Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Astrophysics and Astronomy Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

7,171 Full-Text Articles 17,614 Authors 485,246 Downloads 190 Institutions

All Articles in Astrophysics and Astronomy

Faceted Search

7,171 full-text articles. Page 7 of 222.

To Apply Or Not To Apply: A Survey Analysis Of Grant Writing Costs And Benefits, Ted von Hippel, Courtney von Hippel 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

To Apply Or Not To Apply: A Survey Analysis Of Grant Writing Costs And Benefits, Ted Von Hippel, Courtney Von Hippel

Ted von Hippel

We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-­‐writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-­‐financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-­‐monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat ...


The White Dwarf Luminosity Function: The Shape Of Things To Come, Ted von Hippel, M. Kilie, J. Munn, K. Williams, J. Libert, D. E. Winget, T. S. Metcalfe, Et al. 2019 University of Texas

The White Dwarf Luminosity Function: The Shape Of Things To Come, Ted Von Hippel, M. Kilie, J. Munn, K. Williams, J. Libert, D. E. Winget, T. S. Metcalfe, Et Al.

Ted von Hippel

We describe a new survey for cool white dwarfs that supplements Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry with USNO proper motions and followup spectroscopy. To date we have discovered and spectroscopically confirmed 80 new moderate temperature and cool white dwarfs. We have also found a handful of high-velocity white dwarfs and we expect a sizable fraction of these to be thick disk or possibly halo objects. Our survey is designed to find 104 new white dwarfs, although only 60 will be among the faintest white dwarfs (MV 16), where most of the age-sensitivity resides. We discuss an extension of our survey ...


The Dust Cloud Around The White Dwarf G29-38, William T. Reach, Ted von Hippel, et al. 2019 California Institute of Technology

The Dust Cloud Around The White Dwarf G29-38, William T. Reach, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Ted von Hippel

We present new observations of the white dwarf G29-38 with the camera (4.5 and 8 μm), photometer (24 μm), and spectrograph (5.5-14 μm) of the Spitzer Space Telescope. This star has an exceptionally large infrared excess, amounting to 3% of the bolometric luminosity. The spectral energy distribution (SED) has a continuum peak around 4.5 μm and a 9-11 μm emission feature 1.25 times brighter than the continuum. A mixture of amorphous olivine and a small amount of forsterite in an emitting region 1-5 R☉ from the star can reproduce the shape of the 9-11 μm feature ...


The Metallicity Distribution Of Intracluster Stars In Virgo, Benjamin F. Willaims, Ted von Hippel, et al. 2019 Pennsylvania State University

The Metallicity Distribution Of Intracluster Stars In Virgo, Benjamin F. Willaims, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Ted von Hippel

We have used the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) to detect and measure ~5300 stars in a single intracluster field in the Virgo Cluster. By performing F606W and F814W photometry on these stars, we have determined their metallicity distribution function and constrained the types of stars present in this portion of Virgo's intracluster space. Based on the small number of stars detected that were brighter than the red giant branch (RGB) tip, we suggest that in this region, Virgo's intracluster stars are mostly old (10 Gyr). Through analysis of the RGB stars themselves, we ...


The Initial-Final Mass Relationship: Spectroscopy Of White Dwarfs In Ngc 2099 (M37), Jasonjot Singh Kalirai, Ted von Hippel, et al. 2019 University of British Columbia

The Initial-Final Mass Relationship: Spectroscopy Of White Dwarfs In Ngc 2099 (M37), Jasonjot Singh Kalirai, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Ted von Hippel

We present new observations of very faint white dwarfs (WDs) in the rich open star cluster NGC 2099 (M37). Following deep, wide-field imaging of the cluster using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we have now obtained spectroscopic observations of candidate WDs using both the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on Gemini North and the Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Keck. Of our 24 WD candidates (all fainter than V = 22.4), 21 are spectroscopically confirmed to be bona fide WDs, four or five of which are most likely field objects. Fitting 18 of the 21 WD spectra with model atmospheres, we find that most WDs ...


