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Full-Text Articles in Astrophysics and Astronomy

Real-Time Rfi Mitigation In Radio Astronomy, Emily Ramey, Nick Joslyn, Richard Prestage, Michael Lam, Luke Hawkins, Tim Blattner, Mark Whitehead May 2019

Real-Time Rfi Mitigation In Radio Astronomy, Emily Ramey, Nick Joslyn, Richard Prestage, Michael Lam, Luke Hawkins, Tim Blattner, Mark Whitehead

Senior Honors Papers / Undergraduate Theses

As the use of wireless technology has increased around the world, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) has become more and more of a problem for radio astronomers. Preventative measures exist to limit the presence of RFI, and programs exist to remove it from saved data, but the use of algorithms to detect and remove RFI as an observation is occurring is much less common. Such a method would be incredibly useful for observations in which the data must undergo several rounds of processing before being saved, as in pulsar timing studies. Strategies for real-time mitigation have been discussed and tested with ...


Cosmology, Craig W. Steele Jan 2019

Cosmology, Craig W. Steele

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

No abstract provided.


Astronomy For Educators, Daniel E. Barth Jan 2019

Astronomy For Educators, Daniel E. Barth

Open Educational Resources

Astronomy for Educators provides new and accomplished K-12 instructors with concepts and projects for low-cost, high-impact STEM classroom instruction that is built around the National Academies National Research Council's K-12 Framework for Science Education.


Table Of Contents Dec 2018

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). Vi. Dust Trapping In Thin-Ringed Protoplanetary Disks, Cornelis P. Dullemond, Tilman Birnstiel, Jane Huang, Nicolás T. Kurtovic, Sean M. Andrews, Viviana V. Guzmán, Laura M. Pérez, Andrea Isella, Zhaohuan Zhu, Myriam Benisty, David J. Wilner, Xue-Ning Bai, John M. Carpenter, Shangjia Zhang, Luca Ricci Dec 2018

The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). Vi. Dust Trapping In Thin-Ringed Protoplanetary Disks, Cornelis P. Dullemond, Tilman Birnstiel, Jane Huang, Nicolás T. Kurtovic, Sean M. Andrews, Viviana V. Guzmán, Laura M. Pérez, Andrea Isella, Zhaohuan Zhu, Myriam Benisty, David J. Wilner, Xue-Ning Bai, John M. Carpenter, Shangjia Zhang, Luca Ricci

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

A large fraction of the protoplanetary disks observed with ALMA display multiple well-defined and nearly perfectly circular rings in the continuum, in many cases with substantial peak-to-valley contrast. The DSHARP campaign shows that several of these rings are very narrow in radial extent. In this Letter we test the hypothesis that these dust rings are caused by dust trapping in radial pressure bumps, and if confirmed, put constraints on the physics of the dust trapping mechanism. We model this process analytically in 1D, assuming axisymmetry. By comparing this model to the data, we find that all rings are consistent with ...


The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Program (Dsharp). Viii. The Rich Ringed Substructures In The As 209 Disk, Viviana V. Guzmán, Jane Huang, Sean M. Andrews, Andrea Isella, Laura M. Pérez, John M. Carpenter, Cornelis P. Dullemond, Luca Ricci, Tilman Birnstiel, Shangjia Zhang, Zhaohuan Zhu, Xue-Ning Bai, Myriam Benisty, Karin I. Öberg, David J. Wilner Dec 2018

The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Program (Dsharp). Viii. The Rich Ringed Substructures In The As 209 Disk, Viviana V. Guzmán, Jane Huang, Sean M. Andrews, Andrea Isella, Laura M. Pérez, John M. Carpenter, Cornelis P. Dullemond, Luca Ricci, Tilman Birnstiel, Shangjia Zhang, Zhaohuan Zhu, Xue-Ning Bai, Myriam Benisty, Karin I. Öberg, David J. Wilner

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Program (DSHARP). VIII. The Rich Ringed Substructures in the AS 209 Disk


