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Using 4most To Refine The Measurement Of Galaxy Properties: A Case Study Of Supernova Hosts, J Dumayne, I M. Hook, S C. Williams, G A. Lowes, D Head, A Fritz, O Graur, Benne Holwerda, A Humphrey, A Milligan, M Nicholl, B F. Roukema, P Wiseman 2023 University of Louisville

Using 4most To Refine The Measurement Of Galaxy Properties: A Case Study Of Supernova Hosts, J Dumayne, I M. Hook, S C. Williams, G A. Lowes, D Head, A Fritz, O Graur, Benne Holwerda, A Humphrey, A Milligan, M Nicholl, B F. Roukema, P Wiseman

Faculty Scholarship

The Rubin Observatory’s 10-year Legacy Survey of Space and Time will observe near to 20 billion galaxies. For each galaxy the properties can be inferred. Approximately 105 galaxies observed per year will contain Type Ia supernovae (SNe), allowing SN host-galaxy properties to be calculated on a large scale. Measuring the properties of SN host-galaxies serves two main purposes. The first is that there are known correlations between host-galaxy type and supernova type, which can be used to aid in the classification of SNe. Secondly, Type Ia SNe exhibit correlations between host-galaxy properties and the peak luminosities of the SNe, which …


Cosmic Diffuse Neutrino And Gamma-Ray Backgrounds In The Mev Regime, Ilukpitiye Samalka Anandagoda 2023 Clemson University

Cosmic Diffuse Neutrino And Gamma-Ray Backgrounds In The Mev Regime, Ilukpitiye Samalka Anandagoda

All Dissertations

Cosmic Multi-Messenger backgrounds include relic diffuse components created in the early Universe and contributions from individual sources. In this dissertation, I present the work done in Anandagoda (2019); Anandagoda et al. (2020, 2023) where type Ia (SNe Ia) and core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) contributions to the diffuse neutrino and gamma-ray backgrounds in the MeV regime are studied. These backgrounds are referred to as DSNB and DSGB respectively. Based on this work, the diffuse SN Ia background is ~106 times lower (for electron antineutrinos) than the CCSN background making it negligible. The predicted DSNB electron antineutrino flux at earth in the …


The Loneliest Galaxies In The Universe: A Gama And Galaxy Zoo Study On Void Galaxy Morphology, Lori E. Porter, Benne Holwerda, Sandor Kruk, Maritza Lara-López, Kevin A. Pimbblet, Christopher P A Henry, Sarah Casura, Lee S. Kelvin 2023 University of Louisville

The Loneliest Galaxies In The Universe: A Gama And Galaxy Zoo Study On Void Galaxy Morphology, Lori E. Porter, Benne Holwerda, Sandor Kruk, Maritza Lara-López, Kevin A. Pimbblet, Christopher P A Henry, Sarah Casura, Lee S. Kelvin

Faculty Scholarship

The large-scale structure of the Universe is comprised of galaxy filaments, tendrils, and voids. The majority of the Universe’s volume is taken up by these voids, which exist as underdense, but not empty, regions. The galaxies found inside these voids are expected to be some of the most isolated objects in the Universe. This study, using the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) and Galaxy Zoo surveys, aims to investigate basic physical properties and morphology of void galaxies versus field (filament and tendril) galaxies. We use void galaxies with stellar masses (⁠M∗" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; …


Gama/Devils: Cosmic Star Formation And Agn Activity Over 12.5 Billion Years, Jordan C J D’Silva, Simon P. Driver, Claudia D P Lagos, Aaron S G Robotham, Sabine Bellstedt, Luke J M Davies, Jessica E. Thorne, Joss Bland-Hawthorn, Matias Bravo, Benne Holwerda, Steven Phillipps, Nick Seymour, Malgorzata Siudek, Rogier A. Windhorst 2023 University of Louisville

Gama/Devils: Cosmic Star Formation And Agn Activity Over 12.5 Billion Years, Jordan C J D’Silva, Simon P. Driver, Claudia D P Lagos, Aaron S G Robotham, Sabine Bellstedt, Luke J M Davies, Jessica E. Thorne, Joss Bland-Hawthorn, Matias Bravo, Benne Holwerda, Steven Phillipps, Nick Seymour, Malgorzata Siudek, Rogier A. Windhorst