The White Dwarf Cooling Age Of The Open Cluster Ngc 2420, Ted von Hippel, Gerard Gilmore 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

The White Dwarf Cooling Age Of The Open Cluster Ngc 2420, Ted Von Hippel, Gerard Gilmore

Ted von Hippel

We have used deep HST WFPC2 observations of two fields in NGC 2420 to produce a cluster color-magnitude diagram down to V ≈ 27. After imposing morphological selection criteria we find eight candidate white dwarfs in NGC 2420. Our completeness estimates indicate that we have found the terminus of the WD cooling sequence. We argue that the cluster distance modulus is likely to be close to 12.10 with E(B-V) = 0.04. With these parameters we find a white dwarf cooling age for NGC 2420 of 2.0 ± 0.20 (1 σ) Gyr. The 0.20 Gyr uncertainty includes errors ...


The Ages Of The Thin Disk, Thick Disk, And The Halo From Nearby White Dwarfs, Mukremin Kilic, Ted von Hippel, Jeffrey A. Munn, Hugh C. Harris, James W. Liebert, et al. 2019 University of Oklahoma

The Ages Of The Thin Disk, Thick Disk, And The Halo From Nearby White Dwarfs, Mukremin Kilic, Ted Von Hippel, Jeffrey A. Munn, Hugh C. Harris, James W. Liebert, Et Al.

Ted von Hippel

We present a detailed analysis of the white dwarf luminosity functions derived from the local 40 pc sample and the deep proper motion catalog of Munn et al. (2014, 2017). Many of the previous studies ignored the contribution of thick disk white dwarfs to the Galactic disk luminosity function, which results in an erronous age measurement. We demonstrate that the ratio of thick/thin disk white dwarfs is roughly 20% in the local sample. Simultaneously fitting for both disk components, we derive ages of 6.8-7.0 Gyr for the thin disk and 8.7 ± 0.1 Gyr for the ...


Stellar Populations And The White Dwarf Mass Function: Connections To Supernova Ia Luminosities, Ted von Hippel, G. D. Bothum, R. A. Schommer 2019 University of Wisconsin

Stellar Populations And The White Dwarf Mass Function: Connections To Supernova Ia Luminosities, Ted Von Hippel, G. D. Bothum, R. A. Schommer

Ted von Hippel

We discuss the luminosity function of SNe Ia under the assumption that recent evidence for dispersion in this standard candle is related to variations in the white dwarf mass function (WDMF) in the host galaxies. We develop a simple parameterization of the WDMF as a function of age of a stellar population and apply this to galaxies of different morphological types. We show that this simplified model is consistent with the observed WDMF of Bergeron et al. (1992) for the solar neighborhood. Our simple models predict that WDMF variations can produce a range of more than 1.8 mag in ...


The Metallicity Dependence Of The Stellar Luminosity And Initial Mass Functions: Hst Observations Of Open And Globular Clusters, Ted von Hippel, Gerard Gilmore, Nial R. Tanvir, David Robinson, Derek H.P. Jones 2019 University of Wisconsin

The Metallicity Dependence Of The Stellar Luminosity And Initial Mass Functions: Hst Observations Of Open And Globular Clusters, Ted Von Hippel, Gerard Gilmore, Nial R. Tanvir, David Robinson, Derek H.P. Jones

Ted von Hippel

Using HST and the WFPC2 we have acquired very deep V- and I-band photometry of stars in NGC 2420 and NGC 2477 to study cluster luminosity functions at approximately solar metallicity. We have determined these cluster luminosity functions down to MI = 10.5 (0.2 M⊙) and find that the luminosity function of NGC 2420 turns over at MI ≈ 9.0, and possibly stops altogether by MI ≈ 9.5. The luminosity function of NGC 2477 may flatten at MI ≥ 9.5. We compare our open cluster luminosity functions to the solar neighborhood field star luminosity function of Kroupa, Tout \& Gilmore (1993) and the four published HST globular cluster luminosity functions: ω Cen (Elson {\it et al.}\ 1995), 47 Tuc (De Marchi \& Paresce 1995b), M 15 (De Marchi \& Paresce 1995a), and NGC 6397 (Paresce, De Marchi \& Romaniello 1995). We find a smooth relation between the location of the luminosity function turn-over and the metallicity for all these low mass star samples which matches the expected MI versus [Fe/H] trend for a model star of ≈ 0.27 M⊙ (Saumon 1995; Alexander ...