The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). Ii. Characteristics Of Annular Substructures, Jane Huang, Sean M. Andrews, Cornelis P. Dellemond, Andrea Isella, Laura M. Pérez, Viviana V. Guzmán, Karin I. Öberg, Zhaohuan Zhu, Shangjia Zhang, Xue-Ning Bai, Myriam Benisty, Tilman Birstiel, John M. Carpenter, A. Meredith Hughes, Luca Ricci, Erik Weaver, David J. Wilner Dec 2018

The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). Ii. Characteristics Of Annular Substructures, Jane Huang, Sean M. Andrews, Cornelis P. Dellemond, Andrea Isella, Laura M. Pérez, Viviana V. Guzmán, Karin I. Öberg, Zhaohuan Zhu, Shangjia Zhang, Xue-Ning Bai, Myriam Benisty, Tilman Birstiel, John M. Carpenter, A. Meredith Hughes, Luca Ricci, Erik Weaver, David J. Wilner

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP) used ALMA to map the 1.25 mm continuum of protoplanetary disks at a spatial resolution of ~5 au. We present a systematic analysis of annular substructures in the 18 single-disk systems targeted in this survey. No dominant architecture emerges from this sample; instead, remarkably diverse morphologies are observed. Annular substructures can occur at virtually any radius where millimeter continuum emission is detected and range in widths from a few astronomical units to tens of astronomical units. Intensity ratios between gaps and adjacent rings range from near-unity to just a few ...


The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). I. Motivation, Sample, Calibration, And Overview, Sean M. Andrews, Jane Huang, Laura M. Pérez, Andrea Isella, Cornelis P. Dullemond, Nicolás T. Kurtovic, Viviana V. Guzmán, John M. Carpenter, David J. Wilner, Shangjia Zhang, Zhaohuan Zhu, Tilman Birstiel, Xue-Ning Bai, Myriam Benisty, A. Meredith Hughes, Karin I. Öberg, Luca Ricci Dec 2018

The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). I. Motivation, Sample, Calibration, And Overview, Sean M. Andrews, Jane Huang, Laura M. Pérez, Andrea Isella, Cornelis P. Dullemond, Nicolás T. Kurtovic, Viviana V. Guzmán, John M. Carpenter, David J. Wilner, Shangjia Zhang, Zhaohuan Zhu, Tilman Birstiel, Xue-Ning Bai, Myriam Benisty, A. Meredith Hughes, Karin I. Öberg, Luca Ricci

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

We introduce the Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP), one of the initial Large Programs conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The primary goal of DSHARP is to find and characterize substructures in the spatial distributions of solid particles for a sample of 20 nearby protoplanetary disks, using very high resolution (~0 035, or 5 au, FWHM) observations of their 240 GHz (1.25 mm) continuum emission. These data provide a first homogeneous look at the small-scale features in disks that are directly relevant to the planet formation process, quantifying their prevalence, morphologies, spatial scales ...


The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). Ix. A High-Definition Study Of The Hd 163296 Planet-Forming Disk, Andrea Isella, Jane Huang, Sean M. Andrews, Cornelis P. Dellemond, Tilman Birnstiel, Shangjia Zhang, Zhaohuan Zhu, Viviana V. Guzmán, Laura M. Pérez, Xue-Ning Bai, Myriam Benisty, John M. Carpenter, Luca Ricci, David J. Wilner Dec 2018

The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). Ix. A High-Definition Study Of The Hd 163296 Planet-Forming Disk, Andrea Isella, Jane Huang, Sean M. Andrews, Cornelis P. Dellemond, Tilman Birnstiel, Shangjia Zhang, Zhaohuan Zhu, Viviana V. Guzmán, Laura M. Pérez, Xue-Ning Bai, Myriam Benisty, John M. Carpenter, Luca Ricci, David J. Wilner

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of protoplanetary disks acquired by the Disk Substructure at High Angular Resolution Project resolve the dust and gas emission on angular scales as small as 3 astronomical units, offering an unprecedented detailed view of the environment where planets form. In this Letter, we present and discuss observations of the HD 163296 protoplanetary disk that imaged the 1.25 mm dust continuum and 12CO J = 2–1 rotational line emission at a spatial resolution of 4 and 10 au, respectively. The continuum observations resolve and allow us to characterize the previously discovered dust rings ...