Faculty Scholarship

We use the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) and the Deep Extragalactic Visible Legacy Survey (DEVILS) observational data sets to calculate the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) bolometric luminosity history (CSFH/CAGNH) over the last 12.5 billion years. SFRs and AGN bolometric luminosities were derived using the spectral energy distribution fitting code ProSpect, which includes an AGN prescription to self consistently model the contribution from both AGN and stellar emission to the observed rest-frame ultra-violet to far-infrared photometry. We find that both the CSFH and CAGNH evolve similarly, rising in the early Universe up to a …


Galaxy And Mass Assembly (Gama): Comparing Visually And Spectroscopically Identified Galaxy Merger Samples, Alice Desmons, Sarah Brough, Cristina Martínez-Lombilla, Roberto De Propris, Benne Holwerda, Ángel R. López-Sánchez 2023 University of Louisville

Galaxy And Mass Assembly (Gama): Comparing Visually And Spectroscopically Identified Galaxy Merger Samples, Alice Desmons, Sarah Brough, Cristina Martínez-Lombilla, Roberto De Propris, Benne Holwerda, Ángel R. López-Sánchez

Faculty Scholarship

We conduct a comparison of the merging galaxy populations detected by a sample of visual identification of tidal features around galaxies as well as spectroscopically detected close pairs of galaxies to determine whether our method of selecting merging galaxies biases our understanding of galaxy interactions. Our volume-limited parent sample consists of 852 galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey in the redshift range 0.04 ≤ z ≤ 0.20 and stellar mass range 9.50 ≤ log 10(M⋆/M⊙)≤ 11.0" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: normal; font-family: inherit; font-optical-sizing: inherit; font-kerning: inherit; …


Using Deep Neural Networks To Classify Astronomical Images, Andrew D. Macpherson 2023 Seattle Pacific University

Using Deep Neural Networks To Classify Astronomical Images, Andrew D. Macpherson

Honors Projects

As the quantity of astronomical data available continues to exceed the resources available for analysis, recent advances in artificial intelligence encourage the development of automated classification tools. This paper lays out a framework for constructing a deep neural network capable of classifying individual astronomical images by describing techniques to extract and label these objects from large images.


Red Riding On Hood: Exploring How Galaxy Colour Depends On Environment, Pankaj C. Bhambhani, Ivan K. Baldry, Sarah Brough, Alexander D. Hill, M A. Lara-Lopez, J Loveday, Benne Holwerda 2023 University of Louisville

Red Riding On Hood: Exploring How Galaxy Colour Depends On Environment, Pankaj C. Bhambhani, Ivan K. Baldry, Sarah Brough, Alexander D. Hill, M A. Lara-Lopez, J Loveday, Benne Holwerda

Faculty Scholarship

Galaxy populations are known to exhibit a strong colour bimodality, corresponding to blue star-forming and red quiescent subpopulations. The relative abundance of the two populations has been found to vary with stellar mass and environment. In this paper, we explore the effect of environment considering different types of measurements. We choose a sample of 49 911 galaxies with 0.05 < z < 0.18 from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. We study the dependence of the fraction of red galaxies on different measures of the local environment as well as the large-scale `geometric’ environment defined by density gradients in the surrounding cosmic web. We find that the red galaxy fraction varies with the environment at fixed stellar mass. The red fraction depends more strongly on local environmental measures than on large-scale geometric environment measures. By comparing the different environmental densities, we show that no density measurement fully explains the observed environmental red fraction variation, suggesting the different measures of environmental density contain different information. We test whether the local environmental measures, when combined together, can explain all the observed environmental red fraction variation. The geometric environment has a small residual effect, and this effect is larger for voids than any other type of geometric environment. This could provide a test of the physics applied to cosmological-scale galaxy evolution simulations as it combines large-scale effects with local environmental impact.