Wiyn Open Cluster Study. I. Deep Photometry Of Ngc188, Ted von Hippel, Ata Sarajedini 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Wiyn Open Cluster Study. I. Deep Photometry Of Ngc188, Ted Von Hippel, Ata Sarajedini

Ted von Hippel

We have employed precise and carefully calibrated V - and I - band photometry of NGC 188 at WIYN Observatory to explore the cluster luminosity function (LF) and study the cluster white dwarfs. Our photometry is offset by V = 0.052 (fainter) from that of Sandage and Eggen & Sandage. All published photometry for the past three decades has been based on these two calibrations, which are in error by 0.05 ± 0.01. We employ the Pinsonneault et al. fiducial open cluster main sequence to derive a distance modulus of 11.43 ± 0.08 and E(B - V )=0.09, with the ...


Visitors From The Halo: 11 Gyr Old White Dwarfs In The Solar Neighborhood, Mukremin Kilic, Ted von Hippel, et al. 2019 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

Visitors From The Halo: 11 Gyr Old White Dwarfs In The Solar Neighborhood, Mukremin Kilic, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Ted von Hippel

We report the discovery of three nearby old halo white dwarf (WD) candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including two stars in a common proper motion binary system. These candidates are selected from our 2800deg2 proper motion survey on the Bok and U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station 1.3 m telescopes, and they display proper motions of 0˝.4-0˝.5 yr¯1. Follow-up MMT spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry demonstrate that all three objects are hydrogen-dominated atmosphere WDs with T eff ≈ 3700-4100 K. For average mass WDs, these temperature estimates correspond to cooling ages of 9-10 Gyr, distances ...


The Acs Survey Of Galactic Globular Clusters Xiv: Bayesian Single-Population Analysis Of 69 Globular Clusters, R. Wagner-Kaiser, Ted von Hippel, A. Sarajedini, D. C. Stenning, D. A. van Dyck, et al. 2019 University of Florida

The Acs Survey Of Galactic Globular Clusters Xiv: Bayesian Single-Population Analysis Of 69 Globular Clusters, R. Wagner-Kaiser, Ted Von Hippel, A. Sarajedini, D. C. Stenning, D. A. Van Dyck, Et Al.

Ted von Hippel

We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging from the ACS Treasury Survey to determine fits for single population isochrones of 69 Galactic globular clusters. Using robust Bayesian analysis techniques, we simultaneously determine ages, distances, absorptions, and helium values for each cluster under the scenario of a \single" stellar population on model grids with solar ratio heavy element abundances. The set of cluster parameters is determined in a consistent and reproducible manner for all clusters using the Bayesian analysis suite BASE-9. Our results are used to re-visit the age-metallicity relation. We find correlations with helium and several other parameters such as ...


Wiyn Open Cluster Study. Xi. Wiyn 3.5 Meter Deep Photometry Of M35 (Ngc 2168), Ted von Hippel, Aaron Steinhauer, Ata Sarajedini, Constantine P. Deliyannis 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Wiyn Open Cluster Study. Xi. Wiyn 3.5 Meter Deep Photometry Of M35 (Ngc 2168), Ted Von Hippel, Aaron Steinhauer, Ata Sarajedini, Constantine P. Deliyannis

Ted von Hippel

We present deep BVI observations of the core of M35 and a nearby comparison field obtained at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope under excellent seeing conditions. These observations probe to V > 26 and display the lower main sequence in BV and VI CMDs down to V = 23.3 and 24.6, respectively. At these faint magnitudes the background Galactic field stars are far more numerous than the cluster stars, yet by using a smoothing technique and CMD density distribution subtraction we are able to recover the cluster fiducial main sequence and luminosity function to V = 24.6. We find ...