The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). Iii. Spiral Structures In The Millimeter Continuum Of The Elias 27, Im Lup, And Waoph 6 Disks, Jane Huang, Sean M. Andrews, Laura M. Pérez, Zhaohuan Zhu, Cornelis P. Dullemond, Andrea Isella, Myriam Benisty, Xue-Ning Bai, Tilman Birnstiel, John M. Carpenter, Viviana V. Guzmán, A. Meredith Hughes, Karin I. Öberg, Luca Ricci, David J. Wilner, Shangjia Zhang Dec 2018

The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). Iii. Spiral Structures In The Millimeter Continuum Of The Elias 27, Im Lup, And Waoph 6 Disks, Jane Huang, Sean M. Andrews, Laura M. Pérez, Zhaohuan Zhu, Cornelis P. Dullemond, Andrea Isella, Myriam Benisty, Xue-Ning Bai, Tilman Birnstiel, John M. Carpenter, Viviana V. Guzmán, A. Meredith Hughes, Karin I. Öberg, Luca Ricci, David J. Wilner, Shangjia Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

We present an analysis of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 1.25 mm continuum observations of spiral structures in three protoplanetary disks from the Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project. See full text for full abstract.


The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). Vii. The Planet–Disk Interactions Interpretation, Shangjia Zhang, Zhaohuan Zhu, Jane Huang, Viviana V. Guzmán, Sean M. Andrews, Tilman Birnstiel, Cornelis P. Dullemond, John M. Carpenter, Andrea Isella, Laura M. Pérez, Myriam Benisty, David J. Wilner, Clément Baruteau, Xue-Ning Bai, Luca Ricci Dec 2018

The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). Vii. The Planet–Disk Interactions Interpretation, Shangjia Zhang, Zhaohuan Zhu, Jane Huang, Viviana V. Guzmán, Sean M. Andrews, Tilman Birnstiel, Cornelis P. Dullemond, John M. Carpenter, Andrea Isella, Laura M. Pérez, Myriam Benisty, David J. Wilner, Clément Baruteau, Xue-Ning Bai, Luca Ricci

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP) provides a large sample of protoplanetary disks with substructures that could be induced by young forming planets. To explore the properties of planets that may be responsible for these substructures, we systematically carry out a grid of 2D hydrodynamical simulations, including both gas and dust components. We present the resulting gas structures, including the relationship between the planet mass, as well as (1) the gaseous gap depth/width and (2) the sub/super-Keplerian motion across the gap. We then compute dust continuum intensity maps at the frequency of the DSHARP observations ...


The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). Iv. Characterizing Substructures And Interactions In Disks Around Multiple Star Systems, Nicolás T. Kurtovic, Laura M. Pérez, Myriam Benisty, Zhaohuan Zhu, Shangjia Zhang, Jane Huang, Sean M. Andrews, Cornelis P. Dullemond, Andrea Isella, Xue-Ning Bai, John M. Carpenter, Viviana V. Guzmán, Luca Ricci, David J. Wilner Dec 2018

The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). Iv. Characterizing Substructures And Interactions In Disks Around Multiple Star Systems, Nicolás T. Kurtovic, Laura M. Pérez, Myriam Benisty, Zhaohuan Zhu, Shangjia Zhang, Jane Huang, Sean M. Andrews, Cornelis P. Dullemond, Andrea Isella, Xue-Ning Bai, John M. Carpenter, Viviana V. Guzmán, Luca Ricci, David J. Wilner

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

To characterize the substructures induced in protoplanetary disks by the interaction between stars in multiple systems, we study the 1.25 mm continuum and the 12CO(J = 2–1) spectral line emission of the triple systems HT Lup and AS 205, at scales of ≈5 au, as part of the "Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project" (DSHARP). In the continuum emission, we find two symmetric spiral arms in the disk around AS 205 N, with a pitch angle of 14°, while the southern component AS 205 S, itself a spectroscopic binary, is surrounded by a compact inner disk and ...