The Loneliest Galaxies In The Universe: A Gama And Galaxy Zoo Study On Void Galaxy Morphology., Lori E. Porter 2023 University of Louisville

The Loneliest Galaxies In The Universe: A Gama And Galaxy Zoo Study On Void Galaxy Morphology., Lori E. Porter

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

The large-scale structure (LSS) of the Universe is comprised of galaxy filaments, tendrils, and voids. The majority of the Universe’s volume is taken up by these voids, which exist as underdense, but not empty, regions. The galaxies found inside voids are void galaxies and expected to be some of the most isolated objects in the Universe. However, their standard morphology remains poorly studied. This study, using the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) data and Galaxy Zoo survey, aims to remedy this. For completeness purposes, we use void galaxies identified by Alpaslan et al. (2014) with stellar masses (M*) of 10 …


Insights Into Star Formation And Agn Activity In Protocluster Environments From Morphological Studies And Sed Fitting, Erik B. Monson 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Insights Into Star Formation And Agn Activity In Protocluster Environments From Morphological Studies And Sed Fitting, Erik B. Monson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation I present work done from 2018-2023 to investigate the growth of galaxies and supermassive black holes (SMBH) in high redshift overdensities (protoclusters) by studying the star-forming galaxy and active galactic nucleus (AGN) population in the SSA22 protocluster. I examined possible environmental sources of the enhanced star formation and AGN activity in the z = 3.09 SSA22 protocluster using Hubble WFC3 ∼ 1.6 μm observations of the SSA22 field, including new observations centered on eight X-ray selected protocluster AGN. To investigate the role of mergers in the observed AGN and star formation enhancement, quantitative and visual morphological classifications …


On The Impact Of Inclination-Dependent Attenuation On The Derived Star Formation Histories Of Disk Galaxies, Keith Doore 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

On The Impact Of Inclination-Dependent Attenuation On The Derived Star Formation Histories Of Disk Galaxies, Keith Doore

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The physical properties of a galaxy (e.g., its star-formation history and dust content) regulate the distribution of light that is emitted by stars and attenuated by the interstellar gas and dust. This attenuation by dust can have a significant impact on the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) of a disk galaxy, especially when taking into account its viewing angle (i.e., inclination). For example, as the inclination angle of a galactic disk changes from face-on to edge-on (i.e., i = 0 deg to i = 90 deg), the proportion of light that is attenuated along the line of sight increases, due …


The Coeval Mass Assembly Of The Universe Via Supermassive Black Hole Accretion And Star Formation In Galaxies, Alyssa Sokol 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Coeval Mass Assembly Of The Universe Via Supermassive Black Hole Accretion And Star Formation In Galaxies, Alyssa Sokol

Doctoral Dissertations

The possible co-evolution between galaxies and their central supermassive black holes is supported by the similarity in shape between the Star Formation Rate Density (SFRD) and Black Hole Accretion Rate Density (BHARD) out to z$\sim$ 3. This apparent connection between BH growth and star formation is only established globally; while both trends peak at z$\sim$ 2, the amount of stellar and black hole mass assembly occurring within the same galaxies is unknown. Computing these trends for the same galaxies will mitigate the present sample mismatch and can be accomplished with an IR-selected sample; however, the approach relies on a robust …


Galaxy And Mass Assembly (Gama): Low-Redshift Quasars And Inactive Galaxies Have Similar Neighbors, Maria B. Stone, Clare F. Wethers, Roberto de Propris, Jari Kotilainen, Nischal Acharya, Benne W. Holwerda, Jonathan Loveday, Steven Phillipps 2023 University of Louisville

Galaxy And Mass Assembly (Gama): Low-Redshift Quasars And Inactive Galaxies Have Similar Neighbors, Maria B. Stone, Clare F. Wethers, Roberto De Propris, Jari Kotilainen, Nischal Acharya, Benne W. Holwerda, Jonathan Loveday, Steven Phillipps

Faculty Scholarship

We explore the properties of galaxies in the proximity (within a ∼2 Mpc radius sphere) of Type I quasars at 0.1 <z <0.35, to check whether and how an active galaxy influences the properties of its neighbors. We further compare these with the properties of neighbors around inactive galaxies of the same mass and redshift within the same volume of space, using the Galaxy and Mass Assembly spectroscopic survey. Our observations reveal no significant difference in properties such as the number of neighbors, morphologies, stellar mass, star formation rates, and star formation history between the neighbors of quasars and those of the comparison sample. This implies that quasar activity in a host galaxy does not significantly affect its neighbors (e.g., via interactions with the jets). Our results suggest that quasar host galaxies do not strongly differ from the average galaxy within the specified mass and redshift range. Additionally, the implication of the relatively minor importance of the environmental effect on and from quasars is that nuclear activity is more likely triggered by internal and secular processes.


