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Probing The Intergalactic Turbulence With Fast Radio Bursts, Siyao Xu, Bing Zhang 2020 University of Wisconsin

Probing The Intergalactic Turbulence With Fast Radio Bursts, Siyao Xu, Bing Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The turbulence in the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) plays an important role in various astrophysical processes across cosmic time, but it is very challenging to constrain its statistical properties both observationally and numerically. Via the statistical analysis of turbulence along different sight lines toward a population of fast radio bursts (FRBs), we demonstrate that FRBs provide a unique tool to probe the intergalactic turbulence. We measure the structure function (SF) of dispersion measures (DMs) of FRBs to study the multiscale electron density fluctuations induced by the intergalactic turbulence. The SF has a large amplitude and a Kolmogorov power-law scaling with ...


Galaxy And Mass Assembly (Gama): Demonstrating The Power Of Wise In The Study Of Galaxy Groups To Z < 0.1, M. E. Cluver, T. H. Jarrett, E. N. Taylor, A. M. Hopkins, S. Brough, S. Casura, B. W. Holwerda, J. Liske, K. A. Pimbblet, A. H. Wright 2020 Swinburne University of Technology

Galaxy And Mass Assembly (Gama): Demonstrating The Power Of Wise In The Study Of Galaxy Groups To Z < 0.1, M. E. Cluver, T. H. Jarrett, E. N. Taylor, A. M. Hopkins, S. Brough, S. Casura, B. W. Holwerda, J. Liske, K. A. Pimbblet, A. H. Wright

Faculty Scholarship

Combining high-fidelity group characterization from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey and source-tailored z < 0.1 photometry from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey, we present a comprehensive study of the properties of ungrouped galaxies, compared to 497 galaxy groups (4 ≤ N FoF ≤ 20) as a function of stellar and halo mass. Ungrouped galaxies are largely unimodal in WISE color, the result of being dominated by star-forming, late-type galaxies. Grouped galaxies, however, show a clear bimodality in WISE color, which correlates strongly with stellar mass and morphology. We find evidence for an increasing early-type fraction, in stellar mass bins between 1010 M o˙ ≲ M stellar ≲ 1011 M o˙, with increasing halo mass. Using ungrouped, late-type galaxies with star-forming colors (W2-W3 > 3), we define a star-forming main sequence (SFMS), which we use to delineate systems that have moved below the sequence ("quenched"for the purposes of this work). We find that with increasing halo mass, the relative number of late-type systems on the SFMS decreases, with a corresponding increase in early-type, quenched systems at high stellar mass (M stellar > 1010.5 M o˙), consistent with mass quenching. Group galaxies with masses M stellar < 1010.5 M o˙ show evidence of quenching consistent with environmentally driven processes. The stellar mass distribution of late-type, quenched galaxies suggests that it may be an intermediate population as systems transition from being star-forming and late-type to the "red sequence."Finally, we use the projected area of groups on the sky to extract groups that are (relatively) compact for their halo mass. Although these show a marginal increase in their proportion of high-mass and early-type galaxies compared to nominal groups, a clear increase in quenched fraction is not evident.


All-Sky Search For Short Gravitational-Wave Bursts In The Second Advanced Ligo And Advanced Virgo Run, Tiffany Summerscales, LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration 2020 Andrews University

All-Sky Search For Short Gravitational-Wave Bursts In The Second Advanced Ligo And Advanced Virgo Run, Tiffany Summerscales, Ligo Scientific Collaboration And The Virgo Collaboration

Faculty Publications

We present the results of a search for short-duration gravitational-wave transients in the data from the second observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We search for gravitational-wave transients with a duration of milliseconds to approximately one second in the 32–4096 Hz frequency band with minimal assumptions about the signal properties, thus targeting a wide variety of sources. We also perform a matched-filter search for gravitational-wave transients from cosmic string cusps for which the waveform is well modeled. The unmodeled search detected gravitational waves from several binary black hole mergers which have been identified by previous analyses. No ...