The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). X. Multiple Rings, A Misaligned Inner Disk, And A Bright Arc In The Disk Around The T Tauri Star Hd 143006, Laura M. Pérez, Myriam Benisty, Sean M. Andrews, Andrea Isella, Cornelis P. Dellemond, Jane Huang, Nicolás T. Kurtovic, Viviana V. Guzmán, Zhaohuan Zhu, Tilman Birnstiel, Shangjia Zhang, John M. Carpenter, David J. Wilner, Luca Ricci, Xue-Ning Bai, Erik Weaver, Karin I. Öberg Dec 2018

The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). X. Multiple Rings, A Misaligned Inner Disk, And A Bright Arc In The Disk Around The T Tauri Star Hd 143006, Laura M. Pérez, Myriam Benisty, Sean M. Andrews, Andrea Isella, Cornelis P. Dellemond, Jane Huang, Nicolás T. Kurtovic, Viviana V. Guzmán, Zhaohuan Zhu, Tilman Birnstiel, Shangjia Zhang, John M. Carpenter, David J. Wilner, Luca Ricci, Xue-Ning Bai, Erik Weaver, Karin I. Öberg

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

We present a detailed analysis of new Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the disk around the T-Tauri star HD 143006, which at 46 mas (7.6 au) resolution reveals new substructures in the 1.25 mm continuum emission. The disk resolves into a series of concentric rings and gaps, together with a bright arc exterior to the rings that resembles hydrodynamical simulations of a vortex and a bridge-like feature connecting the two innermost rings. Although our 12CO observations at similar spatial resolution do not show obvious substructure, they reveal an inner disk depleted of CO emission. From ...


The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). V. Interpreting Alma Maps Of Protoplanetary Disks In Terms Of A Dust Model, Tilman Birnstiel, Cornelis P. Dullemond, Zhaohuan Zhu, Sean M. Andrews, Xue-Ning Bai, David J. Wilner, John M. Carpenter, Jane Huang, Andrea Isella, Myriam Benisty, Laura M. Pérez, Shangjia Zhang Dec 2018

The Disk Substructures At High Angular Resolution Project (Dsharp). V. Interpreting Alma Maps Of Protoplanetary Disks In Terms Of A Dust Model, Tilman Birnstiel, Cornelis P. Dullemond, Zhaohuan Zhu, Sean M. Andrews, Xue-Ning Bai, David J. Wilner, John M. Carpenter, Jane Huang, Andrea Isella, Myriam Benisty, Laura M. Pérez, Shangjia Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP) is the largest homogeneous high-resolution (~0 035, or ~5 au) disk continuum imaging survey with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) so far. In the coming years, many more disks will be mapped with ALMA at similar resolution. Interpreting the results in terms of the properties and quantities of the emitting dusty material is, however, a very non-trivial task. This is in part due to the uncertainty in the dust opacities, an uncertainty that is not likely to be resolved any time soon. It is also partly due to the ...


Toward An Understanding Of Grb Prompt Emission Mechanism. Ii. Patterns Of Peak Energy Evolution And Their Connection To Spectral Lags, Z. Lucas Uhm, Bing Zhang, Judith Racusin Dec 2018

Toward An Understanding Of Grb Prompt Emission Mechanism. Ii. Patterns Of Peak Energy Evolution And Their Connection To Spectral Lags, Z. Lucas Uhm, Bing Zhang, Judith Racusin

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The prompt emission phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibits two distinct patterns of the peak energy (E p ) evolution, i.e., time-resolved spectral analyses of νF ν spectra of broad pulses reveal (1) "hard-to-soft" and (2) "flux-tracking" patterns of E p evolution in time, the physical origin of which still remains not well understood. We show here that these two patterns can be successfully reproduced within a simple physical model invoking synchrotron radiation in a bulk-accelerating emission region. We show further that the evolution patterns of the peak energy have, in fact, direct connections to the existence of two different ...