The Extremes Of Galaxy Formation & Evolution, Kelly E. Whalen 2023 Dartmouth College

The Extremes Of Galaxy Formation & Evolution, Kelly E. Whalen

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Galaxy populations are shaped by the physical processes that regulate their star formation and central black hole growth throughout cosmic time. The primary aim of this thesis is to understand how these processes occur and how they shape evolution in some of the most extreme galaxies in the Universe including quasars, compact starbursts, and ultra-diffuse dwarfs. Gas-rich major mergers funnel large amounts of gas towards the nucleus, triggering rapid AGN accretion and compact star formation. In this work, I study powerful quasars and extreme, massive, compact starburst galaxies within the context of merger-driven galaxy evolution scenarios. One aim of this …


Jwst’S Pearls: Dust Attenuation And Gravitational Lensing In The Backlit-Galaxy System Vv 191, William C. Keel, Rogier A. Windhorst, Rolf A. Jansen, Seth H. Cohen, Jake Summers, Benne Holwerda, Sarah T. Bradford, Clayton D. Robertson, Giovanni Ferrami, Stuart Wyithe, Haojing Yan, Christopher J. Conselice, Simon P. Driver, Aaron Robotham, Norman A. Grogin, Christopher N. A. Willmer, Anton M. Koekemoer, Brenda L. Frye, Nimish P. Hathi, Russell E. Ryan Jr., Nor Pirzkal, Madeline A. Marshall, Dan Coe, Jose M. Diego, Thomas J. Broadhurst, Michael J. Rutkowski, Lifan Wang, S. P. Willner, Andreea Petric, Cheng Cheng, Adi Zitrin 2023 University of Louisville

Jwst’S Pearls: Dust Attenuation And Gravitational Lensing In The Backlit-Galaxy System Vv 191, William C. Keel, Rogier A. Windhorst, Rolf A. Jansen, Seth H. Cohen, Jake Summers, Benne Holwerda, Sarah T. Bradford, Clayton D. Robertson, Giovanni Ferrami, Stuart Wyithe, Haojing Yan, Christopher J. Conselice, Simon P. Driver, Aaron Robotham, Norman A. Grogin, Christopher N. A. Willmer, Anton M. Koekemoer, Brenda L. Frye, Nimish P. Hathi, Russell E. Ryan Jr., Nor Pirzkal, Madeline A. Marshall, Dan Coe, Jose M. Diego, Thomas J. Broadhurst, Michael J. Rutkowski, Lifan Wang, S. P. Willner, Andreea Petric, Cheng Cheng, Adi Zitrin

Faculty Scholarship

We present the first JWST observations of the z = 4.11 luminous radio galaxy TN J1338–1942, obtained as part of the ‘Prime Extragalactic Areas for Reionization and Lensing Science’ (‘PEARLS’) project. Our NIRCam observations, designed to probe the key rest-frame optical continuum and emission line features at this redshift, enable resolved spectral energy distribution modelling that incorporates both a range of stellar population assumptions and radiative shock models. With an estimated stellar mass of log10(M/M⊙) ∼ 10.9, TN J1338–1942 is confirmed to be one of the most massive galaxies known at this epoch. Our observations also reveal extremely high equivalent-width …


Wallaby Pilot Survey: Hydra Cluster Galaxies Uv And H I Morphometrics, Benne W. Holwerda, Frank Bigiel, Albert Bosma, Helene M. Courtois, Nathan Deg, Helga Dénes, Ahmed Elagali, Bi-Qing For, Baerbel Koribalski, Denis A. Leahy, Karen Lee-Waddell, Ángel R. López-Sánchez, Se-Heon Oh, Tristan N. Reynolds, Jonghwan Rhee, Kristine Spekkens, Jing Wang, Tobias Westmeier, O Ivy Wong 2023 University of Louisville

Wallaby Pilot Survey: Hydra Cluster Galaxies Uv And H I Morphometrics, Benne W. Holwerda, Frank Bigiel, Albert Bosma, Helene M. Courtois, Nathan Deg, Helga Dénes, Ahmed Elagali, Bi-Qing For, Baerbel Koribalski, Denis A. Leahy, Karen Lee-Waddell, Ángel R. López-Sánchez, Se-Heon Oh, Tristan N. Reynolds, Jonghwan Rhee, Kristine Spekkens, Jing Wang, Tobias Westmeier, O Ivy Wong