The Dust Cloud Around The White Dwarf G 29-38. Ii. Spectrum From 5 To 40 Μm And Mid-Infrared Photometric Variability, William T. Reach, Ted von Hippel, et al. 2019 California Institute of Technology

The Dust Cloud Around The White Dwarf G 29-38. Ii. Spectrum From 5 To 40 Μm And Mid-Infrared Photometric Variability, William T. Reach, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Ted von Hippel

We model the mineralogy and distribution of dust around the white dwarf G29-39 using the infrared spectrum from 1 to 35 μm. The spectral model for G29-38 dust combines a wide range of materials based on spectral studies of comets and debris disks. In order of their contribution to the mid-infrared emission, the most abundant minerals around G29-38 are amorphous carbon (λ < 8 μm), amorphous and crystalline silicates (5-40 μm), water ice (10-15 and 23-35 μm), and metal sulfides (18-28 μm). The amorphous C can be equivalently replaced by other materials (like metallic Fe) with featureless infrared spectra. The best-fitting crystalline silicate is Fe-rich pyroxene. In order to absorb enough starlight to power the observed emission, the disk must either be much thinner than the stellar radius (so that it can be heated from above and below) or it must have an opening angle wider than 2°. A "moderately optically thick" torus model fits well if the dust extends inward to 50 times the white dwarf radius, all grains hotter than 1100 K are vaporized, the optical depth from the star through the disk is τ∥ = 5, and the radial density profile ∝r –2.7; the total mass of this model disk is 2 × 1019 g. A physically thin (less than the white dwarf radius) and optically thick disk can contribute to the near-infrared continuum only; such a disk cannot ...


Photometric Identification Of Cool White Dwarfs, M. Kilic, D. E. Winget, Ted von Hippel, C. F. Claver 2019 University of Texas at Austin

Photometric Identification Of Cool White Dwarfs, M. Kilic, D. E. Winget, Ted Von Hippel, C. F. Claver

Ted von Hippel

We investigate the use of a narrowband DDO51 filter for photometric identification of cool white dwarfs. We report photometric observations of 30 known cool white dwarfs with temperatures ranging from 10,000 K down to very cool temperatures (3500 K). Follow-up spectroscopic observations of a sample of objects selected using this filter and our photometric observations show that DDO51 filter photometry can help select cool white dwarf candidates for follow-up multiobject spectroscopy by rejecting 65% of main-sequence stars with the same broadband colors as the cool white dwarfs. This technique is not selective enough to efficiently feed single-object spectrographs. We ...


Measuring The Evolution Of The Most Stable Optical Clock G 117-B15a, S. O. Kepler, Ted von Hippel, et al. 2019 Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

Measuring The Evolution Of The Most Stable Optical Clock G 117-B15a, S. O. Kepler, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Ted von Hippel

We report our measurement of the rate of change of period with time () for the 215 s periodicity in the pulsating white dwarf G 117-B15A, the most stable optical clock known. After 31 years of observations, we have finally obtained a 4 σ measurement observed = (4.27 ± 0.80) × 10-15 s s-1. Taking into account the proper-motion effect of proper = (7.0 ± 2.0) × 10-16s s-1, we obtain a rate of change of period with time of = (3.57 ± 0.82) × 10-15 s s-1. This value is consistent with the cooling rate in our white dwarf models only for cores ...