Application Of Bradford’S Law Of Scattering On Research Publication In Astronomy & Astrophysics Of India, Satish Kumar, Senthilkumar R. Dec 2018

Application Of Bradford’S Law Of Scattering On Research Publication In Astronomy & Astrophysics Of India, Satish Kumar, Senthilkumar R.

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The present study is focused on examining the application of Bradford’s law of scattering on research articles published in the field of Astronomy & Astrophysics by Indian scientist during 1988-2017. The bibliographic data was retrieved from Web of Science (WoS) bibliographic data base for different period of time. Total 18,877 journal’s article have been published by Indian scientist in the field of Astronomy & Astrophysics during 1988-2017 which was further retrieved and analyzed separately for different blocks of 10 years as well as for 30 years consolidated too. The core journal of the field was identified. The Bradford law ...


Multiwavelength, Machine Learning, And Parallax Studies Of X-Ray Binaries In Three Local Group Galaxies, Robin Arnason Dec 2018

Multiwavelength, Machine Learning, And Parallax Studies Of X-Ray Binaries In Three Local Group Galaxies, Robin Arnason

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

X-ray binary stars are rare systems consisting of a black hole or neutron star and a main-sequence companion star. They are useful probes of galaxy properties and interesting laboratories for extreme physical conditions. In this thesis, I investigated the X-ray binary population of three galaxies in the Local Group.

The Sculptor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy offers the chance to study a primordial low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) population in an isolated, low-metallicity environment. Combining X-ray, optical, and infrared observations, I have studied nine previously-identified and discovered four additional LMXB candidates in this galaxy. Of these candidates, all but one are either background ...


Challenges With Large Transverse Momentum In Semi-Inclusive Deeply Inelastic Scattering, J. O. Gonzalez-Hernandez, T. C. Rogers, N. Sato, B. Wang Dec 2018

Challenges With Large Transverse Momentum In Semi-Inclusive Deeply Inelastic Scattering, J. O. Gonzalez-Hernandez, T. C. Rogers, N. Sato, B. Wang

Physics Faculty Publications

We survey the current phenomenological status of semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering at moderate hard scales and in the limit of very large transverse momentum. As the transverse momentum becomes comparable to or larger than the overall hard scale, the differential cross sections should be calculable with fixed order perturbative QCD (pQCD) methods, while small transverse momentum (transverse-momentum-dependent factorization) approximations should eventually break down. We find large disagreement between HERMES and COMPASS data and fixed order calculations done with modern parton densities, even in regions of kinematics where such calculations should be expected to be very accurate. Possible interpretations are suggested.


Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern Dec 2018

Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogens, some of Earth’s most primitive prokaryotic organisms, are candidates for possible life forms capable of inhabiting Mars. Specifically, four different species (Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanothermobacter wolfeii) were analyzed for their tolerance to the presence of illite clay. Illite is a crystalline mineral that has been identified from regions of Mars’s surface. Results indicated that all four species grew with some success in the illite at different concentrations. This experimentation with methanogens’ abilities to survive and reproduce in the presence of illite allows for a more accurate understanding of the potential capability of microbial growth ...


Magic, Matrimony, And The Moon: Medieval Lunar Symbolism In J.R.R. Tolkien’S “The Lay Of Aotrou And Itroun” And “The Fall Of Arthur”, Kristine Larsen Nov 2018

Magic, Matrimony, And The Moon: Medieval Lunar Symbolism In J.R.R. Tolkien’S “The Lay Of Aotrou And Itroun” And “The Fall Of Arthur”, Kristine Larsen

Journal of Tolkien Research

This paper (originally delivered at the 2017 International Medieval Congress at the University of Leeds, UK) explores common lunar symbolism in "The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun" and "The Fall of Arthur."