Absence Of Landau-Peierls Instability In The Magnetic Dual Chiral Density Wave Phase Of Dense Qcd, Efrain J. Ferrer, Vivian de la Incera 2020 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Absence Of Landau-Peierls Instability In The Magnetic Dual Chiral Density Wave Phase Of Dense Qcd, Efrain J. Ferrer, Vivian De La Incera

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

We investigate the stability of the magnetic dual chiral density wave (MDCDW) phase of cold and dense QCD against collective low-energy fluctuations of the order parameter. The appearance of additional structures in the system free energy due to the explicit breaking of the rotational and isospin symmetries by the external magnetic field play a crucial role in the analysis. The new structures stiffen the spectrum of the thermal fluctuations in the transverse direction, thereby avoiding the Landau-Peierls instability that affects single-modulated phases at arbitrarily low temperatures. The lack of Landau-Peierls instabilities in the MDCDW phase makes this inhomogeneous phase of ...


Earth-Like Planet In A Binary Star System, Melissa Kamrowski 2020 University of Minnesota Morris

Earth-Like Planet In A Binary Star System, Melissa Kamrowski

Scholarly Horizons: University of Minnesota, Morris Undergraduate Journal

This paper was written as a final lab report for a computer modeling class. It uses dynamical simulations to investigate the behavior of a planet with the mass and velocity magnitude of the Earth placed in a low mass binary star system, which was loosely based on the Sirius binary. The simulations are completed using gravitational force properties along with the Verlet algorithm, then the results were observed through a modeling program, in which each set was set as an animation to determine behavior. Results came from 40 strategic starting points, which were chosen to cover a large spread of ...


Python Implementation Of Batch Least-Squares Filter For Satellite Orbit Determination, Austin Ogle 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Python Implementation Of Batch Least-Squares Filter For Satellite Orbit Determination, Austin Ogle

PhD Dissertations and Master's Theses

Accurate orbit determination techniques are fundamental to the maintenance and execution of any ongoing space-based mission. This project serves as a guide and demonstration of a batch sequential least-squares filter for Earth-orbiting satellites using exclusively open-source technologies. The target audience for this project was an academic institution aiming to keep track of an irregularly documented satellite. The observation function mimics a telescope, accepting right ascension and declination as measured values.

State propagation was handled using the Poliastro library. This package boasts FORTRANlevel speed by utilizing the DOPRI8 integrator, explicitly calling FORTRAN code. Matrix inversion was solved using the SciPy banded ...


Wallaby – An Ska Pathfinder H I Survey, Bärbel S. Koribalski, L. Staveley-Smith, T. Westmeier, P. Serra, K. Spekkens, O. I. Wong, K. Lee-Waddell, C. D.P. Lagos, D. Obreschkow, E. V. Ryan-Weber, M. Zwaan, V. Kilborn, G. Bekiaris, K. Bekki, F. Bigiel, A. Boselli, A. Bosma, B. Catinella, G. Chauhan, M. E. Cluver, M. Colless, H. M. Courtois, R. A. Crain, W. J.G. de Blok, H. Dénes, A. R. Duffy, A. Elagali, C. J. Fluke, B. Q. For, G. Heald, P. A. Henning, K. M. Hess, Benne W. Holwerda 2020 Australia Telescope National Facility

Wallaby – An Ska Pathfinder H I Survey, Bärbel S. Koribalski, L. Staveley-Smith, T. Westmeier, P. Serra, K. Spekkens, O. I. Wong, K. Lee-Waddell, C. D.P. Lagos, D. Obreschkow, E. V. Ryan-Weber, M. Zwaan, V. Kilborn, G. Bekiaris, K. Bekki, F. Bigiel, A. Boselli, A. Bosma, B. Catinella, G. Chauhan, M. E. Cluver, M. Colless, H. M. Courtois, R. A. Crain, W. J.G. De Blok, H. Dénes, A. R. Duffy, A. Elagali, C. J. Fluke, B. Q. For, G. Heald, P. A. Henning, K. M. Hess, Benne W. Holwerda