Faculty Scholarship

Galaxy morphology in atomic hydrogen (H I) and in the ultraviolet (UV) are closely linked. This has motivated their combined use to quantify morphology over the full H I disc for both H I and UV imaging. We apply galaxy morphometrics: concentration, asymmetry, gini, M20 and multimode-intensity-deviation statistics to the first moment-0 maps of the WALLABY Survey of galaxies in the hydra cluster centre. Taking advantage of this new H I survey, we apply the same morphometrics over the full H I extent on archival GALEX FUV and NUV data to explore how well H I truncated, extended ultraviolet …


Modelling Strong Lenses From Wide-Field Ground-Based Observations In Kids And Gama, Shawn Knabel, Benne Holwerda, J Nightingale, T Treu, M Bilicki, S Brough, S Driver, L Finnerty, L Haberzettl, S Hegde, A M. Hopkins, K Kuijken, J Liske, A K. Pimblett, R C. Steele, A H. Wright 2023 University of Louisville

Modelling Strong Lenses From Wide-Field Ground-Based Observations In Kids And Gama, Shawn Knabel, Benne Holwerda, J Nightingale, T Treu, M Bilicki, S Brough, S Driver, L Finnerty, L Haberzettl, S Hegde, A M. Hopkins, K Kuijken, J Liske, A K. Pimblett, R C. Steele, A H. Wright

Faculty Scholarship

Despite the success of galaxy-scale strong gravitational lens studies with Hubble-quality imaging, a number of well-studied strong lenses remains small. As a result, robust comparisons of the lens models to theoretical predictions are difficult. This motivates our application of automated Bayesian lens modelling methods to observations from public data releases of overlapping large ground-based imaging and spectroscopic surveys: Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) and Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA), respectively. We use the open-source lens modelling software PYAUTOLENS to perform our analysis. We demonstrate the feasibility of strong lens modelling with large-survey data at lower resolution as a complementary avenue to studies …


Nearby Galaxies: Modelling Star Formation Histories And Contamination By Unresolved Background Galaxies, Hadi Papei 2023 The University of Western Ontario

Nearby Galaxies: Modelling Star Formation Histories And Contamination By Unresolved Background Galaxies, Hadi Papei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Galaxies are complex systems of stars, gas, dust, and dark matter which evolve over billions of years, and one of the main goals of astrophysics is to understand how these complex systems form and change. Measuring the star formation history of nearby galaxies, in which thousands of stars can be resolved individually, has provided us with a clear picture of their evolutionary history and the evolution of galaxies in general.

In this work, we have developed the first public Python package, SFHPy, to measure star formation histories of nearby galaxies using their colour-magnitude diagrams. In this algorithm, an observed colour-magnitude …


Astr 1: General Astronomy, David Goldberg 2023 CUNY Queens College

Astr 1: General Astronomy, David Goldberg

Open Educational Resources

No abstract provided.


The Radial Quenching Progression Of Nearby Galaxies, Chenyu Zhao 2023 University of Kentucky

The Radial Quenching Progression Of Nearby Galaxies, Chenyu Zhao

Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy

In this dissertation, we explore the spatial distribution of quiescent regions within galaxies using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (SDSS-IV MaNGA). Our analysis focuses on a radial range spanning from 0.3 R e to 1.2 R e and involves the development of innovative data selection and processing methods. Through this investigation, we identify two prominent types of transition galaxies: central-star-forming galaxies (C-SF galaxies) and central-quiescent galaxies (C-Q galaxies). Notably, we observe a correlation between galaxy mass and the predominant type of transition, with more massive galaxies tending to be C-Q …


A Multidimensional View On The Emission-Line Diagnostics Of The Warm Ionized Gas In Nearby Galaxies, Xihan Ji 2023 University of Kentucky

A Multidimensional View On The Emission-Line Diagnostics Of The Warm Ionized Gas In Nearby Galaxies, Xihan Ji

Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy

The baryonic cycle, being a fundamental process that shapes the cosmic ecosystem, describes the transformation and migration of baryonic matter in different phases. The warm ionized interstellar medium (ISM), defined as low-density gas that has temperature of the order of 10,000 K, represents an important link of the baryonic cycle and can be produced by a variety of energetic activities in galaxies, such as star formations, active galactic nuclei, and so forth. More importantly, the formation and evolution of the warm ionized gas not only traces the ongoing activities of the galaxies, but also reveals the past evolution of galaxies …


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