Photospheric Radius Evolution Of Homologous Explosions, Liang-Duan Liu, Bing Zhang, Ling-Jun Wang, Zi-Gao Dai Nov 2018

Photospheric Radius Evolution Of Homologous Explosions, Liang-Duan Liu, Bing Zhang, Ling-Jun Wang, Zi-Gao Dai

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Recent wide-field surveys discovered new types of peculiar optical transients that showed diverse behaviors of the evolution of photospheric properties. We develop a general theory of homologous explosions with constant opacity, paying special attention to the evolution of the photospheric radius R ph. We find that regardless of the density distribution profile, R ph always increases early on and decreases at late times. This result does not depend on the radiation and cooling processes inside the ejecta. The general rising/falling behavior of R ph can be used to quickly diagnose whether the source originates from a supernova-like explosion. The ...


Diffusion And Concentration Of Solids In The Dead Zone Of A Protoplanetary Disk, Chao-Chin Yang, Mordecai-Mark Mac Low, Anders Johansen Nov 2018

Diffusion And Concentration Of Solids In The Dead Zone Of A Protoplanetary Disk, Chao-Chin Yang, Mordecai-Mark Mac Low, Anders Johansen

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The streaming instability is a promising mechanism to drive the formation of planetesimals in protoplanetary disks. To trigger this process, it has been argued that sedimentation of solids onto the mid-plane needs to be efficient, and therefore that a quiescent gaseous environment is required. It is often suggested that dead-zone or disk-wind structure created by non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) effects meets this requirement. However, simulations have shown that the mid-plane of a dead zone is not completely quiescent. In order to examine the concentration of solids in such an environment, we use the local-shearing-box approximation to simulate a particlegas system with ...


Bunching Coherent Curvature Radiation In Three-Dimensional Magnetic Field Geometry: Application To Pulsars And Fast Radio Bursts, Yuan-Pei Yang, Bing Zhang Nov 2018

Bunching Coherent Curvature Radiation In Three-Dimensional Magnetic Field Geometry: Application To Pulsars And Fast Radio Bursts, Yuan-Pei Yang, Bing Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The extremely high brightness temperatures of pulsars and fast radio bursts (FRBs) require their radiation mechanisms to be coherent. Coherent curvature radiation from bunches has been long discussed as the mechanism for radio pulsars and recently for FRBs. Assuming that bunches are already generated in pulsar magnetospheres, we calculate the spectrum of coherent curvature radiation under a three-dimensional magnetic field geometry. Different from previous works assuming parallel trajectories and a monoenergetic energy distribution of electrons, we consider a bunch characterized by its length, curvature radius of the trajectory family, bunch opening angle, and electron energy distribution. We find that the ...


Reason In Motion, Luke Francis Nov 2018

Reason In Motion, Luke Francis

Student Works

This essay will explain the historical models of the solar system, which was the known universe for most of human history. There is far more to each model than simply positioning different celestial bodies at the center of the system, and the stories of the astronomers who derived the controversial theories are not discussed often enough. The creation of these theories is part of a much broader revolution in scientific thought and marked the start of a series of observational discoveries that would change the the philosophy of science for centuries to come.


Bayesian Analysis Of Two Stellar Populations In Galactic Globular Clusters Ii: Ngc 5024, Ngc 5272, And Ngc 6352, Rachel Wagner-Kaiser, Ted Von Hippel, David Stenning, Elliot Robinson, Ata Sarajedini, David Van Dyk, Nathan Stein, William H. Jefferys Nov 2018

Bayesian Analysis Of Two Stellar Populations In Galactic Globular Clusters Ii: Ngc 5024, Ngc 5272, And Ngc 6352, Rachel Wagner-Kaiser, Ted Von Hippel, David Stenning, Elliot Robinson, Ata Sarajedini, David Van Dyk, Nathan Stein, William H. Jefferys

Publications

We use Cycle 21 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations and HST archival ACS Treasury observations of Galactic Globular Clusters to find and characterize two stellar populations in NGC 5024 (M53), NGC 5272 (M3), and NGC 6352. For these three clusters, both single and double-population analyses are used to determine a best fit isochrone(s). We employ a sophisticated Bayesian analysis technique to simultaneously fit the cluster parameters (age, distance, absorption, and metallicity) that characterize each cluster. For the two-population analysis, unique population level helium values are also fit to each distinct population of the cluster and the relative proportions of ...