Faculty Scholarship

The Widefield ASKAP L-band Legacy All-sky Blind surveY (wallaby) is a next-generation survey of neutral hydrogen (H i) in the Local Universe. It uses the widefield, high-resolution capability of the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), a radio interferometer consisting of 36 × 12 -m dishes equipped with Phased-Array Feeds (PAFs), located in an extremely radio-quiet zone in Western Australia. wallaby aims to survey three-quarters of the sky (− 90 ∘< δ< + 30 ∘) to a redshift of z≲ 0.26 , and generate spectral line image cubes at ∼30 arcsec resolution and ∼1.6 mJy beam−1 per 4 km s−1 channel sensitivity. ASKAP’s instantaneous field of view at 1.4 GHz, delivered by the PAF’s 36 beams, is about 30 sq deg. At an integrated signal-to-noise ratio of five, wallaby is expected to detect around half a million galaxies with a mean redshift of z∼ 0.05 (∼200 Mpc). The scientific goals of wallaby include: (a) a census of gas-rich galaxies in the vicinity of the Local Group; (b) a study of the H i properties of galaxies, groups and clusters, in particular the influence of the environment on galaxy evolution; and (c) the refinement of cosmological parameters using the spatial and redshift distribution of low-bias gas-rich galaxies. For context we provide an overview of recent and planned large-scale H i surveys. Combined with existing and new multi-wavelength sky surveys, wallaby will enable an exciting new generation of panchromatic studies of the Local Universe. — First results from the wallaby pilot survey are revealed, with initial data products publicly available in the CSIRO ASKAP Science Data Archive (CASDA).


Topics In Gravitational Wave Physics, Aaron David Johnson 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Topics In Gravitational Wave Physics, Aaron David Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

We begin with a brief introduction to gravitational waves. Next we look into the origin of the Chandrasekhar transformations between the different equations found by perturbing a Schwarzschild black hole. Some of the relationships turn out to be Darboux transformations. Then we turn to GW150914, the first detected black hole binary system, to see if the nonlinear memory might be detectable by current and future detectors. Finally, we develop an updated code for computing equatorial extreme mass ratio inspirals which will be open sourced as soon as it has been generalized for arbitrary inclinations.


Toi-1235 B: A Keystone Super-Earth For Testing Radius Valley Emergence Models Around Early M Dwarfs, Eric L.N. Jensen 2020 Swarthmore College

Toi-1235 B: A Keystone Super-Earth For Testing Radius Valley Emergence Models Around Early M Dwarfs, Eric L.N. Jensen

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Works

Small planets on close-in orbits tend to exhibit envelope mass fractions of either effectively zero or up to a few percent depending on their size and orbital period. Models of thermally driven atmospheric mass loss and of terrestrial planet formation in a gas-poor environment make distinct predictions regarding the location of this rocky/nonrocky transition in period–radius space. Here we present the confirmation of TOI-1235 b (P = 3.44 days, ${r}_{{\rm{p}}}={1.738}_{-0.076}^{+0.087}$ ${R}_{\oplus }$), a planet whose size and period are intermediate between the competing model predictions, thus making ...


A Remnant Planetary Core In The Hot-Neptune Desert, Eric L.N. Jensen 2020 Swarthmore College

A Remnant Planetary Core In The Hot-Neptune Desert, Eric L.N. Jensen

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Works

The interiors of giant planets remain poorly understood. Even for the planets in the Solar System, difficulties in observation lead to large uncertainties in the properties of planetary cores. Exoplanets that have undergone rare evolutionary processes provide a route to understanding planetary interiors. Planets found in and near the typically barren hot-Neptune ‘desert’1,2 (a region in mass–radius space that contains few planets) have proved to be particularly valuable in this regard. These planets include HD149026b3, which is thought to have an unusually massive core, and recent discoveries such as LTT9779b4 and NGTS-4b5, on which photoevaporation has removed ...


Precise Mass And Radius Of A Transiting Super-Earth Planet Orbiting The M Dwarf Toi-1235: A Planet In The Radius Gap?, Eric L.N. Jensen 2020 Swarthmore College

Precise Mass And Radius Of A Transiting Super-Earth Planet Orbiting The M Dwarf Toi-1235: A Planet In The Radius Gap?, Eric L.N. Jensen

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Works

We report the confirmation of a transiting planet around the bright weakly active M0.5 V star TOI-1235 (TYC 4384–1735–1, V ≈ 11.5 mag), whose transit signal was detected in the photometric time series of sectors 14, 20, and 21 of the TESS space mission. We confirm the planetary nature of the transit signal, which has a period of 3.44 d, by using precise RV measurements with the CARMENES, HARPS-N, and iSHELL spectrographs, supplemented by high-resolution imaging and ground-based photometry. A comparison of the properties derived for TOI-1235 b with theoretical models reveals that the planet has ...


A Pair Of Tess Planets Spanning The Radius Valley Around The Nearby Mid-M Dwarf Ltt 3780, Eric L.N. Jensen 2020 Swarthmore College

A Pair Of Tess Planets Spanning The Radius Valley Around The Nearby Mid-M Dwarf Ltt 3780, Eric L.N. Jensen

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Works

We present the confirmation of two new planets transiting the nearby mid-M dwarf LTT 3780 (TIC 36724087, TOI-732, V = 13.07, K s = 8.204, R s = 0.374 R ⊙, M s = 0.401 M ⊙, d = 22 pc). The two planet candidates are identified in a single Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite sector and validated with reconnaissance spectroscopy, ground-based photometric follow-up, and high-resolution imaging. With measured orbital periods of P b = 0.77, P c = 12.25 days and sizes r p,b = 1.33 ± 0.07, r p,c = 2.30 ± 0.16 R ⊕, the two planets span the radius ...


Absence Of Landau-Peierls Instability In The Magnetic Dual Chiral Density Wave Phase Of Dense Qcd, Efrain J. Ferrer, Vivian de la Incera 2020 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Absence Of Landau-Peierls Instability In The Magnetic Dual Chiral Density Wave Phase Of Dense Qcd, Efrain J. Ferrer, Vivian De La Incera

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

We investigate the stability of the magnetic dual chiral density wave (MDCDW) phase of cold and dense QCD against collective low-energy fluctuations of the order parameter. The appearance of additional structures in the system free energy due to the explicit breaking of the rotational and isospin symmetries by the external magnetic field play a crucial role in the analysis. The new structures stiffen the spectrum of the thermal fluctuations in the transverse direction, thereby avoiding the Landau-Peierls instability that affects single-modulated phases at arbitrarily low temperatures. The lack of Landau-Peierls instabilities in the MDCDW phase makes this inhomogeneous phase of ...


Astroalign: A Python Module For Astronomical Image Registration, Martin Beroiz, Juan B. Cabral, Bruno Sanchez 2020 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Astroalign: A Python Module For Astronomical Image Registration, Martin Beroiz, Juan B. Cabral, Bruno Sanchez

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

We present an algorithm implemented in the Astroalign Python module for image registration in astronomy. Our module does not rely on WCS information and instead matches three-point asterisms (triangles) on the images to find the most accurate linear transformation between them. It is especially useful in the context of aligning images prior to stacking or performing difference image analysis. Astroalign can match images of different point-spread functions, seeing, and atmospheric conditions.


Gw190814: Gravitational Waves From The Coalescence Of A 23 Solar Mass Black Hole With A 2.6 Solar Mass Compact Object, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, S. Abraham, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C. Adams, R. X. Adhikari, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, M. Agathos, K. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. Aguiar, A. Aich, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, S. Akcay, G. Allen, A. Allocca, P. A. Altin, A. Amato, S. Anand, A. Ananyeva, S. B. Anderson, W. G. Anderson, S. V. Angelova, S. Ansoldi, S. Antier, S. Appert, K. Arai, Tiffany Z. Summerscales 2020 California Institute of Technology

Gw190814: Gravitational Waves From The Coalescence Of A 23 Solar Mass Black Hole With A 2.6 Solar Mass Compact Object, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, S. Abraham, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C. Adams, R. X. Adhikari, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, M. Agathos, K. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. Aguiar, A. Aich, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, S. Akcay, G. Allen, A. Allocca, P. A. Altin, A. Amato, S. Anand, A. Ananyeva, S. B. Anderson, W. G. Anderson, S. V. Angelova, S. Ansoldi, S. Antier, S. Appert, K. Arai, Tiffany Z. Summerscales

Faculty Publications

© 2020. The American Astronomical Society.. We report the observation of a compact binary coalescence involving a 22.2-24.3 M o˙ black hole and a compact object with a mass of 2.50-2.67 M o˙ (all measurements quoted at the 90% credible level). The gravitational-wave signal, GW190814, was observed during LIGO's and Virgo's third observing run on 2019 August 14 at 21:10:39 UTC and has a signal-to-noise ratio of 25 in the three-detector network. The source was localized to 18.5 deg2 at a distance of 241 +41-41 Mpc; no electromagnetic counterpart has been confirmed ...


Spherically Symmetric Charged Anisotropic Solution In Higher Dimensional Bimetric General Relativity, D. N. Pandya, A. H. Hasmani 2020 Sardar Patel University

Spherically Symmetric Charged Anisotropic Solution In Higher Dimensional Bimetric General Relativity, D. N. Pandya, A. H. Hasmani

Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)

In this paper we have obtained a solution of field equations of Rosen’s bimetric general relativity (BGR) for the static spherically symmetric space-time with charged anisotropic fluid distribution in (n+2)-dimensions. An exact solution is obtained and a special case is considered. This work is an extension of our previous work where four-dimensional case was discussed.


Stability Of Regular Thin Shell Wormholes Supported By Vdw Quintessence, A. Eid 2020 Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU)

Stability Of Regular Thin Shell Wormholes Supported By Vdw Quintessence, A. Eid

Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)

The dynamical equations of motion for a thin shell wormhole from regular black holes that are supported by Van der Waals (VDW) quintessence equation of state (EoS) are constructed, through cut and -paste technique. The linearized stability of regular wormhole is derived. The presences of unstable and stable static solutions with different value of some parameters are analyzed.


Towards Realism Interpretation Of Wave Mechanics Based On Maxwell Equations In Quaternion Space And Some Implications, Including Smarandache’S Hypothesis, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati 2020 University of New Mexico

Towards Realism Interpretation Of Wave Mechanics Based On Maxwell Equations In Quaternion Space And Some Implications, Including Smarandache’S Hypothesis, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

No abstract provided.


The Right Stuff In Geospace: Using Mutual Coercion To Avoid An Inevitable Prison For Humanity, Sarah Louise Vollmer 2020 St. Mary's University School of Law

The Right Stuff In Geospace: Using Mutual Coercion To Avoid An Inevitable Prison For Humanity, Sarah Louise Vollmer

St. Mary's Law Journal

Even though you cannot see it, catastrophe is brewing in near-Earth orbit. As a product of the Cold War, the legal regime governing geospace and beyond has presented mankind with a paradox. Though we are free to utilize space through peaceful means, the inability to appropriate space by any sovereign claim of right has triggered a modern-day tragedy of the commons, with the only restriction being the constraints of radio frequency interference. The destructive domino effect of space debris collisions threatens the invaluable communicative and scientific utility derived from satellites in geospace. International and domestic space jurisprudence encourage space debris ...


A Numerical Survey Of Multi-Planet Systems’ Inclination Excitation And Survival Under The Influence Of An Oblate, Tilted Star, Kathleen M T Schultz 2020 University of Maine

A Numerical Survey Of Multi-Planet Systems’ Inclination Excitation And Survival Under The Influence Of An Oblate, Tilted Star, Kathleen M T Schultz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Among the many exciting and thought-provoking discoveries facilitated by the Kepler telescope, one of the most puzzling is the very large proportion of systems with only a single transiting planet in them, relative to the number of systems with multiple transiting planets. Given that most of these multis are close together and have low mutual inclinations, and that planetary systems tend to form in such a configuration, the next logical step is to guess that at least some of the singles are part of multi-planet systems with large mutual inclinations between planets, excited by some other object’s gravitational perturbations ...


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