurrence rates of spiral arms and large central clearings in protoplanetary disks, if interpreted as signposts of giant planets, indicate that gas giants commonly form as companions to young stars (Myr) at orbital separations of 10–300 au. However, attempts to directly image this giant planet population as companions to more mature stars (>10 Myr) have yielded few successes. This discrepancy could be explained if most giant planets form by "cold start," i.e., by radiating away much of their formation energy as they assemble their mass, rendering them faint enough to elude detection at later times. In ...


Computational Astronomy: Classification Of Celestial Spectra Using Machine Learning Techniques, Gayatri Milind Hungund 2020 San Jose State University

Computational Astronomy: Classification Of Celestial Spectra Using Machine Learning Techniques, Gayatri Milind Hungund

Master's Projects

Lightyears beyond the Planet Earth there exist plenty of unknown and unexplored stars and Galaxies that need to be studied in order to support the Big Bang Theory and also make important astronomical discoveries in quest of knowing the unknown. Sophisticated devices and high-power computational resources are now deployed to make a positive effort towards data gathering and analysis. These devices produce massive amount of data from the astronomical surveys and the data is usually in terabytes or petabytes. It is exhaustive to process this data and determine the findings in short period of time. Many details can be missed ...


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