Dance Of Two Supermassive Binary Black Holes, Karishma Bansal Nov 2018

Dance Of Two Supermassive Binary Black Holes, Karishma Bansal

Shared Knowledge Conference

Black holes exist in a various range of masses ranging from stellar mass (~ 10 Solar Mass) to Supermassive black holes (SMBHs, million to billion Solar Mass). It is expected that as the separation between the black holes decreases, emission of gravitational waves will grow stronger, which makes binary black holes one of the most promising sources for gravitational radiation detection. Gravitational waves from merging stellar-mass black holes have recently been discovered by LIGO; however, we are yet to detect them from binary SMBHs. These massive black holes reside at the heart of most of the galaxies and when two such ...


Nonthermal Dark Matter From Early Matter Domination, Jacek Ksawery Osinski Nov 2018

Nonthermal Dark Matter From Early Matter Domination, Jacek Ksawery Osinski

Shared Knowledge Conference

Dark matter (DM) production in the early universe traditionally assumes a standard thermal history where the universe is in a radiation-dominated phase after the end of inflation until matter-radiation equality. However, the presence of additional scalar fields (which is a generic prediction of explicit string constructions) can lead to an epoch of early matter domination (EMD) that ends before the onset of big bang nucleosynthesis. Such an EMD phase has important cosmological consequences and renders thermal production of DM irrelevant. We present three scenarios for DM production involving an era of EMD: evaporation of primordial black holes into DM, DM ...


The Undeniable Attraction Of Lunar Swirls, Cierra Waller, Dhananjay Ravat Nov 2018

The Undeniable Attraction Of Lunar Swirls, Cierra Waller, Dhananjay Ravat

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Lunar swirls are complex patterns on the Moon with distinct brightness signatures and magnetic characteristics. Current research has suggested that the formation of lunar swirls relies on local magnetic fields to shield impinging solar wind, based on a shift in electromagnetic wavelength peaks related to solar radiation and space weathering. Our research combined recent models and methods to characterize these anomalies at the surface of the Moon, exploring the effects of field strength and position. We have produced a high resolution map of a famous swirl named Reiner Gamma using magnetic dipole modeling. These maps and models are considered when ...


The Shape Of The Orbit In Flrw Spacetimes, David Garfinkle, Lawrence R. Mead, H.I. Ringermacher Nov 2018

The Shape Of The Orbit In Flrw Spacetimes, David Garfinkle, Lawrence R. Mead, H.I. Ringermacher

Faculty Publications

The shape of the orbit of a free particle is examined in Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmologies. The spatial projection of the orbit is time-independent and has a simple geometric description. We relate this description to the expression in terms of standard FLRW coordinates.


5 - Irregularities In Young Stellar Models: Are Starspots To Blame?, Jessica Hamilton Nov 2018

5 - Irregularities In Young Stellar Models: Are Starspots To Blame?, Jessica Hamilton

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Starspots are dark areas on a star’s surface formed by intense magnetic fields that actively suppress the flow of energy, causing the area to become cooler and darker than its surroundings. Starspots threaten a star’s equilibrium because they prevent energy from leaving the star, causing a buildup of pressure. The prevailing assumption is that increased pressure will cause the star to inflate, producing a cooler and larger star. For this reason, starspots have been proposed to explain why some stars appear cooler and larger than we expect. This requires energy blocked by a spot to be trapped deep ...