New Techniques To Determine Ages Of Open Clusters Using White Dwarfs, E. J. Jeffery, Ted von Hippel, et al. 2019 University of Texas at Austin

New Techniques To Determine Ages Of Open Clusters Using White Dwarfs, E. J. Jeffery, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Ted von Hippel

Currently there are two main techniques for independently determining the ages of stellar populations: main-sequence evolution theory (via cluster isochrones) and white dwarf cooling theory. Open clusters provide the ideal environment for the calibration of these two clocks. Because current techniques to derive cluster ages from white dwarfs are observationally challenging, we discuss the feasibility of determining white dwarf ages from the brighter white dwarfs alone. This would eliminate the requirement of observing the coolest (i.e., faintest) white dwarfs. We discuss our method for testing this new idea, as well as the required photometric precision and prior constraints on ...


Statistical Analysis Of Stellar Evolution, David A. van Dyk, Ted von Hippel, Steven DeGenarro, Nathan Stein, William Jefferys 2019 University of California

Statistical Analysis Of Stellar Evolution, David A. Van Dyk, Ted Von Hippel, Steven Degenarro, Nathan Stein, William Jefferys

Ted von Hippel

Color-Magnitude Diagrams (CMDs) are plots that compare the magnitudes (luminosities) of stars in different wavelengths of light (colors). High nonlinear correlations among the mass, color, and surface temperature of newly formed stars induce a long narrow curved point cloud in a CMD known as the main sequence. Aging stars form new CMD groups of red giants and white dwarfs. The physical processes that govern this evolution can be described with mathematical models and explored using complex computer models. These calculations are designed to predict the plotted magnitudes as a function of parameters of scientific interest, such as stellar age, mass ...


Metal Abundances And Kinematics Of Bright Metal-Poor Giants Selected From The Lse Survey: Implications For The Metal-Weak Thick Disk, Timothy C. Beers, John S. Drilling, Silvia Rossi, Masashi Chiba, Jaehyon Rhee, Birgit Fṻhrmeister, John E. Norris, Ted von Hippel 2019 Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, European Southern Oabservatory

Metal Abundances And Kinematics Of Bright Metal-Poor Giants Selected From The Lse Survey: Implications For The Metal-Weak Thick Disk, Timothy C. Beers, John S. Drilling, Silvia Rossi, Masashi Chiba, Jaehyon Rhee, Birgit Fṻhrmeister, John E. Norris, Ted Von Hippel

Ted von Hippel

We report medium-resolution (1–2A ˚ ) spectroscopy and broadband (UBV) photometry for a sample of 39 bright stars (the majority of which are likely to be giants) selected as metal-deficient candidates from an objective-prism survey concentrating on Galactic latitudes below |b| = 30, the Luminous Stars Extension (LSE) survey of Drilling & Bergeron. Although the primary purpose of the LSE survey was to select OB stars (hence the concentration on low latitudes), the small number of bright metal-deficient giant candidates noted during this survey provide interesting information on the metal-weak thick disk (MWTD) population. Metal abundance estimates are obtained from several different techniques and calibrations, including some that make use of the available photometry and spectroscopy and others that use only the spectroscopy; these methods produce abundance estimates that are consistent with one another and should be secure. All of the targets in our study have available high-quality proper motions from the Hipparcos or Tycho II catalogs, or both, that we combine with radial velocities from our spectroscopy to obtain full space motions for ...


Precise Ages Of Field Stars From White Dwarf Companions, M. Fouesneau, H-W. Rix, T. von Hippel, D. W. Hogg, H. Tian 2019 Max-Planck-Institut f¨ur Astronomie

Precise Ages Of Field Stars From White Dwarf Companions, M. Fouesneau, H-W. Rix, T. Von Hippel, D. W. Hogg, H. Tian

Ted von Hippel

Observational tests of stellar and Galactic chemical evolution call for the joint knowledge of a star’s physical parameters, detailed element abundances, and precise age. For cool main-sequence (MS) stars the abundances of many elements can be measured from spectroscopy, but ages are very hard to determine. The situation is different if the MS star has a white dwarf (WD) companion and a known distance, as the age of such a binary system can then be determined precisely from the photometric properties of the cooling WD. As a pilot study for obtaining precise age determinations of field MS stars, we ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress