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Binary Neutron Star Mergers: Testing Ejecta Models For High Mass-Ratios, Allen Murray 2020 Purdue University - North Central Campus

Binary Neutron Star Mergers: Testing Ejecta Models For High Mass-Ratios, Allen Murray

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Neutron stars are extremely dense stellar corpses which sometimes exist in orbiting pairs known as binary neutron star (BNS) systems. The mass ratio (q) of a BNS system is defined as the mass of the heavier neutron star divided by the mass of the lighter neutron star. Over time the neutron stars will inspiral toward one another and produce a merger event. Although rare, these events can be rich sources of observational data due to their many electromagnetic emissions as well as the gravitational waves they produce. The ability to extract physical information from such observations relies heavily on numerical ...


Topics In Gravitational Wave Physics, Aaron David Johnson 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Topics In Gravitational Wave Physics, Aaron David Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

We begin with a brief introduction to gravitational waves. Next we look into the origin of the Chandrasekhar transformations between the different equations found by perturbing a Schwarzschild black hole. Some of the relationships turn out to be Darboux transformations. Then we turn to GW150914, the first detected black hole binary system, to see if the nonlinear memory might be detectable by current and future detectors. Finally, we develop an updated code for computing equatorial extreme mass ratio inspirals which will be open sourced as soon as it has been generalized for arbitrary inclinations.


A Mildly Relativistic Outflow From The Energentic, Fast-Rising Blue Optical Transient Css161010 In A Dwarf Galaxy, Deanne L. Coppejans, R. Margutti, G. Terreran, A. J. Nayana, E. R. Coughlin, T. Laskar, K. D. Alexander, M. Bietenholz, D. Caprioli, P. Chandra, M. R. Drout, D. Frederiks, C. Frohmaier, K. H. Hurley, C. S. Kochanek, M. MacLeod, A. Meisner, P. E. Nugent, A. Ridnaia, D. J. Sand, D. Svinkin, C. Ward, S. Yang, A. Baldeschi, I. V. Chilingarian, Y. Dong, C. Esquivia, W. Fong, C. Guidorzi, P. Lundqvist, D. Milisavljevic 2020 Northwestern University

A Mildly Relativistic Outflow From The Energentic, Fast-Rising Blue Optical Transient Css161010 In A Dwarf Galaxy, Deanne L. Coppejans, R. Margutti, G. Terreran, A. J. Nayana, E. R. Coughlin, T. Laskar, K. D. Alexander, M. Bietenholz, D. Caprioli, P. Chandra, M. R. Drout, D. Frederiks, C. Frohmaier, K. H. Hurley, C. S. Kochanek, M. Macleod, A. Meisner, P. E. Nugent, A. Ridnaia, D. J. Sand, D. Svinkin, C. Ward, S. Yang, A. Baldeschi, I. V. Chilingarian, Y. Dong, C. Esquivia, W. Fong, C. Guidorzi, P. Lundqvist, D. Milisavljevic

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

We present X-ray and radio observations of the Fast Blue Optical Transient CRTS-CSS161010 J045834−081803 (CSS161010 hereafter) at t = 69–531 days. CSS161010 shows luminous X-ray (L x ~ 5 × 1039 erg s−1) and radio (L ν ~ 1029 erg s−1 Hz−1) emission. The radio emission peaked at ~100 days post-transient explosion and rapidly decayed. We interpret these observations in the context of synchrotron emission from an expanding blast wave. CSS161010 launched a mildly relativistic outflow with velocity Γβc ≥ 0.55c at ~100 days. This is faster than the non-relativistic AT 2018cow (Γβc ~ 0.1c) and closer to ZTF18abvkwla ...


Swift Spectroscopy Of The Accretion Disk Wind In The Black Hole Gro J1655-40, M. Balakrishnan, J. M. Miller, N. Trueba, M. Reynolds, J. Raymond, Daniel Proga, A. C. Fabian, T. Kallman, J. Kaastra 2020 University of Michigan

Swift Spectroscopy Of The Accretion Disk Wind In The Black Hole Gro J1655-40, M. Balakrishnan, J. M. Miller, N. Trueba, M. Reynolds, J. Raymond, Daniel Proga, A. C. Fabian, T. Kallman, J. Kaastra

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Chandra obtained two High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the stellar-mass black hole GRO J1655−40 during its 2005 outburst, revealing a rich and complex disk wind. Soon after its launch, the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory began monitoring the same outburst. Some X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations were obtained in a mode that makes it impossible to remove strong Mn calibration lines, so the Fe Kα line region in the spectra was previously neglected. However, these lines enable a precise calibration of the energy scale, facilitating studies of the absorption-dominated disk wind and its velocity shifts. Here we present fits to ...


Automated Spectroscopic Detection And Mapping Using Alma And Machine Learningtechniques, Steven Cocke, Andrew Wilkins, Josephine McDaniel, John Santerre, Conor Nixon 2020 Southern Methodist University

Automated Spectroscopic Detection And Mapping Using Alma And Machine Learningtechniques, Steven Cocke, Andrew Wilkins, Josephine Mcdaniel, John Santerre, Conor Nixon

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper we present a methodology for automating theclassification of spectrally resolved observations of multiple emissionlines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA).Molecules in planetary atmospheres emit or absorb different wavelengthsof light thereby providing a unique signature for each species. ALMAdata were taken from interferometric observations of Titan made be-tween UT 2012 July 03 23:22:14 and 2012 July 04 01:06:18 as part ofALMA project 2011.0.00319.S. We first employed a greedy set cover algorithm to identify the most probable molecules that would reproducethe set of frequencies with respective flux greater than ...


An Analysis Of The Debate Over Creation, Evolution, And The Timeline Of The Universe At An Ecumenical Christian University, Mason Pohlman 2020 Belmont University

An Analysis Of The Debate Over Creation, Evolution, And The Timeline Of The Universe At An Ecumenical Christian University, Mason Pohlman

Honors Theses

Throughout a significant portion of history and within modern culture, the fields of science and religion appear to be competing for the same holds in a person’s belief system. Universities are where academics and the sciences are the prevailing held truth, while in churches, the Bible reigns as supreme authority. However, in a Christian academic setting, the predominate school of thought in belief systems might turn into a little more of a melting pot. By analyzing gathered personal data (via surveys and interviews), one can begin to piece together the predominate thoughts on the apparent conflict between religion and ...


Gravitational Wave Calibration Error For Supernovae Core Collapse, Brad Ratto 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Gravitational Wave Calibration Error For Supernovae Core Collapse, Brad Ratto

Discovery Day - Prescott

The existence of gravitational waves reveals yet another method in which information is transmitted across the cosmos, bringing with it further insight into the inner workings of our universe. In order to detect such phenomena, we use ground based Laser Interferometers to measure the microscopic deformations in space-time and explore a new frontier in gravitational astronomy. However, such instrumentation also induces distortions in the gravitational waves henceforth diminishing the ability to extract accurate physical information. Moreover, the ability to extract a coherent signal amongst the noise remains an issue that requires constant improvement. The aim of this study is to ...


Death Line For Radio Pulsars In Braneworlds, Djavlanbek Rayimbaev, Satimbay Palvanov, Maksud Umaraliyev, Malika Khudoyberdiyeva 2020 Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute

Death Line For Radio Pulsars In Braneworlds, Djavlanbek Rayimbaev, Satimbay Palvanov, Maksud Umaraliyev, Malika Khudoyberdiyeva

Bulletin of National University of Uzbekistan: Mathematics and Natural Sciences

We investigate the effects of braneworlds on energetic processes in plasma. magnetosphere of neutron stars. Obtained that the presence of brane charge causes an increase in the size of the polar cap region. It has shown that the polar capsize of neutron stars with larger rotation period and compactness parameter is also larger. We have studied deathline of radio pulsar in braneworld. Obtained that the deathline shifted down and the pulsars which lying on the deathline become visible in radio band. Moreover, we have extended particle acceleration in polar cap of neutron stars in the presence of the brane charge ...


Secondary Gravity Waves Generated By Breaking Mountain Waves Over Europe, Christopher J. Heale, Jonathan B. Snively, Katrina Bossert, S. L. Vadas, Lars Hoffmann, A. Dörnbrack, G. Stober, C. Jacobi 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Secondary Gravity Waves Generated By Breaking Mountain Waves Over Europe, Christopher J. Heale, Jonathan B. Snively, Katrina Bossert, S. L. Vadas, Lars Hoffmann, A. Dörnbrack, G. Stober, C. Jacobi

Publications

A strong mountain wave, observed over Central Europe on 12 January 2016, is simulated in 2D under two fixed background wind conditions representing opposite tidal phases. The aim of the simulation is to investigate the breaking of the mountain wave and subsequent generation of nonprimary waves in the upper atmosphere. The model results show that the mountain wave first breaks as it approaches a mesospheric critical level creating turbulence on horizontal scales of 8–30 km. These turbulence scales couple directly to horizontal secondary waves scales, but those scales are prevented from reaching the thermosphere by the tidal winds, which ...


Mass Determinations Of The Three Mini-Neptunes Transiting Toi-125, Louise D. Nielsen, D. Gandolfi, D. J. Armstrong, J. S. Jenkins, M. Fridlund, N. C. Santos, F. Dai, V. Adibekyan, R. Luque, Jason H. Steffen, M. Esposito, F. Meru, S. Sabotta, E. Bolmont, D. Kossakowski, J. F. Otegi, F. Murgas, M. Stalport, F. Rodler, M. R. Diaz, N. T. Kurtovic, G. Ricker, R. Vanderspek, D. W. Latham, S. Seager, J. N. Winn, J. M. Jenkins, R. Allart, J. M. Almenara, D. Barrado, S. C.C. Barros 2020 University of Geneva

Mass Determinations Of The Three Mini-Neptunes Transiting Toi-125, Louise D. Nielsen, D. Gandolfi, D. J. Armstrong, J. S. Jenkins, M. Fridlund, N. C. Santos, F. Dai, V. Adibekyan, R. Luque, Jason H. Steffen, M. Esposito, F. Meru, S. Sabotta, E. Bolmont, D. Kossakowski, J. F. Otegi, F. Murgas, M. Stalport, F. Rodler, M. R. Diaz, N. T. Kurtovic, G. Ricker, R. Vanderspek, D. W. Latham, S. Seager, J. N. Winn, J. M. Jenkins, R. Allart, J. M. Almenara, D. Barrado, S. C.C. Barros

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, TESS, is currently carrying out an all-sky search for small planets transiting bright stars. In the first year of the TESS survey, a steady progress was made in achieving the mission’s primary science goal of establishing bulk densities for 50 planets smaller than Neptune. During that year, the TESS’s observations were focused on the southern ecliptic hemisphere, resulting in the discovery of three mini-Neptunes orbiting the star TOI-125, a V = 11.0 K0 dwarf. We present intensive HARPS radial velocity observations, yielding precise mass measurements for TOI-125b, TOI-125c, and TOI-125d. TOI-125b has an ...


Calibration Transients In Ligo Detectors, Thomas Daniel Abbott 2020 Louisiana State University

Calibration Transients In Ligo Detectors, Thomas Daniel Abbott

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation describes a novel method of analyzing fluctuations in the time-dependent calibration models of the LIGO interferometers to estimate their effect on strain reconstruction for gravitational-wave detections. The time-dependence of the calibration model of each detector is tracked with a set of parameters which are continuously measured while the interferometers are operating. These parameters track slow variations in the sensing function of the detectors as well as the actuators that hold the detectors in an operational state. The time-dependent parameter data during the second observation run (O2 [November 30, 2016 16:00 UTC to August 25, 2017 22:00 ...


Relation Between Gravitational Mass And Baryonic Mass For Non-Rotating And Rapidly Rotating Neutron Stars, He Gao, Shun-Ke Ai, Zhou-Jian Cao, Bing Zhang, Zhen-Yu Zhu, Ang Li, Nai-Bo Zhang, Andreas Bauswein 2020 Beijing Normal University

Relation Between Gravitational Mass And Baryonic Mass For Non-Rotating And Rapidly Rotating Neutron Stars, He Gao, Shun-Ke Ai, Zhou-Jian Cao, Bing Zhang, Zhen-Yu Zhu, Ang Li, Nai-Bo Zhang, Andreas Bauswein

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

With a selected sample of neutron star (NS) equations of state (EOSs) that are consistent with the current observations and have a range of maximum masses, we investigate the relations between NS gravitational mass Mg and baryonic mass Mb, and the relations between the maximum NS mass supported through uniform rotation (Mmax) and that of nonrotating NSs (MTOV). We find that for an EOS-independent quadratic, universal transformation formula (Mb=Mg+A×M2g)(Mb=Mg+A×Mg2), the best-fit A value is 0.080 for non-rotating NSs, 0.064 for maximally rotating NSs, and 0.073 when NSs with arbitrary rotation ...


Experimental And Numerical Investigations Of Granular Dynamics In Microgravity, Stephanie Jarmak 2020 University of Central Florida

Experimental And Numerical Investigations Of Granular Dynamics In Microgravity, Stephanie Jarmak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

During the first stages of planet formation small particles (~0.1 – 1 µm) in the protoplanetary disk collide at low relative velocities (less than 1 m/s) and tend to aggregate into cm-size "pebbles" through a combination of electrostatic interactions and gravitational streaming instabilities. Particles in this size regime also compose a layer of regolith on small, airless bodies that evolves under conditions very different than those on Earth. Characterizing the response of regolith to low-energy impacts in a microgravity environment is therefore critical to our understanding of the processes that lead to the formation of these objects and our ...


New Foundation In The Sciences: Physics Without Sweeping Infinities Under The Rug, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd 2019 University of New Mexico

New Foundation In The Sciences: Physics Without Sweeping Infinities Under The Rug, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

It is widely known among the Frontiers of physics, that “sweeping under the rug” practice has been quite the norm rather than exception. In other words, the leading paradigms have strong tendency to be hailed as the only game in town. For example, renormalization group theory was hailed as cure in order to solve infinity problem in QED theory. For instance, a quote from Richard Feynman goes as follows: “What the three Nobel Prize winners did, in the words of Feynman, was "to get rid of the infinities in the calculations. The infinities are still there, but now they can ...


#7 - Cluster Characterization And Veto Analysis Of The Frequencyhough All-Sky Continuous Gravitational Wave Search, Cain Gantt, Pia Astone 2019 Georgia College and State University

#7 - Cluster Characterization And Veto Analysis Of The Frequencyhough All-Sky Continuous Gravitational Wave Search, Cain Gantt, Pia Astone

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Continuous gravitational waves (CWs) can be produced by rotating neutron stars with an asymmetric mass distribution about their axis of rotation. The FrequencyHough search is an all-sky search for these signals, and the large parameter space considered introduces computational limits into the pipeline. We investigate the distributions of candidates produced by earlier stages in the pipeline, and propose the mechanisms within the pipeline that produce these effects. We also characterize the performance of two steps, a veto and ranking procedure, used to reduce the number of candidates within the FrequencyHough pipeline. We found the distance metric in the parameter space ...


Nonideal Mhd Simulation Of Hl Tau Disk: Formation Of Rings, Xiao Hu, Zhaohuan Zhu, Satoshi Okuzumi, Xue-Ning Bai, Lile Wang, Kengo Tomida, James M. Stone 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Nonideal Mhd Simulation Of Hl Tau Disk: Formation Of Rings, Xiao Hu, Zhaohuan Zhu, Satoshi Okuzumi, Xue-Ning Bai, Lile Wang, Kengo Tomida, James M. Stone

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Recent high-resolution observations unveil ring structures in circumstellar disks. The origin of these rings has been widely investigated under various theoretical scenarios. In this work we perform global 3D nonideal MHD simulations including effects from both ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion (AD) to model the HL Tau disk. The nonideal MHD diffusion profiles are calculated based on the global dust evolution calculation including sintering effects. Disk ionization structure changes dramatically across the snow line due to the change of dust size distribution close to the snow line of major volatiles. We find that accretion is mainly driven by disk wind ...


P-13 Astronomy From Ripples In Spacetime, Tiffany Summerscales 2019 Andrews University

P-13 Astronomy From Ripples In Spacetime, Tiffany Summerscales

Celebration of Research and Creative Scholarship

The LIGO and Virgo detectors have made a total of 11 confirmed measurements of gravitational waves, the faint ripples in the fabric of spacetime predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Ten of these gravitational wave events were caused by the inspiral, collision, and merging of a pair of black holes and the remaining event by a pair of neutron stars. These measurements have helped us learn about the objects that produced the gravitational waves. Regular candidate detections are now shared in real time with both astronomers and the public.


Galaxy And Mass Assembly: A Comparison Between Galaxy-Galaxy Lens Searches In Kids/Gama, Shawn Knabel, Benne Holwerda 2019 University of Louisville

Galaxy And Mass Assembly: A Comparison Between Galaxy-Galaxy Lens Searches In Kids/Gama, Shawn Knabel, Benne Holwerda

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Strong gravitational lenses are cases where a distant background galaxy is located directly behind a massive foreground galaxy, whose gravity causes the light from the background galaxy to bend around the foreground galaxy. In addition to being visually stunning, these rare events are useful laboratories for furthering our understanding of gravity and cosmology and to determine properties, such as the mass and dark matter content, of the lensing galaxies themselves. The trouble is finding enough of these strong gravitational lenses for further study. The immensity of the catalogs being collected by state-of-the-art telescopes requires equally innovative methods for interpreting that ...


Diagnosing 0.1–10 Au Scale Morphology Of The Fu Ori Disk Using Alma And Vlti/Gravity, Hauyu Baobab Liu, Antoine Merand, Joel D. Green, Sebastian Perez, Antonio S. Hales, Yao-Lun Yang, Michael M. Dunham, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Thomas Henning, Roberto Galvin-Madrid, Agnes Kospal, Michihiro Takami, Eduardo I. Vorobyov, Zhaohuan Zhu 2019 Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics

Diagnosing 0.1–10 Au Scale Morphology Of The Fu Ori Disk Using Alma And Vlti/Gravity, Hauyu Baobab Liu, Antoine Merand, Joel D. Green, Sebastian Perez, Antonio S. Hales, Yao-Lun Yang, Michael M. Dunham, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Thomas Henning, Roberto Galvin-Madrid, Agnes Kospal, Michihiro Takami, Eduardo I. Vorobyov, Zhaohuan Zhu

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

We report new Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Band 3 (86–100 GHz; ~80 mas angular resolution) and Band 4 (146–160 GHz; ~50 mas angular resolution) observations of the dust continuum emission toward the archetypal and ongoing accretion burst young stellar object FU Ori, which simultaneously covered its companion, FU Ori S. In addition, we present near-infrared (2–2.45 μm) observations of FU Ori taken with the General Relativity Analysis via VLT InTerferometrY (GRAVITY; ~1 mas angular resolution) instrument on the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). We find that the emission in both FU Ori and FU Ori ...


A Global View Of The Inner Accretion And Ejection Flow Around Super Massive Black Holes, Margherita Giustini, Daniel Proga 2019 Centro de Astrobiologia

A Global View Of The Inner Accretion And Ejection Flow Around Super Massive Black Holes, Margherita Giustini, Daniel Proga

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Context. Understanding the physics and geometry of accretion and ejection around super massive black holes (SMBHs) is important to understand the evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and therefore of the large scale structures of the Universe. Aims. We aim at providing a simple, coherent, and global view of the sub-parsec accretion and ejection flow in AGN with varying Eddington ratio, ṁ, and black hole mass, MBH. Methods. We made use of theoretical insights, results of numerical simulations, as well as UV and X-ray observations to review the inner regions of AGN by including different accretion and ejection modes, with ...


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